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  • 1.
    Bester, CJ
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Comparing road fatilities on three continents2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 263-271Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown in the past that the road fatality rates of differentcountries are dependent on the total vehicle ownership of such counties.Recent research has revealed that the passenger car ownership is a betterpredictor of the fatality rate of a country. This is also the case for thedifferent continents. When comparing the fatality rates of three continents,it was found that there are other socio-economic factors, such as income,illiteracy and life expectancy that also contribute to the large differencesbetween the developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and the developingcountries of Africa. Accident and fatality rates can be expressed in terms ofthe population, or the vehicle or passenger car population or the roadnetwork of a country. In the paper the comparisons are made for all four ofthese rates and the differences are discussed. The relationships between roadsafety and the different socio-economic variables as applicable to thecountries of the three continents are also shown. Conclusions are maderegarding the reasons for the differences in fatality rates.

  • 2.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skadedata i STRADA för motorcyklister2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att med de skadedata som finns i STRADA belysa motorcyklisternas trafiksäkerhetssituation. Polis- och sjukhusdata har använts för olika delar av genomförda bearbetningar. Tyngdpunkten i redovisningen ligger på sjukhus-informationen. I underlaget för officiell statistik från STRADA för åren 2003-2007 finns uppgifter om ca 6500 motorcyklister. Det gäller dödade och skadade samt oskadade förare. Antalet sjukhusrapporterade motorcyklister är drygt 3800 stycken. Projektet har disponerats i tre delprojekt A, B och C.

    I delprojekt A Särskilda omständigheter vid vägtrafikolyckor med motorcykel studeras polisens olycksbeskrivning (AccidentDescription i STRADA) för de 2011 olyckor åren 2003-2007 där en motorcyklist varit inblandad och där någon dödats eller skadats svårt, det behöver inte vara motorcyklisten.

    Delprojekt B Motorcyklister i sjukhus-STRADA omfattar 3 838 sjukhusrapporterade motorcyklister, varav 3 288 är män (96 % förare) och 550 kvinnor (65 % förare). Den vanligaste olyckstypen för motorcyklister vid klassificering efter motpart (Against) är singelolyckor (2347 stycken) som står för 61 procent, därtill kommer 3 procent där motparten är olika typer av fasta föremål.

    I delprojekt C Motorcykelförares olyckshistorik studeras de personer som varit in-blandade i fler än en olycka åren 2003-2007 varav vid minst ett tillfälle som motor-cyklist. Urvalet ger 2, 3 eller 4 olyckor per person. Samtliga 3 personer inblandade i 4 olyckor är unga män. Inblandning i 3 olyckor gäller 30 män och 3 kvinnor medan 348 män och 36 kvinnor varit med i 2 polisrapporterade olyckor. Totalt har 18 av personerna dödats, samtliga män och i 15 fall som motorcyklister.

  • 3.
    Brüde, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vem har kolliderat med vem och var?: analys av omkomna 1996-20052007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study has been performed by VTI for the Swedish Road Traffic Inspectorate. The aim was to collect data which will make it possible to describe, analyse and try to explain the changes in the number killed in traffic over the period 1996-2005. Previously it was possible to observe long term changes on the basis of a breakdown by state/ municipal road management authorities and a breakdown by accident type. This was no longer possible after the introduction of a new accident data system in 2003. In this project, an alternative breakdown and description of the development in the number killed is proposed. For each individual year (1996-2005) a "collision matrix" is constructed. This matrix shows which road user categories have been killed and whether this has occurred without a collision (single vehicle accident) or in collision with some other traffic element. Breakdowns by "urban/rural", sex and age group are also made in the matrix. Both the assessment of the police and the definition of urban areas by Statistics Sweden SCB have been used as regards the urban/rural breakdown. The breakdown urban/rural is a substitute for municipal/state road management authority, and the breakdown non-collision/collision is a substitute for accident type.

  • 4.
    Fildes, Brian
    Monash University, Australia.
    Development of a national licence assessment program for older drivers in Australasia2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, p. 11-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Licensing requirements for older drivers in Australasia are varied, with no available evidence that the different assessment procedures have safety benefits. In 1996 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the USA embarked on the development of a national older driver screening and evaluation program for that country. In 1998 Australian and New Zealand transport jurisdictions funded a similar project to develop and trial an appropriate procedure for use in Australasia, to be conducted by the Monash University Accident Research Center. A model re-licensing procedure was detailed in 2000, following input from key experts and stakeholders in Australia and New Zealand. Components of the model include: assessment to target only functionally impaired older drivers; development of a network of community referral centers; use of multi-tiered assessment procedures and instruments; use of a case officer to assist older people through the assessment process; use of re-training and rehabilitation procedures wherever appropriate; and the licensing authority's role to include counseling on alternative mobility option, if appropriate. During 2001, further research and development activities included: (1) a pilot study of the main processes underpinning the model was conducted in Tasmania, to test the acceptability of the model to older drivers, referral agencies and to licensing officers; and (2) a validation study of possible screening instruments to be used in assessment of fitness to drive, is presently being conducted in New Zealand. This paper reports on findings from the pilot and validation studies, as well as giving an overview of the licensing model.

  • 5.
    Filtness, Ashleigh J
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Sleep-related eye symptoms and their potential for identifying driver sleepiness2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 568-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of individuals appear to have insight into their own sleepiness, but there is some evidence that this does not hold true for all, for example treated patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Identification of sleep-related symptoms may help drivers determine their sleepiness, eye symptoms in particular show promise. Sixteen participants completed four motorway drives on two separate occasions. Drives were completed during daytime and night-time in both a driving simulator and on the real road.

    Ten eye symptoms were rated at the end of each drive, and compared with driving performance and subjective and objective sleep metrics recorded during driving. 'Eye strain', 'difficulty focusing', 'heavy eyelids' and 'difficulty keeping the eyes open' were identified as the four key sleep-related eye symptoms. Drives resulting in these eye symptoms were more likely to have high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings than drives where similar eye discomfort was not reported. Furthermore, drivers having unintentional line crossings were likely to have 'heavy eyelids' and 'difficulty keeping the eyes open'. Results suggest that drivers struggling to identify sleepiness could be assisted with the advice 'stop driving if you feel sleepy and/or have heavy eyelids or difficulty keeping your eyes open'.

  • 6.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Förekomst av droger och läkemedel i trafik i Sverige: resultat från EU-projektet DRUID2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population, i.e. among drivers on the road, was 2.5 per cent between the years 2006 and 2011 in Sweden. The prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among drivers killed in traffic the same years was 31.2 per cent. In comparison with other countries in the EU project DRUID, Sweden has the highest proportion of negative results, i.e. drivers without the presence of alcohol, drugs or medicine. This applies to both drivers on the road and drivers killed in traffic.

    The studies that form the basis of this report have been performed within the project DRUID - Driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol and medicine, which is a project within the EU's Sixth Framework Programme, which lasted five years (2006-2011). This report presents two sub-studies from the DRUID project. The aims of these studies were: - to study the prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population (study among drivers on the road). - to study the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among killed drivers (study of killed drivers).

    In the study among drivers on the road, saliva samples were collected. Toxicological results were analysed from 6,199 drivers in Södermanland, Örebro and Östergötland out of 10,223 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were stopped by the police in March 2008- February 2009. In the study of killed drivers we have toxicological results from 157 fatalities out of 178 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were killed in traffic accidents in 2008.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: intervjustudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program for drink drivers came into force on 1 January 2012. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program which applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders whom have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC > 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the one-year program. Several aspects of the alcohol interlock program are evaluated at VTI. This report presents the results of an interview study with a total of 31 drivers who had committed a drink driving offense. They were interviewed both at a meeting, and at follow-up telephone interviews. The drivers are 11 people who participated in the two-year program, 10 people who participated in the one-year program and 10 people who did not participate in the interlock program.

  • 9.
    Hallvig, David
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Karlsson, Johan G.
    Autoliv Development AB.
    Wande, Mattias
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Univeristet, Karolinska institutet.
    Sleepy driving on the real road and in the simulator: A comparison2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 50, p. 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared real driving with driving in a high fidelity, moving base, driving simulator with respect to driving performance, sleep related physiology (using electroencephalography and electrooculography) and subjective sleepiness during night and day driving for 10 participants.

    Sleepiness has been identified as one of the most important factors contributing to road crashes. However, almost all work on the detailed changes in behavior and physiology leading up to sleep related crashes has been carried out in driving simulators. It is not clear, however, to what extent simulator results can be generalized to real driving.

    The real road was emulated in the simulator. The results show that the simulator was associated with higher levels of subjective and physiological sleepiness than real driving. However, both for real and simulated driving, the response to night driving appears to be rather similar for subjective sleepiness and sleep physiology. Lateral variability was more responsive to night driving in the simulator, while real driving at night involved a movement to the left in the lane and a reduction of speed, both of which effects were absent in the simulator. It was concluded that the relative validity of simulators is acceptable for many variables, but that in absolute terms simulators cause higher sleepiness levels than real driving. Thus, generalizations from simulators to real driving must be made with great caution.

  • 10.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Äldres resvanor: äldre trafikanter som heterogen grupp och framtida forskningsbehov2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta notat är att ge en översikt av viktiga forskningsresultat om äldres resmönster samt att diskutera och problematisera hur heterogeniteten beaktas i forskning om äldres resmönster. Sammanställningen av forskningsresultat har gjorts i två steg. För det första bygger översikten på ett antal avslutade och pågående projekt från år 2008 och framåt där VTI har medverkat. För det andra har riktade litteratursökningar gjorts. Tvärsnittsstudier har utgjort en viktig grund för att illustrera hur äldre åldersgrupper reser mindre än åldersgrupper i medelålder, detta gäller såväl genomsnittlig restid, reslängd och antal resor. Detta är ett stabilt mönster i flertalet industrialiserade länder. En viktig del i minskningen utgörs av en minskning i arbetsresor i de högre åldersgrupperna. Samtidigt är det viktigt att notera att tvärsnittstudierna också pekar på att det inte är alla restyper som minskar utan inköps-, service-resor och fritidsresor är fortsatt vanliga i äldre åldersgrupper nära pensionsåldern. Det är först i de allra högsta åldrarna som resorna blir något färre. Tvärsnittsstudier illustrerar också hur de äldre åldersgrupperna reser mindre än medelåldersgrupper när det gäller de flesta färdmedel. Ett viktigt undantag är gång. Gång uppvisar en U-formad kurva där yngre liksom äldre åldersgrupper går mer än grupper i medelåldern. Viktigt att notera är att resultaten i tvärsnittsstudier både är beroende av individuella åldrandeprocesser och samhällelig förändring. En central fråga i forskning om äldres resvanor berör också utveckling över tid vilket studeras i longitudinella studier. Även prognoser för framtiden är viktiga. Äldres resande har ökat över tid vilket framförallt handlar om ett ökat bilresande. Det sker också en förändring där både inköps- och serviceresor liksom fritidsresor har ökat. I notatet beskrivs också den aktuella forskningstrenden att beskriva heterogeniteten hos äldre trafikanter. Vi beskriver studier baserade på sociodemografiska variabler likväl som en trend att konstruera nya kategorier av äldre baserat på resmönster. Även en trend där fokus ligger på livsloppsrelaterade förändringar som inverkar på mobilitet snarare än kronologisk ålder per se beskrivs.

  • 11.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress Research Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn (Editor)
    Stress Research Institute, Sweden.
    Sleepiness, crashes and the effectiveness of countermeasures: consolidated report within the ERANET node 152011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that the impact of fatigue/sleepiness on traffic safety is high. The aim of this report is to summarize the findings of different studies conducted as part of the ERANET node 15 priority with a focus on driver sleepiness, its cause and possible countermeasures.

    The project included two studies of the role of fatigue and sleepiness in road crashes. Crash victims filled in a survey which asked them about various aspects of sleep and sleepiness prior to the crash. Other experimental studies were carried out within the scope of ENT 15 to evaluate the effects of commonly used countermeasures such as: blue light, physical exercise, rolling down the window and turning on the CD player.

    In addition to the experimental studies two reviews were carried out in the Netherlands. One summarizes the state-of-the-art of methods for counteracting sleepiness at the wheel while the other aims to map those risk factors associated with fatigued driving and discuss them in relation to appropriate interventions. Finally, two studies were also carried out in Norway: the first is an empirical study about rumble strip effectiveness, specifically in relation to fatigued driving; and the second is a comprehensive review of promising programmes for the management of fatigue by employing organisations.

  • 12.
    Lee, Seokmin
    Statistics Korea, Vital statistics Division.
    Suicide In Traffic In Korea Including Classification Method2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics Korea has published an annual report on the cause of death statistics of the Koreanpopulation since 1982. These statistics are important because they can provide key information fornational demographic and health care policies by identifying the numbers, causes, and geographicaldistribution of deaths. This article presents the recent trends and statistical indicators related to suicidein road traffic.

  • 13.
    Legrand, Sara-Ann
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Gjerde, Hallvard
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
    Isalberti, Cristina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland .
    Van der Linden, Trudy
    Ghent University, National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology, Belgium .
    Lillsunde, Pirjo
    National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland .
    Dias, Mario J.
    National Institute of Legal Medicine (INML), Portugal .
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    The National Board of Forensic Medicine (RMV), Sweden .
    Verstraete, Alain G.
    Ghent University.
    Prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicines in killed drivers in four European countries2013In: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our objective was to determine the presence of psychoactive substances in blood of drivers killed in road crashes in four European countries. Data from 1118 drivers of car and vans, killed between 2006 and 2009, were collected in Finland, Norway, Portugal and Sweden. The prevalence of any psychoactive substance ranged between 31 and 48%.

    Alcohol (>= 0.1 g/L) was the most common finding, 87% had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)>=.5 g/L. Benzodiazepines (1.8-13.3%) and amphetamines (0-7.4%) were the most prevalent psychoactive medicines and illicit drugs, respectively. Alcohol-drug and drug-drug combinations were rather prevalent. Differences in alcohol/drug findings seemed to reflect differences in use in the countries. More research should be done to develop preventive strategies to reduce the number of alcohol- and drug-related traffic accidents targeting at-risk groups, such as drivers with very high BACs and novice drivers.

  • 14.
    Martens, Marieke H
    et al.
    TNO Human Factors, The Netherlands .
    Janssen, H
    TNO Human Factors, The Netherlands .
    Stork, A
    TNO Human Factors, The Netherlands .
    The effects of diabetes and low blood sugar levels on driving behaviour: comparison of diabetics and non-diabetics2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, p. 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under contract with the University Medical Centre, Utrecht, TNO Human Factors has conducted research to investigate the effect of diabetes on driving behaviour. In a driving simulator experiment, patients with diabetes and non-diabetics were confronted with various traffic situations. The subject groups always drove the conditions twice. In this, the patient groups drove the route once with euglycaemia (a normal blood sugar level) and once with hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar level). The non-patient group drove the route twice with a normal blood sugar level. Subjects did not know in what condition their blood sugar level would be decreased to the level of hypoglycaemia. In the analysis of the diabetic group, difference was made between people who were aware of their blood sugar level being low and those who did not notice the status of hypoglycaemia. Ninety subjects participated in a driving simulator experiment. Subjects drove on the motorway, a rural road and a city road. During normal driving situations, some critical incidents were encountered (e.g. braking lead vehicle, deciding who has the right of way, coping with curves). During driving, behavioural variables were measured. These variables were Time-To-Line-Crossing, Time-To-Collision, crossing road markings, response times to critical situations and responses to a secondary task. By comparing driving performance between non-patients and patients, and between a normal blood sugar level and hypoglycaemia, the effects of diabetes on driving performance and traffic safety were established. The results showed that in case of a low blood sugar level in Type II diabetics (non-insulin dependent), there is a clear decrease in performance, although some of the effects are also present in that type of diabetics with normal blood sugar levels. Type I (insulin dependent) diabetics did not show any decreased driving performance, not even with low blood sugar levels.

  • 15.
    Mårdh, Selina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Mårdh, Pamela
    Region Östergötland.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Driving restrictions post-stroke: Physicians' compliance with regulations2017In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on an individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are regulations on driving cessation post-stroke. Information on driving cessation should be given to all patients and noted in the journal.The present study sought to determine physician's compliance to driving regulations post-stroke as well as follow-up and gender aspects.

    Method: A retrospective study of medical records on stroke patients was carried out. The study covered all of the medical records on stroke incidents (n = 342) during a year at a typical medium to large-sized hospital in Sweden.

    Results: A journal entry on driving cessation post-stroke was missing in 81% of the medical records. Only 2% of the patients were scheduled for a follow-up meeting specifically concerning fitness to drive. Significantly more men than women had an entry on driving in the journal.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the Swedish regulations on driving cessation post-stroke were not followed at the participating hospital. It is crucial that all stroke patients receive information on driving cessation because their condition might affect fitness to drive. Analysis of follow-up records showed that there was no consistent method for assessment of a patient's fitness to drive. There was also a gender difference in the material, which warrants further investigation.

  • 16.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    A summary of statistics available on drivers with special needs in Sweden: Second printing 19991992Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Sandberg, D.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wahde, M.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The impact of sleepiness on lane positioning in truck driving2013In: Driver Distraction and Inattention: Advances in Research and Countermeasures, Ashgate, 2013, 1, p. 405-416Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter concerns the detection of sleepiness in truck drivers. Data obtained from a driver sleepiness study involving real-world driving are used in order to analyse the performance of several sleepiness indicators based on driving behavior; such as, for example, variability in lateral position and heading angle. Contrary to the results obtained for passenger cars, for heavy trucks it is found that indicators based on variability provide little or no information; their performance does not rise significantly above chance levels.

    However, the data indicate that there is a significant difference in the average lane position for sleepy and alert drivers, respectively, such that a sleepy driver generally places the vehicle closer (by about 0.2 m) to the centre of the road than an alert driver. The analysis also shows a significant, monotonous, increase in average lateral position (measured from the right, outer, lane boundary towards the lane centre) between the four cases of (i) daytime alert driving, (ii) daytime sleepy driving, (iii) night-time alert driving and (iv) nighttime sleepy driving.

  • 18.
    Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Karlsson, Johan G
    Autoliv.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night: a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience.2011In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 1317-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several indicators during real driving at night, compared with daytime driving. Participants drove 55 km (at 90 km/h) on a 9-m-wide rural highway in southern Sweden. Daytime driving started at 09:00 or 11:00 (2 groups) and night driving at 01:00 or 03:00 (balanced design). 

    Eighteen participants drawn from the local driving license register particpated in daytime and nighttime drives. The vehicle was an instrumented car with video monitoring of the edge of the road and recording of the lateral position and speed. Electroencephalography and electrooculography were recorded, together with ratings of sleepiness every 5 minutes. Pronounced effects of night driving were seen for subjective sleepiness, electroencephalographic indicators of sleepiness, blink duration, and speed. Also, time on task showed significant effects for subjective sleepiness, blink duration, lane position, and speed. Sleepiness was highest toward the end of the nighttime drive. Night driving caused a leftward shift in lateral position and a reduction of speed. The latter two findings, as well as the overall pattern of sleepiness indicators, provide new insights into the effects of night driving.

    The conclusion is that night driving is associated with high levels of subjective, electrophysiologic, and behavioral sleepiness.

  • 19.
    Schwarz, J. F.
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingre, M.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Karlsson, J. G.
    University of Surrey.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Van der Veen, D. R.
    Autoliv AB.
    Archer, S. N.
    Autoliv AB.
    Dijk, D.
    Autoliv AV.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    PERIOD3 VNTR polymorphism modifies sleepiness during real road driving2012In: SLEEP, 2012, Vol. 35, p. A109-A109Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Kjellgren, Felicia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Self-perceived mobility in immigrants in Sweden living with the late effects of polio2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate outdoor mobility of immigrants in Sweden who are living with the late effects of polio.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 145 patients with late effects of polio born outside the Nordic region were identified at an outpatient polio clinic. Of these, 74 completed a questionnaire about their mobility and independence in daily life, self-perceived pain and depression, vocational status, mobility assistive devices/aids, transportation modes and driving. Patient characteristics were based on medical records supplied by physicians.

    RESULTS: Twice as many patients had lower extremities that were affected by polio than upper extremities. This affected their use of different transport modes and caused mobility and transfer problems. Indeed, 39% needed mobility aids and help from another person to move outdoors. Those who reported dependence for outdoor mobility were more often unemployed and more often depressed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Many respondents reported having difficulties with transport mobility, but a large proportion, 57%, were independent and active drivers. It is important to consider outdoor mobility when planning rehabilitation for patients with late effects of polio and foreign backgrounds. In addition to psychosocial factors, dependence on mobility-related activities can lead to dependency and isolation. Implications for rehabilitation Outdoor mobility and access to transport modes are important for independence and an active life and need to be included in the rehabilitation process. Both personal and environmental factors, can contribute to mobility problems of people with foreign backgrounds, who are living with the late effects of polio. Factors such as cultural, social and gender aspects are important when planning suitable and individualized rehabilitation.

  • 21.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Linköpings universitet.
    Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with hearing loss (HL). Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal. The effects of HL discovered in this thesis add to the knowledge and understanding of the influence of HL on traffic safety and mobility. Differences found consistently point to a generally more cautious behavior. Compensatory and coping strategies associated with HL are bound to driving complexity and appear when complexity increases. These strategies include driving at lower speeds, using a more comprehensive visual search behavior and being less engaged in distracting activities. Evaluation of a tactile signal showed that by adding a tactile modality, some driver assistance systems can also be made accessible to drivers with HL. At the same time, the systems might be more effective for all users, since the driver can be more focused on the road. Based on the results in this thesis, drivers with HL cannot be considered an increased traffic safety risk, and there should be no need for adjustments of the requirements of hearing for a license to drive a car.

    List of papers
    1. The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility
    2013 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations, compared to road users with normal hearing.

    Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted with participants recruited from the local branch of The Swedish hard of hearing society. A normal hearing control group, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The response rate was 35% (n = 194) in the group with Hearing Loss (HL) and 42% (n = 125) in the group with Normal Hearing (NH). The individuals with hearing loss were grouped into four groups according to the degree of their hearing loss (mild, moderate, severe and profound).

    Results: Hearing loss affected some specific aspects regarding transport situations, while others remained unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss were not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss had no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing had an effect on criteria for choosing mode of transportation, but in the aggregate, no difference between the groups could be shown in the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. With a few exceptions, hearing loss did not affect the ratings of importance of hearing for different transportation modes. Hearing loss affected most questions regarding hearing and driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations was not associated with hearing loss. Hearing loss had only minor effects on the factors causing inattention when driving, and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. The interest in a warning system for driver inattention was high regardless of hearing category.

    Conclusions: Hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing mode of transportation, however has no effect on the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. In general, in this study, respondents with higher degree of hearing loss were less concerned about the effect of hearing loss, indicating that they might be using coping strategies. The interest in warning system for inattention and the attitude towards strengthening of auditory information in traffic situations is high regardless of hearing category. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keywords
    Hearing, Mobility (pers), Safety
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Personal transport
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6647 (URN)10.1007/s12544-012-0087-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss
    2013 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods: 24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results: HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions: Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

    Keywords
    Hearing, Driving (veh), Distraction, Psycological aspects
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences
    Research subject
    Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Personal transport
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6648 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2013.09.011 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

    Keywords
    Eye movement, Hearing, Disablement, Driving, Cognition, Mental load, Attention
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7413 (URN)10.1007/s12544-014-0139-z (DOI)2-s2.0-84901575602 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording the point of gaze within the scene. Analysis was performed on predefined regions. A questionnaire examined participant's experience of the navigation systems. Hearing loss was associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support led to less time spent viewing the navigation display. 

    Keywords
    Eye movement, Hearing, Behaviour, Driver
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6649 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2015-05-05Bibliographically approved
  • 22.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    The effect of hearing loss on driving performance and experience of navigation system2013In: Abstract book: Second International Conference onCognitive Hearing Sciencefor Communication, 2013, p. 34-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of an additional tactile signal in a navigation system and to examine the effect of hearing loss on driving behavior. 32 participants took part in the study, whereof 16 with normal hearing and 16 with moderate hearing loss.

    The participants performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one they received only visual information from the navigation system and in the other there was an additional vibration in the seat to guide the driver in the right direction. Both routes included two levels of driver workload. The order of which the systems were tested as well as the order of workload level was balanced over the participants.

    Pretest included hearing screening of normal hearing participants, verbal ability test and KIPS test battery for cognitive performance. During the run an on-road protocol was used to evaluate driving performance. A VBOX was used to measure speed and record the route with a video camera. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, which means the field of view was recorded with a marker showing where the driver is looking. Predefined targets will be analyzed, e.g. the mirrors and the speedometer. A questionnaire including questions about the experience of the two navigation systems was given to the drivers afterwards.

    Analysis continues but preliminary results indicate that hearing loss is associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the additional tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. 

  • 23.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    Lunds Universitet.
    Black, Alexander
    Queensland University of Technology, School of Optometry.
    The effect of hearing loss on eye movements when driving and an evaluation of tactile support for navigation2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, 11-16 August 2013, in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Kenneth Holmqvist, Fiona Mulvey & Roger Johansson (Red), 2013, p. 34-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of an additional tactile signal in a navigation system and to examine the effect of hearing loss on eye movements. 32 participants took part in the study, whereof 16 with normal hearing and 16 with moderate hearing loss.

    The participants performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one they received only visual information from the navigation system and in the other there was an additional vibration in the seat to guide the driver in the right direction. The order of which the systems were tested was balanced over the participants.

    SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, and the field of view was recorded with a marker showing where the driver is looking. Predefined targets were analyzed, e.g. the mirrors, the speedometer and the navigation display. A questionnaire including questions about the experience of the two navigation systems was given to the drivers afterwards.

    Results revealed that hearing loss is associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the additional tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support lead to less gaze data on the navigation display, regardless of hearing status.

     

  • 24.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Herbert, Nicholas
    University of Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies.
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    Lunds Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Black, Alexander
    Queensland University of Technology, School of Optometry.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements2013In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording the point of gaze within the scene. Analysis was performed on predefined regions. A questionnaire examined participant's experience of the navigation systems. Hearing loss was associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support led to less time spent viewing the navigation display. 

  • 25.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods: 24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results: HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions: Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

  • 26.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University.
    The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations, compared to road users with normal hearing.

    Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted with participants recruited from the local branch of The Swedish hard of hearing society. A normal hearing control group, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The response rate was 35% (n = 194) in the group with Hearing Loss (HL) and 42% (n = 125) in the group with Normal Hearing (NH). The individuals with hearing loss were grouped into four groups according to the degree of their hearing loss (mild, moderate, severe and profound).

    Results: Hearing loss affected some specific aspects regarding transport situations, while others remained unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss were not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss had no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing had an effect on criteria for choosing mode of transportation, but in the aggregate, no difference between the groups could be shown in the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. With a few exceptions, hearing loss did not affect the ratings of importance of hearing for different transportation modes. Hearing loss affected most questions regarding hearing and driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations was not associated with hearing loss. Hearing loss had only minor effects on the factors causing inattention when driving, and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. The interest in a warning system for driver inattention was high regardless of hearing category.

    Conclusions: Hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing mode of transportation, however has no effect on the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. In general, in this study, respondents with higher degree of hearing loss were less concerned about the effect of hearing loss, indicating that they might be using coping strategies. The interest in warning system for inattention and the attitude towards strengthening of auditory information in traffic situations is high regardless of hearing category. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss. 

  • 27.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Synförmågans mätbarhet och inverkan på säker bilkörning: en litteraturstudie2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of vision abilities that are important for safe driving. Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on driving have proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measure vision in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen is that the traditional vision tests more and more are supplemented by cognitive tests. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of vision abilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about vision abilities that are essential for safe driving, which tests are available and how they are used, and the existing evidence for these tests. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provide an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Furthermore, the results were presented according to different vision abilities which are described along with an account of diseases that may affect the ability, which tests that are available and the evidence for these, and how the ability is important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the strong support found in the literature and these were (1) contrast sensitivity, and (2) Useful Field of View. Based on the results it was concluded that testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, the most common measure, visual acuity that is, is not sufficient for safe driving, and that tests that includes cognitive aspects can improve the assessment of vision related to safe driving.

  • 28.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vision measurability and its impact on safe driving: a literature review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on safe driving have been proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measuring visual function in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen in the literature is that traditional vision tests are increasingly supplemented by cognitive tests.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of visual capabilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about the visual capabilities that are essential for safe driving; which tests are available and how they are used; and existing evidence for these tests.

    The literature review was based on database searches of TRID, Web of Science and PubMed. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provided an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Moreover, the results were structured according to the different visual capabilities and a corresponding account of the diseases that may affect these capabilities; available tests and corroborating evidence for the test; and the manner in which these capabilities are important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the review: contrast sensitivity, and Useful Field of View.

    It was also concluded that 1) testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, 2) good visual acuity is not alone sufficient for safe driving, and 3) tests including cognitive aspects can complement vision testing and improve the assessment of safe driving.

  • 29.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Attitudes among older drivers towards medical assessment at renewal of driving license in Sweden2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine attitudes among older adults in Sweden as regards a possible legislation for medical assessment at license renewal depending on their health status (vision and hearing) and gender.

    Methods: A questionnaire study measuring attitudes towards medical assessments at license renewal and an examination of vision, hearing, and cognitive abilities was conducted by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. 109 participants older than 60 years participated in the study (58 women, 51 men). They were categorized into four groups according to their health status: (1) without any visual or hearing impairment, (2) visual impairment, (3) hearing impairment, and (4) visual and hearing impairment. All data collection was performed in a driving assessment situation.

    Results: The answers showed positive attitudes towards recurring vision test (94% positive) and recurring medical assessments (93% positive). A majority wanted to include tests of visual acuity, contrast vision, and visual field. The most common choice was a starting point of 70 years and an interval of 2–3 years. Gender effects showing that woman were more positive towards some assessment and shorter time intervals between them was revealed. No significant effect of hearing or vision decline was found. Better results on cognitive tests was associated with positive attitudes towards medical testing.

    Conclusions: The participants were positive towards medical assessments at license renewal, indicating that there is an acceptance in the population for such legislation. Even short intervals such as every two or three years were accepted.

  • 30.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sandberg, David
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sleepiness and prediction of driver impairment in simulator studies using a Cox proportional hazard approach2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 835-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cox proportional hazard models were used to study relationships between the event that a driver is leaving the lane caused by sleepiness and different indicators of sleepiness. In order to elucidate different indicators' performance, five different models developed by Cox proportional hazard on a data set from a simulator study were used. The models consisted of physiological indicators and indicators from driving data both as stand alone and in combination. The different models were compared on two different data sets by means of sensitivity and specificity and the models' ability to predict lane departure was studied.

    In conclusion, a combination of blink indicators based on the ratio between blink amplitude and peak closing velocity of eyelid (A/PCV) (or blink amplitude and peak opening velocity of eyelid (A/POV)), standard deviation of lateral position and standard deviation of lateral acceleration relative road (ddy) was the most sensitive approach with sensitivity 0.80. This is also supported by the fact that driving data only shows the impairment of driving performance while blink data have a closer relation to sleepiness. Thus, an effective sleepiness warning system may be based on a combination of lane variability measures and variables related to eye movements (particularly slow eye closure) in order to have both high sensitivity (many correct warnings) and acceptable specificity (few false alarms).

  • 31.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Effects of dextroamphetamine on simulated driving performance before and after sleep deprivation2012In: Abstract Book, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulant drugs are commonly abused and also used to promote wakefulness, yet their effects on driving performance during sleep deprivation have been poorly studied in experimental studies. We aimed to assess the effects on fundamental driving parameters during simulated driving of two doses of d-amphetamine and further to assess the interaction between d-amphetamine and sleep deprivation. A double blind, placebo controlled experiment including eighteen healthy, male volunteers was conducted.

    The participants felt more alert when taking a dose of d-amphetamine than when taking placebo and the effect was stronger for the higher dose. However, the data did not show any evidence that taking d-amphetamine prevented the subjects from successively becoming sleepier during the night. A significant main effect of dose was found for three out of the five primary indicators where the lower dose lead to improved driving while the results for the higher dose were less clear. Regarding sleep deprivation, a main effect was found for four of the primary indicators and three of the secondary indicators. The results showed impaired driving in all cases but one. We found no interactions between dose and sleep deprivation.

    Our results suggest that impaired driving due to fatigue is not compensated by administration of d-amphetamine. The positive effects of 10 mg was not further improved or even sustained when increasing the dose to 40 mg. This might indicate that at still higher doses commonly taken by addicts, there are few or no positive effects of d-amphetamine.

  • 32.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Barn i bil: Studie av dödsolyckorna 19921993Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dödsolyckor med barn i bil 1993 och 19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Axelsson, John
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Subjective sleepiness is a sensitive indicator of insufficient sleep and impaired waking function2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 240-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main consequence of insufficient sleep is sleepiness. While measures of sleep latency, continuous encephalographical/electro-oculographical (EEG/EOG) recording and performance tests are useful indicators of sleepiness in the laboratory and clinic, they are not easily implemented in large, real-life field studies. Subjective ratings of sleepiness, which are easily applied and unobtrusive, are an alternative, but whether they measure sleepiness sensitively, reliably and validly remains uncertain. This review brings together research relevant to these issues. It is focused on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), which is a nine-point Likert-type scale.

    The diurnal pattern of sleepiness is U-shaped, with high KSS values in the morning and late evening, and with great stability across years. KSS values increase sensitively during acute total and repeated partial sleep deprivation and night work, including night driving. The effect sizes range between 1.5 and 3. The relation to driving performance or EEG/EOG indicators of sleepiness is highly significant, strongly curvilinear and consistent across individuals. High (>6) KSS values are associated particularly with impaired driving performance and sleep intrusions in the EEG. KSS values are also increased in many clinical conditions such as sleep apnea, depression and burnout. The context has a strong influence on KSS ratings. Thus, physical activity, social interaction and light exposure will reduce KSS values by 1–2 units. In contrast, time-on-task in a monotonous context will increase KSS values by 1–2 units. In summary, subjective ratings of sleepiness as described here is as sensitive and valid an indicator of sleepiness as objective measures, and particularly suitable for field studies.

  • 35.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallvig, David
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Having to stop driving at night because of dangerous sleepiness: awareness, physiology and behaviour2013In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 380-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of accidents are due to the driver falling asleep at the wheel, but details of this link have not been studied on a real road. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development of sleepiness indicators, leading to the drive being terminated prematurely by the onboard expert driving instructor because of imminent danger. Eighteen individuals participated during a day drive and a night drive on a motorway (both 90 min). Eight drivers terminated (N) prematurely (after 43 min) because of sleep-related imminent danger [according to the driving instructor or their own judgement (two cases)].

    The results showed very high sleepiness ratings (8.5 units on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) immediately before termination (<7 at a similar time interval for those 10 who completed the drive). Group N also showed significantly higher levels of sleep intrusions on the electroencephalography/electro-oculography (EEG/EOG) than those who completed the drive (group C). The sleep intrusions were increased in group N during the first 40 min of the night drive. During the day drive, sleep intrusions were increased significantly in group N. The night drive showed significant increases of all sleepiness indicators compared to the day drive, but also reduced speed and driving to the left in the lane. It was concluded that 44% of drivers during late-night driving became dangerously sleepy, and that this group showed higher perceived sleepiness and more sleep intrusions in the EEG/EOG.

  • 36.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandberg, David
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Philip, Pierre
    CNRS .
    Kronberg, Peter
    Volvo Technology.
    Reaction of sleepiness indicators to partial sleep deprivation, time of day and time on task in a driving simulator: the DROWSI project2010In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 298-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of driving and sleepiness indicators have mainly focused on prior sleep reduction. The present study sought to identify sleepiness indicators responsive to several potential regulators of sleepiness: sleep loss, time of day (TOD) and time on task (TOT) during simulator driving. Thirteen subjects drove a high-fidelity moving base simulator in six 1-h sessions across a 24-h period, after normal sleep duration (8 h) and after partial sleep deprivation (PSD; 4 h).

    The results showed clear main effects of TOD (night) and TOT but not for PSD, although the latter strongly interacted with TOD. The most sensitive variable was subjective sleepiness, the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLAT) and measures of eye closure [duration, speed (slow), amplitude (low)]. Measures of electroencephalography and line crossings (LCs) showed only modest responses. For most variables individual differences vastly exceeded those of the fixed effects, except for subjective sleepiness and SDLAT.

    In a multiple regression analysis, SDLAT, amplitude/peak eye-lid closing velocity and blink duration predicted subjective sleepiness bouts with a sensitivity and specificity of about 70%, but were mutually redundant. The prediction of LCs gave considerably weaker, but similar results. In summary, SDLAT and eye closure variables could be candidates for use in sleepiness-monitoring devices. However, individual differences are considerable and there is need for research on how to identify and predict individual differences in susceptibility to sleepiness.

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