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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Simulatorbaserad testmetod: bedömning av körförmåga hos individer med synfältsbortfall2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project was to develop a method to assess if individuals with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. The starting point for the project was that the method should be a simulator based method because essentially two criteria were desirable. First, it was important that several events occurred systematically and that events were possible to evaluate, i.e., that it was possible to discriminate between good and bad performances. Second, these events should be the same events for all individuals that was to be tested. The aim was to develop a method that optimizes the validity and reliability with respect to testing of each and one of unique individuals. The testing procedure of the individual level was important because the method would not be used for research purposes but primarily to determine whether a unique individual with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. Several details that can go wrong during an ordinary experiment, when running subjects, have a minimal impact concerning the experiment because it is most often possible to complement the experimental data collection with another subject. This is not an option for this project.

    These criteria and points raised above collectively resulted in the method developed. When an individual completed the scenario developed, a test protocol was generated (after a lot of work). This protocol reveals how the individual performed during the 37 (+2) events (and related measures) based on a safety margin perspective. To support the rater with the assessment of a subject a) data from a reference group (over 100 individuals) and b) a developed test protocol (with critical thresholds for different measurements) were used. The assessment was carried out by two independent raters. If the raters agreed no further judgments were performed. If the raters disagreed a third rater assessed the subjects’ performance. The purpose of the test protocol is that those individuals who want to use the test protocol results as a basis for an exemption application, can do so. It is still the Transport Agency, which decides on an exemption cases.

  • 2.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Exploring people's willingness to bike using a combination of the theory of planned behavioural and the transtheoretical model2014In: Revue europeenne de psychologie appliquee, ISSN 1162-9088, E-ISSN 1878-3457, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 151-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The amount of travel by car is increasing, leading to negative effects on our environment and on our own quality of life. In order to achieve a change in a more pro-environmental direction, it is important to understand the decision making process of travel behavior.

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore important factors determining people's willingness to bike using two well-established theories namely: the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the transtheoretical model of change (TTM). Studies have found that habits help to understand travel mode choice a further aim was therefore to determine the relationship between habit and TTM.

    Method This study included a sample of 414 people drawn from the general public who had to respond to a questionnaire based around a journey they most often made during one week.

    Results The results confirmed that the constructs, as measured by the TPB, only distinguished between precontemplation and contemplation and between preparation and action. The introduction of habit revealed that it was mainly people at the first and the last stage where the behaviour could be considered to be automatic. The results also showed that the relationship between the TPB and the TTM was mainly linear, but also quadratic. This study explored respondents' behavioural beliefs and based on these results, using factor analysis, three components were presented. In general people agreed that cycling was good for their health and the environment. What differentiated them were aspects related to the pros and cons of cycling, perceived consequences became more positive and less negative with advancing stages.

    Conclusion This study suggests that the combination of TPB and the TTM is useful when trying to understand modal choice. However, the study strongly argues that it is the multidimensional nature of the constructs, which is interesting rather than purely focusing on separate ones. It also suggests that even if short-term benefits are strongly related to the process of change, negative ones need to be addressed and taken seriously if we want people to persist with their new behaviour. Implications of the current findings for the description of people at the different stages are discussed. 

  • 3.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Varför väljer cyklister att cykla alkoholpåverkade?: En enkätstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol impairment seems to be an important contributing factor to cyclists being killed or injured in traffic. Nevertheless, there is currently relatively little known about people's view of alcohol impaired cycling. The aim of this questionnaire study was therefore to examine how beliefs, which according to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), underpin people’s attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control influence the decision to cycle alcohol impaired. The survey of 196 cyclists shows that their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control together could explain a greater portion of the variance in their intention to cycle alcohol impaired than what the underpinning beliefs could do. Therefore, if the main interest is to predict cyclists' decisions to cycle alcohol impaired, one should focus on attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. If, on the other hand, one is interested in understanding cyclists’ decisions to cycle alcohol impaired one should focus on the underpinning beliefs. The results further show that campaigns challenging cyclists' perception of how nice it is to cycle home even though they are alcohol impaired and/or urges cyclists to leave their bicycles at home during social events with alcohol should have the potential to reduce alcohol impaired cycling. These campaigns should focus on specific groups, with high prevalence of alcohol impaired cycling, rather than on cyclists in general. Improved public transport services should also have a potential to reduce alcohol impaired cycling. 

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