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  • 1. Aigner-Breuss, Eva
    et al.
    Pilgerstorfer, Monika
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Ferrarini, Chiara
    Montanari, Roberto
    Wacowska, Justyna
    Jankowska, Dagmara
    Diederichs, Frederik
    Pauzie, Annie
    Comparison and analysis of user and stakeholder needs across different countries2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current deliverable aims at presenting the results of the analysis of stakeholder needs, in order to have support for selecting the most relevant use cases. For the identification of user requirements of all stakeholders relevant to school transportation different methods were used:

    - Focus groups with representatives of one user or stakeholder group

    - Workshops with different stakeholders

    - 2 questionnaire surveys (Questionaire A: Road Experts, Questionaire B: children, parents and bus drivers)

    Problems and needs in the following areas were subject of discussions, interviews and questionnaires:

    - Behaviour of road users counteracting with school buses

    - Behaviour of pupils on the school bus and while entering and exiting the same

    - Design of bus stops

    - Protection of pupils on the school bus

    - Condition of school buses

    - Education of school bus drivers

    - Education of pupils concerning school transportation

    - Information flow

    - Route to/from school

    - Special needs of children with disabilities

    Results show that the organisation of school transport varies between countries and even within a country. Stakeholders underline the importance of consistent regulations and clear responsibilities as a basis for a safe way to school by bus.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Uttröttning - vad säger lagen?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year people are injured or killed in crashes caused by sleepy drivers. It is debatable whether the existing regulatory framework is clear enough to lead to punishment but also if it is clear enough for the drivers to know when it is inappropriate to drive. The aim of the project was to investigate the concept of "fatigue" with a focus on clarifying what is required for a driver who caused an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor, to be punished. In addition, the aim has been to define the term so that road users know when there may be a risk of fatigue and thus refrain from driving. An expert group with representatives from a police district, the national police, prosecutors, the Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish Transport Agency, clinicians / researchers in sleep medicine (Sahlgrenska University Hospital), VTI and Stress Research (SU) discussed pre-prepared questions at three occasions. The Swedish law stated that it is not legal to drive when you are fatigued. However, there is no clear definition of what is meant by fatigued. The conclusion was that the regulations that exist today are not enough to trap fatigued drivers or fatigued drivers that cause a crash, especially not if they are private drivers. The view is that as long as there is no trustable and objective way to measure either fatigue or performance, it is not possible to find a better solution than the regulations that exist today. A future change should be in the demands on the ability to objectively determine whether fatigue of the driver has been a contributing factor.

  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thornthwaite, Sian
    STC Ltd., Derby, UK.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Is European school transport safe?: the need for a "door-to-door" perspective2011In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To identify and establish the number and aetiology behind children being killed or injured during school transport from a door-to-door perspective by using experience from Sweden and the UK.

    Methods Available crash data were analysed. Results In total, 361 children in Sweden during 1994–2001, i.e. 24% of the 1,515 identified children aged 6–16 who were injured or killed were identified in 256 school transport events. The predominant reason for being killed or injured when travelling on school transportation was when children were outside the bus (74%), either when passing the bus to cross the street, running in front of the bus (21%) or behind the bus (30%). Contrary to the general belief that children older than 12 are mature enough to handle traffic, more than 50% of the fatal injuries in Sweden affected children aged 13–16. Similar results were found in the UK. The afternoon school journeys, pedestrians after alighting from the bus, and those in situations that deviated from their normal routine were found to be particularly vulnerable.

    Conclusions The travel chain perspective/or door to door perspective offers a promising approach for understanding school transport risks and for identifying effective countermeasures; including around bus stops and on the way to/from the bus stop. Data collection needs to be revised to reflect this approach.

  • 4.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001.2001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents in Moscow,19-–21 September 2001, was organised jointly by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), the State Scientific and Research Institute of Motor Transport in Moscow (NIIAT), U.S. Transportation Research Board (TRB), the South African Council for Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa, and Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes (FERSI). The Moscow conference was the 12th in this conference series. Conference sessions covered a number of road traffic safety issues:

    - Advanced road safety technology

    - Road safety audits

    - Policy and programmes

    - Traffic engineering

    - Vulnerable and old road users

    - Alcohol, drugs and enforcement

    - Human performance and education

    - Behaviour and attention

    - Data and models

    - Cost and environment

    - Speed and speed management

  • 5.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 1. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 2000-01-12-13 beträffande: inledning - den transportpolitiska beslutsprocessen - inriktningsplaneringen och utvecklingen av de transportpolitiska målen - på väg mot hållbar utveckling? - hållbara transporter i Europa. Europa MaTs - "de elva punkterna för ökad trafiksäkerhet m.m." - trafiksäkerhet-allmänt - fler resenärer via incitamentavtal2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bawa, Shaibu
    Road Research Institute, Ghana.
    Towards establishing a reliable accident data system in Ghana2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 272-284Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident data collection and analysis was institutionalise in 1987 in order to provide vital data-led support to accident remedial activities pursued by the National Road Safety Committee and the road agencies of Ghana. The paper presents the modest achievements made by the Accident Analysis Unit since its creation, at local accident registration and analysis in order to identify main local problems and develop the necessary action programme. It also stresses the importance of transfer of experiences from the more developed countries to improve local safety work.

  • 7.
    Björketun, Urban
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skaderisker för motorcyklister2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In-depth studies carried out by the Swedish Road Administration 2000-2004 regarding fatal motorcycle accidents show that the number of killed motorcyclists has increased. The number was 39 year 2000 and 56 year 2004. The aim of the report is to answer the following: - Which differences regarding injury consequences for motorcycles can be found between different insurance classes? - How do the injury risks differ between motorcycle drivers of different age and motorcycles in different insurance classes? Since the end of the 1990s Bilprovningen, the Swedish Motor Vehicle Inspection Company, has been recording the mileage of all vehicles at the time of the annual inspection. This makes it possible to estimate in a reliable manner the annual mileages covered by motorcycles. The report accounts for mileages, year models, insurance classes, and the ages of the owner and rider in order to find relationships and to compare accident and injury risks in the period 2000-2004. Our principal conclusions are: o After the year 2000, the number of motorcycles mainly increased in insurance class F7 (motorcycles of very high engine power in relation to their weight) o Motorcycle riders younger than 25 account for the relatively high injury risks in the lower insurance classes. - Motorcycle riders younger than 30 account for the relatively high injury risks in the higher insurance classes (motorcycles of very high engine power) - The number of motorcycle riders who are killed, in relation to injured and severely injured motorcycle riders, is substantially higher for the group of motorcycles in insurance class F8 (upper segment of F7) compared with the other insurance classes.

  • 8.
    Brown, David B
    et al.
    The University of Alabama, USA.
    Turner, Daniel S
    The University of Alabama, USA.
    The Critical Analysis Reporting Environment (CARE): a versatile tool to obtain optimal accident countermeasure strategies2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, p. 148-161Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Crash Analysis Reporting Environment is a sophisticated crash record analysis system that is powerful, highly versatile and easily transportable. It was designed specifically to review accident data and to provide user-friendly summaries and reports on topics defined in real time by the user. CARE operates on a desktop computer using the Windows or NT system. It is in the public domain and can easily be downloaded (http://care.cs.ua.edu). With simple modifications it can be mated to virtually any crash record database. The paper presents features of the analysis system together with several examples.

  • 9.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vart är antalet dödade och skadade i trafiken på väg?: modeller för kontroll av måluppfyllelsen, uppdaterade med data för år 20002001Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: registerstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program, that is voluntary and applies to all types of driver's licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders that have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC ≥ 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the oneyear program.

    The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. The results from the register based study is presented in this report, while the other studies have been published earlier. Results and conclusions from all three studies will be summarized in an upcoming final report.

    The aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the program, and to follow both participants and non-participants during the time in the program or the time without a driver’s license, respectively. The study is based on data from the Swedish road traffic register and a case management system, both administrated by the Swedish Transport Agency. The effectiveness of reducing recidivism in drink driving during the program have been shown in previous studies and are not evaluated here.

  • 11.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since January 1, 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program. The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register-based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. This final report summarizes results and conclusions from all three studies.

    The aim of the evaluation was to estimate the participation rate, but also to increase the understanding of why one chooses or does not choose to participate and to study the individual's experience of the program. The results from the studies show that:

    • The participation rate of the program was about 30 percent.
    • Both participants and non-participants in the interlock program experienced an improved health when they were asked a while after the drink driving offence and they also reported areduced alcohol consumption.
    • The largest barrier to increase the participation rate in the program is the cost, but there arealso other reasons that prevent drivers to apply.
    • Many participants experienced shortcomings in the information from the Transport Agency,both regarding the application process and regarding the mandatory parts of the program.
    • About 31 percent of the participants in the two-year program had the diagnosis alcohol abuseor alcohol dependence.
  • 12.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ett förändrat arbetssätt för rattfylleriövervakning i polisregion Mitt: utvärdering av pilotprojektet Effekt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new way of organizing drink driving enforcement was tested in a pilot study in a Swedish police region. The aim of the pilot study was to enhance the visibility of drink driving controls, in order to increase the drivers’ perceived risk of being stopped by the police to conduct a breath test. This report presents results from an evaluation of the trial.

    The goal was to carry out controls for at least 20 hours per 100 km2 per week and each control should last for 20 minutes. The controls were combined with communication efforts, mainly through posts on the police’s Facebook pages.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2014–20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, intensified efforts are made to reduce the levels of PM10 in Stockholm. This report presents results and evaluation of the efforts made during the winter season 2014–2015. The season has the lowest PM10 concentrations and the lowest number of exceedances of the environmental quality standard for PM10 since measurements started in Stockholm in 2000. Calculations using the NORTRIP model shows that both increased dust binding, reduced use of studded tires, lower background concentration and differences in meteorology are all factors that contributed to reduced levels from 2013 to 2015. Treatment with CMA + KF (potassium formate) did not appear to give any impact on PM10 levels, while block-wise dust binding gave an additional, but not significant, positive effect.

    The dust load on the road surface has a declining trend in all streets except Hornsgatan over the past three years and has, as in previous seasons, a seasonal variation with large amounts in winter and early spring and low in October and May. Detailed measurements showed a strong variation in the dust load across streets, with large accumulations outside the driving lane. Road surface texture is considered to play an important role in the accumulation of dust as it affects both the suspension from traffic, as well as the ability to clean off the dust. The report provides, based on the season’s results, combined with data on measures and meteorology, some suggestions for how measures can be improved and also provides examples of how additional needs or unnecessary efforts can be retrieved from the existing data.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Barn i bil: Litteratur som underlag till NTF Konsument2013Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cyklisters hjälmanvändning i ett regionalt perspektiv: fokusgruppsintervjuer samt analys av olycks- och skadedata2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to obtain knowledge about bicycle helmet use and its variations across Sweden. First, data on cyclists’ accidents, injuries and helmet use were studied in terms of regional differences. These data were taken from hospital reported accidents in the database Strada (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and from VTI’s observational studies of bicycle helmet use on bike routes. Cyclists aged 16 years or older were studied and especially in Stockholm, Malmö and Umeå. It is noted that in Malmö, the proportion of accidents between bicycles and motor vehicles are 25 per cent, which is a higher proportion than in the other cities. Accordingly single accidents in Malmö represent a smaller proportion (63%). In Umeå single accidents constitute a much larger percentage (81%) and collisions with motor vehicles, only eight per cent. It is unclear if there are differences in the traffic environment or operation and maintenance that may be the reason for the differences in the types of accidents. It may also be noted that the use of bicycle helmets in Stockholm is by far the highest in Sweden, both on bike routes and in accidents. In addition, the helmet use in bicycle accidents in Stockholm is lower than among observed cyclists on bike routes in traffic. It should be noted, however, that the observations are made only during daytime Monday to Friday. In the project also focus group interviews in Stockholm, Malmö and Umeå have been conducted with a total of 23 participants. These cities were selected because of differences in bicycle helmet use and to get a spread in cities with different climates and different traffic environments. The focus group interviews have given information about what affects the use or nonuse of helmets. With this knowledge measures could be performed and lead to a higher helmet use throughout the country.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: enkätstudie2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program for drink drivers came into force on 1 January 2012. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program that applies to all types of driver's licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders that have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC > 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the one-year program.

    Several aspects of the alcohol interlock program are evaluated at VTI. This report presents the results of a survey in which 1,100 questionnaires were answered by both participants and non-participants. The response rate was 45 percent of the participants in the interlock program and 28 percent of the non-participants. The average age of the respondents was just over 50 years, with marginal differences between participants and non-participants. The proportion of women among the respondents in the program was 13 percent, compared to 20 percent of the respondents without alcolock.

    It is possible to apply for a license with the alcolock condition directly after the drink driving offence and the withdrawal of the driver’s license. On average, it took little more than three months from the drink driving offence until the respondent received his or her conditioned license in the one-year program, and little more than five months for respondents in the two-year program. This time depends on how long after the drink driving offence the participants made their application, but there is also a request for faster processing times at the Transport Agency.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Droger och mediciner: är det ett problem i svensk trafik?2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol i kombination med bilkörning är ett relativt väl utforskat område men när det gäller andra ämnen är kunskapen bristfällig. Syftet med den här studien är att kartlägga omfattningen av illegala droger och mediciner i svensk trafik. Resultaten visar att alkohol är det största problemet ur trafiksäkerhetssynpunkt men att det också finns stora olycksrisker förknippade med illegala droger. Även användning av mediciner medför förhöjda olycksrisker men tolkningen av dessa resultat försvåras av att vi inte vet om medicinerna använts enligt läkares förskrivning eller ej. Här behövs mer forskning för att utreda vid vilken användning mediciner blir ett problem i trafiken.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    SMADIT ur den misstänkte rattfylleristens perspektiv: en intervjustudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMADIT, Joint action against alcohol and drugs in traffic, is a method where the police offer suspected drunk drivers contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service, who can offer a consultation and, if needed, suitable treatment. In the present study, 14 suspected alcohol drunk drivers were interviewed about their perceptions and experience of the SMADIT method. The results show that the incident with the drunk driving and its consequences have been a turning point in the suspected drunk drivers' lives. Most of the informants have completely opted out of the alcohol, and in addition, family relationships and life situations have improved. The majority of the informants do not think they will drive drunk in the future. Overall, informants think that SMADIT is a good method in its efforts to prevent drunk driving. Informants' narratives show that the police attitude is very important as most felt that they were in a disgraceful situation. The interviews show that the police attitude and the informant's drinking habits can be crucial to the acceptance of SMADIT. There are also respondents who believed that by accepting the help through SMADIT they would retain the driving license and get alcohol interlocks. The study points out some suggestions that could improve the SMADIT method. It is important that the police always provide the suspected drunk driver with sufficient and accurate verbal information about SMADIT and hand over the written information leaflet with contact information for local social treatment services, even to people who have been free from suspicion of drunk driving. In addition, it is important that a person who answered no to the SMADIT-offer is asked a second time, preferably by a call from the police, or that the suspected drunk driver is asked again when the car key is retrieved. Furthermore, it appears that it is not necessary that the first contact with social treatment services takes place within twenty-four hours. Several of the informants state that they need time for reflection, however, it must not pass too many days before a first contact and meeting is held. Finally, the police motivation to work with SMADIT can be maintained if the social treatment services ask the suspected drunk driver for permission to give a feedback to the police about the person's contact with the social treatment service.

  • 19.
    Hill, Julian
    et al.
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Byard, Nigel
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Thomas, Pete
    Loughborough University, UK.
    On the spot accident research in the UK: a new approach to in-depth investigations2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:3, p. 12-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new, in-depth 'On The Spot' (OTS) accident research project now underway in the United kingdom (UK). OTS investigators are immediately deployed to the scene of five hundred road crashes each year where they gather data that would otherwise be quickly lost. Previous studies are considered before describing methodology used on the spot and during subsequent follow-up research. Investigations focus on all types of vehicles, the highway, human factors, and the injuries sustained. The project objectives include establishing an in-depth database that will further a better understanding of the causes of crashes and injuries, and assist in the development of solutions.

  • 20.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Claezon, Fredrich
    Saab Automobile.
    Distraction and drowsiness - a field study: technical report2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the distraction and drowsiness field study was to evaluate a system for detecting driver distraction and drowsiness. This report focuses on the system implementation and the algorithms detecting distraction and drowsiness. A vehicle was instrumented with video cameras, an automatic eye tracker and GPS receivers. Further data were read from the CAN bus of the car. The data were logged continuously with high frequency. The log system operated autonomously. Seven participants drove the vehicle during one month each. During the first ten days a behavioural baseline was collected. Afterwards the warnings were activated, such that the drivers received distraction warnings in form of a vibration in the seat when the algorithm determined that they had looked away from the forward roadway too much. A separate algorithm judged whether the drivers were drowsy or not. Questionnaires were administered on three occasions during the course of the study. No major problems were encountered during the field operational test (FOT), but a number of smaller problems had to be solved. However, in the end of the data collection period the computer installed in the car became more and more unstable, which led to increased data loss.

  • 21.
    Kraay, Joop H
    Ministry of Transport, The Netherlands.
    Road safety at the start of the third millenium2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:1, p. 16-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People need to be able to travel for their work, social contacts and recreation, and to make use of facilities and health care. Goods need to be conveyed to companies, shops and consumers. Mobility is an important element in the socio-cultural development of people and society. An efficient, safe and sustainable transport system is an essential precondition for prosperity and well-being. Mobility must be possible for all groups within society, yet under the limiting condition of assured road safety and an acceptable environment. An efficient, safe and sustainable transport system, offering high quality to the individual users, is an important basic principle. With the National Transport Plan NVVP 2001-2020, the Dutch government gives a new impetus to strengthen the existing policy on road safety, and the implementation thereof.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cykelhjälmsanvändning i Sverige 1988–-2011: resultat från VTI:s senaste observationsstudie2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The total average rate of bicycle helmet use in Sweden, seen over several categories of cyclists, soared to the highest level ever in 2011. This is shown in a recent VTI observation study in 21 Swedish towns. Since 1988 VTI has performed annual observation studies of cyclists’ helmet wearing habits in Sweden. By tradition, the focus of the study lies on four main categories of cyclists: children (0–10 years) who cycle in their spare time in residential areas; children (6–15 years) who cycle to and from their primary or secondary school; adults who cycle to and from work; adults and children who cycle on cycle paths. The results show that children up to 10 years of age cycling in residential areas on average have a cycle helmet user rate of more than 69 per cent. Children cycling to and from primary or secondary school wear bicycle helmet on a lesser rate, at 64.3 per cent.

    Among adults who cycle to and from work, the usage rate is just over 24 per cent. Most cyclists were observed on cycle paths and the results include all ages as well as adults only. The total number of cyclists on cycle paths displayed slightly higher helmet usage, 27.3 per cent, than the subset of adults, 25.7 per cent. The rate of bicycle helmet use in Sweden increased continuously until the end of the 1990s when stagnation occurred for some years. In 2005 the legislation requiring children up to 15 years of age to wear cycle helmet, was brought into effect. Then, helmet use increased again between 2004/2005 and 2008, again followed by a stagnation which has now been broken. The estimated rate of the average helmet use is 31.8 per cent for the year 2011, which is significantly higher than the 27.1 per cent in 2010.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cykelhjälmsanvändning i Sverige 1988–-2012: resultat från VTI:s senaste observationsstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1988 VTI has performed annual observation studies of cyclists´ helmet wearing habits in 21 towns in Sweden. Below is a summary of the observations conducted in 2012 on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration. The 2012 study, in line with previous studies, focused on four main categories of cyclists:

    • Children (0–10 years) who cycle in their spare time in residential areas

    • Children (6–15 years) who cycle to/from their primary or secondary school

    • Adults (? 16 years) who cycle to/from work

    • Adults (? 16 years) and children who cycle on Cycle Routes.

    The majority of the observations were performed during the first two weeks of September. The 2012 study observed a total of 54,060 cyclists in 21 towns in the four main categories. The results show that children ? 10 years cycling in residential areas on average wear a cycle helmet at about 70 per cent. Children cycling to/from primary or secondary school (6–15 years old) wear a bicycle helmet on a lesser scale, at 59.4 per cent. However the rate differs greatly, 34.4 per cent in secondary school (children 13–15 years old) and 84.5 per cent in primary school (children 6–12 years old).

    Among adults who cycle to/from work, the usage rate is just over 24 per cent. Most cyclists were observed on Cycle Routes and the results include all ages as well as adults only. The total number of cyclists on Cycle Routes displayed slightly higher helmet usage (31.1%) than the subset of adults (29.9%). The weighted average rate of helmet use seen over all categories in 2012, soared to the highest ever.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Olycksmåtts inbördes samband vid jämförelse mellan olika delar av statsvägnätet1986Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bältesanvändning i Sverige 20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in Southern Sweden since 1983. The observations in 2013 were made over a total of ten days in August–September 2013. In total, approximately 58,400 passenger cars, 1,200 taxi cars and 8,700 other vehicles, e.g. trucks were observed. During the whole survey period, 1983–2013, seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers has been at a considerably higher and more uniform level than back seat passengers. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are 97– 98 per cent. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent. When the law requiring all adult occupants to wear seat belts in passenger cars came into force on 1 July 1986, the figure quickly increased to 60 per cent. According to the latest observations, approximately 84 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt, which is lower than the level 2012. In the back seat, children have always had a much higher belt use than the adults, which also applies to 2013, when slightly more than 96 per cent of children in the back seat were belted. Since the surveys in 1994 to date, a subproject studying the drivers and the correlation to age and sex of the drivers, has been in force simultaneously.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bältesanvändningen i Sverige 20112012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in central Sweden since 1983. The observations in 2011 were made over a total of ten days in August–September 2011, averaging out at one day at each studied site. In total, approximately 60,200 passenger cars, 1,300 taxi cars and 7,300 other vehicles were observed. When VTI commenced the surveys in 1983, seat belt use by adult back seat passengers was at a modest 10 per cent. When the law requiring all adult occupants to wear seat belts in passenger cars came into force on 1 July 1986, the figure quickly increased to 60 per cent. According to the latest observations, slightly more than 80 per cent of all adult back seat passengers wear a seat belt. The corresponding level for children in the back seat has consistently stayed in the region of 10–20 percentage points higher. In 2011, around 96 per cent of all children in the back seat wore a seat belt. During the whole survey period, 1983–2011, seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers has been at a considerably higher and more uniform level. At the beginning of the surveys, 84–86 per cent of drivers and front seat passengers already wore a seat belt. Today, the levels are slightly higher than 96 per cent. Since the surveys in 1994 , a subproject studying the drivers and the correlation to age and sex of the drivers, has been in force simultaneously. Seat belt use is lowest among young male drivers, ranging between18–25 years, at 79 per cent 2011, and this is considerably lower than in 2010. In the same age group, 92 per cent of all women wear a seat belt. In the age groups 26–35, 36–50 and “51–“, 90–92 per cent of men and 97–98 per cent of women wear a seat belt. With the exception of the youngest drivers, records have been very stable in recent years. Seat belt use by taxi drivers has been observed at all observation sites since 1995.

  • 27.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ulleberg, Pål
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Siren, Anu
    Danmarks tekniske universitet, DTU, Denmark.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, TØI, Norway.
    Measures to enhance mobility among older people in Scandinavia: a literature review of best practice2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report is part of a larger project about mobility and its impact on older people’s well-being and welfare: Mobile age: The impact of everyday mobility for elderly people’s welfare and well-being. The heterogenity of older people is emphasised, not only with respect to physical age but also with respect to the specific resource situation and social context of everyday life. The geographical context of the project is Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The report is a literature review examining and evaluating measures designed to improve the independency of mobility among older people. While a few good examples of “best practice” in the Scandinavian area (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) have been highlighted, gaps and weaknesses remain. The areas which are examined in the present report are private car, public transport, cycling, walking and to some extent other transport modes defined by motorized wheelchairs, scooters, four-wheeled mopeds/motorcycles, etc. Measures to increase travel with public transport are on the agenda in all three countries, i.e. accessible vehicles and increased accessibility to the interchanges. Also, often small amendments through the travel route could make difference, such as pavements without stairs and benches on the way to the bus stop. Furthermore, strategies and measures for improving public transport concern not only issues such as accessible vehicles, wind shelters and plain pavements at bus stops, but also frequency and routes in relation to the mobility needs of a new generation of older people. However, lack of information and knowledge about public transport services is often rife among older people, which results in them travelling less than they might have done or shying away completely from using public transport. Information campaigns could be synchronised consciously to meet older people’s travel trajectories. New ways of providing information using the latest technology could be found to meet the needs of older people. Actually, sometimes the problem is not lack of information but too much of it or the wrong kind.

  • 28.
    Mollett, CJ
    Provincial adminstration of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    A comparative study of road safety between the USA, UK and South Africa2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 234-248Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The object of this study is to compare the trends and levels of road safety between the USA, the UK and the RSA after 1966. These countries will be compared on the basis of their respective levels of personal safety, transport safety and mobility/motorisation. To make meaningful comparisons these indicators will be compared at equal levels of mobility and transport safety. It will be shown that South Africa has the worst levels of personal and transport safety. It will also be shown that although the USA has a similar level of transport safety as the UK, its level of personal safety is considerably worse than that of the UK at similar levels of mobility.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Accident statistics, accident risks and consequences and accident situations1987Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cyklisters singelolyckor: analys av olycks- och skadedata samt djupintervjuer2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to study single bicycle accidents, to see how these can be avoided and how the injuries due to these can be alleviated. The in-depth studies of fatal accidents by the Swedish Traffic Administration, and hospital reported accidents in the database Strada have been analysed. The focus was on the single bicycle accidents resulting in death or serious injury, and the data for 2007-–2011 were included. In addition, 32 seriously injured cyclists were interviewed about the accident in which they had been involved. Of all the cyclists who need emergency treatment, eight out of ten had been injured in a single accident. In addition, on average five cyclists were killed every year in a single bicycle accident. In all, during the five-year period studied, 125 cyclists were killed. Of the 1,274 seriously injured in single bicycle accidents, 27 per cent can be related to operation and maintenance, 20 per cent to road design, 27 per cent to cyclist-bicycle interaction, 15 per cent to the behaviour and state of the cyclist, and 11 per cent to the interaction of the cyclist with other road users. Older age groups are involved to a greater extent than the young, in both the fatal accidents and the serious accidents – more than 40 per cent among those killed and seriously injured were 65 or older. The serious injuries among older people are characterised by injuries to the hips. In other respects, head injuries dominate among the seriously injured cyclists, and head injuries were the cause of death in 70 per cent of single bicycle accidents.

  • 31.
    Pitsiava-Latinopoulou, M
    et al.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Tsohos, G
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Basbas, S
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kokkalis, A
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Investigation of accidents involving vulnerable road users in Greek urban areas2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, p. 7-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety in urban areas is considered to be one of the major problems our society faces nowadays, due to its social and economic impacts. The problem is more crucial when considering the case of vulnerable road users (e.g., pedestrians and motorcyclists). This paper discusses accidents in Greek urban areas, which involve vulnerable road users. The author describes the evolution of traffic accidents with vulnerable road users and then addresses measures for protection of vulnerable road users.

  • 32.
    Saidi, Hassan S
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Risk factor profile and the cost of traffic injury in a tertiary hospital in Kenya2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:3, p. 13-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and in-patient cost of traffic injury. A total of 233 crash victims, 134 non-traffic trauma patients and 87 non-trauma patients admitted to the surgical units of the Kenyatta National Hospital between February 1, 1999 and April 30, 1999 were enrolled in the study. Information on age, gender and occupation of the patient, payer category, alcohol use, length of hospital stay, hospital cost and principal region of injury was gathered. Road trauma admissions comprised about 31% of all admissions due to injury, 15.1% of surgical admissions and 4.5% of emergency hospital admissions. The male sex, occupation status and regular use of alcohol appeared to be significant risk factors for injury occurrence. The respective hospital costs for non-traffic trauma patients and non-trauma patients were 2.2 and 1.9 times higher as compared to road traffic accident trauma patients. The capacity of the injured to compensate for the care given was minimal. In only 6% of the road traffic accident patients was the hospital bill cleared through a health insurance agency or medical scheme. It is concluded that road traffic injury is common, costly, places considerable workload on the hospital and referentially occurs in productive males. It is suggested that the current orientation of trauma care delivery cannot be sustained. Cost containment strategies including the re-examination of the national health insurance scheme may be the way forward to reduce the cost of injury.

  • 33.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bálint, András
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Fagerlind, Helen
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Traffic safety of Heavy Goods Vehicles and implications for High Capacity Transport vehicles2014In: Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper summarizes the results of the programme "Traffic safety effects of High Capacity Transport (HCT) vehicles and suggestions for compensatory measures" this far. An analysis of ten years of Swedish accident data shows that "long" combinations (18.76m to 25.25m) had lower rate of fatal or severe accidents per billion vehicle kilometres travelled compared to medium and short vehicles. It is argued in the literature that HCT vehicles would, on average, reduce the number of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) accidents because fewer vehicles would be needed to transport a given amount of goods. However, further investigation is required of the causal relationship between crash risk and a HGVs’ weight, length, number of units, links and axles in certain traffic situations. One way to ensure the safety performance of HCT vehicles, and HGVs, is to assess them by Performance Based Standards. The paper describes the plans to adapt PBS to Swedish conditions, and to monitor Swedish HCT vehicles under trial with the surveillance system Intelligent Access Programme (IAP).

  • 34.
    Thomas, Fridtjof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sammanställning av 34 trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI compiles here the available knowledge about 34 traffic safety measures that have been utilized in Sweden the past decades. These measures belong to the domains of speed management, alcohol, seat belts, physical infrastructure, road users and vehicles. We group the traffic safety measures based on the reasoning underlying Haddon's matrix. This way of classifying accidents is described and we draw upon its underlying logic to classify the 34 traffic safety measures. The Swedish Road Administration's traffic safety work is guided by the so called Vision Zero. The Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications issued on April 9, 1999, a short program containing eleven topics for increased traffic safety. This program became operational for the Swedish Road Administration and we evaluate therefore the here described 34 traffic safety measures based on the eleven topics in that program. Traffic safety measures in the physical infrastructure such as separation of meeting lanes, roundabouts, and separated strokes for bicycles and pedestrians have to be viewed as the most efficient ones. However, these measures are costly when compared to measures targeting the socio-economic environment such as legislation and enforcement. Therefore the here described measures should be evaluated based on an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the various measures. Such studies remain to be carried out for a number of traffic safety measurements, but this is beyond the scope of this project.

  • 35.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Utvärdering av nya hastighetsgränssystemet: effekter på trafiksäkerhet och miljö2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration estimated prior to the speed limit review that an increased or reduced speed limit of 10 km/h would result in an actual increase or decrease of 4 km/h for passenger vehicles. The change for heavy goods vehicles with or without a trailer, was estimated to be less. Based on the above assumptions it is estimated that 13.5 fatalities and 42 serious injuries could be avoided annually on the national road grid. In respect of environmental impact, it is estimated that carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 32,000 tonne per annum. Two different strategies were applied when studying what effect the altered speed limits have had on fatalities and serious injuries. Effects were estimated based on accident statistics from STRADA as well as by estimating expected effects according to assessed mean speed differences before and after introducing new signage. Expected traffic safety effects have been estimated according to the Power model. Results from observed STRADA records reveal that a total of 30 lives per annum have been saved on roads adapted to recently introduced speed limit changes, with a reduction of serious injuries of 26 per annum. Results by the Power model estimates 11 fatalities and 37 serious injuries less per annum. The total result from the STRADA outcome is similar to the outcome estimated by the Power model in respect of the sum of fatalities and serious injuries, although the distribution between fatalities and serious injuries differs. Lives have predominantly been saved on dual carriageways where speed limits were reduced from 90 km/h to 80 km/h with more than 70 per cent of saved lives belonging to this group. It is important to take into account when analysing the above results that the time since the change is limited. In order to gain more reliable results it would be advisable with a continued follow-up of fatalities and serious injuries. Any impact introduced speed limit alterations have had on the environment is based on actual changes in mean speeds showing that the carbon dioxide emission level has decreased by approximately 21,000 tonne per annum. The decrease is primarily due to the extensive speed limit reduction on dual carriageways from 90 km/h to 80km/h. Following the above speed limit reductions, the annual decrease of sulphur emissions is approximately 100 kg per annum and a 90 tonne per annum reduction in nitrogen emissions. The reason for the environmental impact being less than expected prior to changing the speed limits is that the average speed by road users changed slightly less than first estimated by the Swedish Transport Administration.

  • 36.
    Valen, Anja
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Bogstrand, Stig Tore
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Vindenes, Vigdis
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Frost, Joachim
    St. Olav University Hospital.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Holtan, Anders
    Gjerde, Hallvard
    Oslo University Hospital.
    Fatally injured drivers in Norway 2005–2015: Trends in substance use and crash characteristics2019In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Norway introduced a “Vision Zero” strategy in 2001, using multiple approaches, aiming toward a future in which no one will be killed or seriously injured in road traffic crashes (RTCs). Official statistics show that the number of fatally injured road users has declined substantially from 341 deaths in 2000 to 117 in 2015. In-depth crash investigations of all fatal RTCs started in Norway in 2005. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fatal crash characteristics, vehicle safety features, and prevalence of drugs and/or alcohol among fatally injured drivers and riders has changed during 2005–2015, accompanying the reduction in road fatalities.

    Methods: Data on all car/van drivers and motorcycle/moped riders fatally injured in RTCs during 2005–2015 were extracted from Norwegian road traffic crash registries and combined with forensic toxicology data.

    Results: The proportion of cars and motorcycles with antilock braking systems and cars with electronic stability control, increased significantly during the study period. The prevalence of nonuse of seat belts/helmets and speeding declined among both fatally injured drivers and riders. In addition, the prevalence of alcohol declined, though no significant change in the total prevalence of other substances was noted.

    Conclusion: The observed changes toward more safety installations in cars and motorcycles and lower prevalence of driver-related risk factors like alcohol use, speeding, and nonuse of seat belts/helmets among fatally injured drivers/riders may have contributed to the decrease in road traffic deaths.

  • 37.
    Velden, Therese MH van der
    Duch Transport Safety Board, The Netherlands.
    N=1: Independent investigation into single accidents, added value for road safety research2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:1, p. 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more than 200 countries in the world and roughly ten of them have an independent safety board or transport safety board. These boards conduct investigations into single accidents in the aviation, shipping, rail and road transport sectors and sometimes pipelines. This paper will concentrate on two aspects of accident investigations as conducted by transport safety boards: depth and independence. The position defended here is as follows: independent and in-depth investigations of single accidents as conducted by the transport safety boards also generate added value in the case of road traffic.

  • 38.
    Viklund, Åsa
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Appeltofft, Katarina
    Trafikverket.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL: EU-projekt om skolskjuts 2009-20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en sammanfattning av resultaten från EU-projektet SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, som bedrivits inom 7:e ramprogrammet under åren 2009 till och med augusti 2012. Rapporten är särskilt inriktad på den svenska fältstudien i Örnsköldsvik, där lagstadgad hastighet 30 km/tim har testats, samt de förbättringsförslag inom lagstiftnings- och regelområdet som pekats ut som extra viktiga att beakta ur ett europeiskt perspektiv. Rapporten vänder sig till svenska beslutsfattare och övriga intresserade inom skolskjutsområdet.

  • 39.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Incidenter vid arbete på väg: en sammanställning av olyckstillbud2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Roadworks are signposted to make road users realise that roadworks are in progress, advise them how they must act and how they can pass the roadworks in a safe manner. In spite of this, incidents and accidents do occur at roadworks where road users are involved. It is important to chart the problems which arise when those working on the road and other road users come into contact. A part of the work is to study the road accidents and incidents that occur at roadworks. To be able to do this, there is a need for relevant statistics concerning such accidents and incidents. Since conditions at roadworks are special, it may be necessary to compile special statistics concerning the road accidents and incidents that occur in connection to these. The aim is to compile statistics concerning incidents at roadworks. These statistics must provide a description of where, when and how the incidents occur. They must also serve as a model for the way in which regular collection of data concerning road accidents and incidents at roadworks can be carried out. Vägverket Produktion, the Production Section of the Swedish Road Administration, collects and compiles reports on incidents and accidents which occur in conjunction with their work on roads. This study comprises about 150 such incidents and accidents collected from 2004 until autumn of 2007. The method employed was to set up, with the support of the descriptions of occurrences, new variables for the compilation of statistics. These variables can then, presumably after a lot of modifications, be used in a more regular reporting of incidents in which all those who perform work on roads take part.

  • 40.
    Wiklund, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Simonsson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hallberg, Örjan
    Hallberg Independent Research.
    Johansson, Östen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhet och konjunktur: modellansatser och litteraturstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project includes two subprojects. The objective of the first subproject has been to investigate which types of accidents are most sensitive to the state of the market and which road user groups are involved. The objective of the second subproject was to study certain conditions, such as percentage of heavy vehicles, percentage of young driving licence holders, vehicle milage per age group, etc., and to see how these covary with the state of the market as well as with the resulting number of killed and injured road users.

    An overview of the statistical methods that other researchers have used and which measures of the state of the market they have included in their models is given in this report. It was concluded that unemployment was the most common economic variable, where an increase in unemployment indicates a decrease in the number of killed road users. It was then shown that part of the reduction in the number of fatalities is explained by young drivers' reducing their car use. This applies particulary to the regression in the early 1990s. There is, however, still a remaining effect of unemployment that cannot be explained by young drivers car use. An attempt to compare fatal accidents where the driver behavior has been inappropriate, such as speeding, not using safety belt or being under the influence of drugs, before and in a recession revealed a sometimes surprising similarity. In absolute numbers it seems that some risk-taking drivers may have dropped out of the traffic or changed behaviour in the recession. The number of fatal accidents with more careful drivers has however decreased by a similar degree. Why the number of fatal accidents with risk-taking and more careful drivers decreased by a similar amount, in a relative sense, is not clear.

  • 41.
    Yanney, BK
    University of Zimbabwe.
    Road safety problems of developing and developed countries2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 249-262Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of major cities in African and Latin American countries hasmore than doubled over the last twenty years. The population growth hasbrought with it a corresponding increase in vehicle ownership. Despite theincrease in vehicle ownership, developing countries have not embarked uponany meaningful and sustainable transport management programs. In big citiesof developing countries, congestion created by illegal parking, hawkers, andstreet vendors trying to make a living in the face of harsh economic reformshave all contributed to transportation safety problems. Accident rates indeveloping countries have been estimated to be 20 - 30 times higher than inEuropean countries. The escalating vehicle accident rates have created heavydrain on the economies of the developing countries, which continue to importtransportation components using their scarce foreign exchange reserves. Theneed for effective transportation management backed by research cannottherefore be over-emphasised. The paper discusses the accident rates for somedeveloped and developing countries and attempts to identify areas forresearch. Accident fatality rates in developing countries have been comparedwith those in developed countries.

1 - 41 of 41
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