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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nykterhetsstödjande system: diskussioner i fokusgrupper2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as outcome. The aim with this study was to understand drivers’ vision of a future vehicle integrated system for alcohol detection. Eight focus groups with in total 47 participants representing different stakeholders were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The groups represented young drivers (18–19 years old), males (30–60 years old), females (30–60 years old), elderly (70–90 years old), former alcohol addicts, one group represented authorities and finally one represented retailors and rental car companies. The analysis was based solely on the transcriptions and the analysis was performed using inductive content analysis. The results show a clear view that such future vehicle integrated system will benefit a large group of drivers. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution for the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. From the drivers point of view the system most truly should be invisible for the drivers. Feedback to the driver was seen as justified at levels below the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit: for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Feedback should be given through sound or as a visual feedback. Reliability and trust to the system was rated as very important, and it was underlined that it was important that it was the drivers BAC that was detected not the passengers.

  • 2.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vart är antalet dödade och skadade i trafiken på väg?: modeller för kontroll av måluppfyllelsen, uppdaterade med data för år 20012002Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Brüde, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekter av åtgärder och tillståndsförändringar2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been performed by VTI by commission of the Road Traffic Inspectorate in Sweden. The objective has been to scrutinise, discuss, compile and comment on measures, changes in conditions and effects concerning both the road, the vehicle and the road user. One further objective has been to relate, as far as possible, the effects/changes to the actual development of fatalities in traffic, in the first place over the period 1996-2006. It is found that for many factors, the conditions, measures and associated effects are insufficiently known. This is especially true for changes over time. This is unsatisfactory since, at the same time, there is strong evidence that these factors have, or may have, a considerable impact and that it is a high proportion of all traffic fatalities which are affected - either positively or negatively. We do not know about changes in conditions regarding speeds, person km travelled by age and gender, alcohol in traffic, use of mobile telephones when driving, and attitudes and deliberate traffic violations. There are no data for changes concerning risk for car drivers of different ages and genders. Effects concerning fatalities are insufficiently known for changes in traffic mileage (all other factors being constant), changes in economic conditions (effects apart from impact on traffic mileage), automatic traffic safety control speed cameras, certain physical measures, the aggregate effect of more recent vehicles, measures to influence alcohol in traffic, and attitude modification. There are no data for simultaneous analysis of accidents/injuries/fatalities, as well as for exposure, speed, road, vehicle and road user.

  • 4.
    Ekman, Robert
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Welander, Glenn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Children in cars: Experiences from successful prevention and development of mortality and morbidity among Swedish children in road traffic accidents during the 1980s and 1990s2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden a majority of child fatalities (under 15 years) are due to injuries, and of these about 40% are the result of traffic accidents - about the same rate as in the USA. Children are exposed to high risks in traffic, but despite increased traffic volume it has still been possible to decrease numbers of injuries and deaths. However, the various preventive interventions made have not been fully evaluated. The main objective of this article is to study long-term effects of legislation and local promotion of child-restraint use in motor vehicles. Subgoals are to describe the level of restraint use for children in cars and to study changes in mortality and morbidity patterns in regard to differences among age groups and geographical areas (morbidity).

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vintervädrets betydelse för att fotgängare skadas i singelolyckor2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the winter weather on injuries in single-pedestrian accidents have been studied using data from the Swedish emergency hospitals, and from the Swedish Transport Administration’s information system on roads weather. We have studied the winter seasons 2008/2009 until 2013/2014. The study’s purpose was to examine the weather that was prevailing at the time of the pedestrian injury and during the 24 hours before the accident. Two populations of single-pedestrian accidents have been analysed; all who have reported that slippery surface due to snow or ice was a contributing cause of the injury; all who have been injured in urban areas in the four selected municipalities: Umeå, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. A connection between the injury data and weather data were made both for the hours when the injury occurred, and for the 24-hour period prior to the injury. Compared to non-urban areas, in urban areas there were more than 10 times as many who were injured in single-pedestrian accidents due to slippery road condition (snow /ice). This study shows that female pedestrians are injured due to snowy or icy road surface to a greater extent than men. The females’ injuries are also more severe. When comparing the distribution of different accident causes between males and females an analysis of the odds ratio showed that males have a higher proportion of injuries due to snowy or icy road surface compared to females. Prioritizing maintenance on pedestrian and cycle paths during the winter season seems to be beneficial both in terms of injury reductions and in terms of costs for health care due to injuries from slipping on snowy / icy surfaces. The study indicates the possibility of using the weather data of the type used in this study as a tool in the planning and execution of winter maintenance.

  • 6.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Ba etminan ranandegi kardan: amniyatdar terafik baraye koodakan ba natavani jesmi2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Safe ride: traffic safety for children with disabilities2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We know that parents of children and adolescences with disabilities for many years have expressed concern about the lack of safety in the way their children were transported with the Special Transportation System [STS]. We have often received questions like; "Which safety regulations and laws control school transportation and STS?", "What demands can be made towards the local municipality in charge of arranging STS?", "Who is responsible for our child's traffic safety?", "How do you adjust the family car to make it as safe as possible?" Many parents have sought after an easy and comprehensible publication that describes all the medical, technical, ergonomic, legal, structural and psychological aspects that lies within the complex issue of traffic safety for children with disabilities. This is why we made this handbook. Our purpose is to present a comprehensible image of traffic safety issues from the perspective of the children and the parents.

  • 8.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Sigurnost putovanja: o prometnoj sigurnosti za djecu s funkcijskim preprekama2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [hr]

    Prometna sigurnost djece i omladine s funkcijskim preprekama je kompleksno pitanje. Radi se o medicinskim, tehničkim, ergonomskim, pravnim, organizacijskim i psihološkim pogledima. Mnoga tijela vlasti i instance trebaju surađivati. Podjela odgovornosti između tih raznih instanca je komplicirana. Tijekom mnogo godina su roditelji tražili jednostavan i lako shvatljiv priručnik koji opisuje ta pitanja u perspektivi djece i obitelji. To je razlog zbog kojeg smo sastavili ovaj priručnik.

  • 9.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Äl-safarbi aman: An Salamat Harakat Al-muroor lil Atfal Al-mouaquin2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Åka säkert: om trafiksäkerhet för barn med funktionshinder2010 (ed. 2.)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafiksäkerhet för barn och ungdomar med funktionshinder är en komplex fråga. Det handlar om medicinska, tekniska, ergonomiska, juridiska, organisatoriska och psykologiska aspekter. Många myndigheter och instanser ska samverka. Ansvarsfördelningen dem emellan är komplicerad. Denna skrift beskriver dessa frågor ur barnens och familjernas perspektiv. Ny version från 2010, översatt till fyra språk, finns förutom på svenska nu också på engelska, serbokroatiska, persiska och arabiska.

  • 11.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alkohol, droger och läkemedel hos omkomna personbilsförare: år 2005–20132015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that drunk drivers constitute a large traffic safety problem and a number of Swedish studies have been conducted about this group of drivers. Much less is known about drivers that are impaired by drugs or medicines and the aim of this study is to improve the knowledge about the presence of such substances in killed drivers of passenger cars. The study is based on 1143 drivers of passenger cars that were killed in accidents during 2005–2013. Only medicines that include narcotic substances are included since other types of drugs supposedly have very limited influence on the ability to drive. Medical substances were found in 8.3 per cent of the drivers and drugs in 6.1 per cent. In comparison, alcohol was prevalent among 21.8 per cent of the drivers. More than one type of substance (alcohol, drug or medicine) were found in 5.4 per cent of the drivers. The following conclusions can be drawn from the study:

    A significant difference was found in the number of drivers who were tested positive for drugs or medicines between those who had a BAC-level over 0.2 ‰ (18.5 %) and those who had a BAC-level of 0 (10.5 %). There were no significant difference with respect to drugs and medicines between drivers with low (0.2–0.6‰) and high BAC-level (≥0.6‰).

    • THC (cannabis) is the most prevalent drug among drivers that are also influenced by alcohol, followed by amphetamine. For drivers that are not influenced by alcohol, amphetamine is more common than THC.
    • Opioids are equally common among drivers who have taken only medicines and drivers who have combined medicines and illegal drugs. Sedatives are instead more common among those who also have taken drugs while it is very uncommon to combine illegal drugs and hypnotics.
    • An analysis of background variables show that drivers who had alcohol or drugs in their blood differ from sober drivers in several respects (age, gender and time of accident) while those who had taken medicines were quite similar to the sober drivers.

    The three groups also differ from each other, which makes it important to treat the groups separately in case of for example, countermeasures.

  • 12.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Förstudie om antal alkoholutandningsprov i trafiken2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antal alkoholutandningsprov som utförs varje år har minskat med drygt 50 procent mellan år 2010 och 2015. I den här PM:et belyses frågan om antal alkoholutandningsprov och dess betydelse för rattfylleriets omfattning. PM:et ska ses som ett underlag för fortsatta diskussioner om polisens övervakning men även om vilken ytterligare forskning som behövs inom området. Underlaget baseras på tre delar: (i) en jämförelse mellan antal utandningsprov som görs i Sverige och antalet i andra länder, (ii) en jämförelse av subjektiv och faktisk upptäcktsrisk baserat på data från ESRA–projektet (European Survey of Road Users’ Safety Attitudes) och (iii) en sammanställning av aktuell forskning på området.

    Uppgifter om antal utandningsprov saknas i många länder men en jämförelse har kunnat göras mellan Sverige och 13 andra europeiska länder. Resultaten visar att Sverige var det land bland dessa som år 2010 utförde flest prov per invånare. År 2015 var det sex länder som utförde fler prov per invånare än vad Sverige gjorde

    Litteraturgenomgången visar att om man ökar antal prov leder det till en högre subjektiv upptäcktsrisk vilket i sin tur leder till en högre allmänpreventiv effekt. Det behövs dock mer forskning om vilken nivå på övervakningens omfattning som ger bäst avvägning mellan polisens resurser och antal rattfylleribrott.

    Andra faktorer som till exempel sociala normer är också viktiga. Resultat från ESRA-studien visar bland annat att det är väldigt få som kör rattfulla i Sverige även om den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken är ganska låg jämfört med flera av de andra länderna. En slutsats av det är att det behövs mer forskning om de specifika förhållanden som gäller i Sverige. Senast det gjordes någon större studie om rattfylleriövervakningens effekter i Sverige var i början på 1990-talet. Idag sker en stor del av forskningen i USA och Australien och dess grannländer och det är svårt att direkt översätta dessa resultat till svenska förhållanden.

  • 13.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Prognosintervall för antal allvarligt skadade i vägtrafikolyckor2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of seriously injured road users is used both as an indicator of traffic safety trends in Sweden and in more specific studies of, for example, different road user groups. A seriously injured person is defined as a person who suffers injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 1 percent. The term very seriously injured is used as a complement and is defined correspondingly but refers to injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 10 percent. In practice, the level of impairment is not known at the time of the accident, and therefore the number of seriously and very seriously injured persons are forecasted. The basis for the forecasts are Strada, the national database for road traffic accidents in Sweden, and a method developed by Folksam (a Swedish insurance company) that estimates the risk that a person’s injuries will lead to permanent medical impairment in the future. The aim of this study is to present the size of the uncertainty of the forecasts for different subpopulations such as geographical areas, roads user groups, age and gender. The uncertainty of the forecasts is illustrated as forecasting intervals. It became clear during the study that derivation of the intervals was relatively easy for the case with one injury per person but considerably more difficult when the persons had a combination of several injuries. Therefore, the width of the intervals was determined using simulation instead of theoretical calculations.

  • 14.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kartläggning av personskadeolyckor med fyrhjulingar på väg2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att kartlägga fyrhjulingsåkare som skadats i olyckor som skett på väg under perioden 2003–2013. Mer specifikt har syftet varit:

    • att beskriva egenskaper hos de skadade och andra omständigheter kring olyckan så som ålder, kön, misstanke om rattfylleri och hjälmanvändning
    • att, utifrån olycksbeskrivningen, analysera vad som orsakade olyckan
    • att analysera hur olyckans svårhetsgrad beror av generella egenskaper hos fordonet, vägen och föraren
    • att kartlägga vilka delar av kroppen som skadas.

    Kartläggningen har baseras på både polisrapporterade och sjukhusrapporterade olyckor i Strada och totalt har 1039 personer studerats.

  • 15.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Participation Rates in a Voluntary Alcohol Interlock Program for Drink Drivers in Sweden2016In: 21st International council on alcohol, drugs and traffic safety conference T2016: Conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a long trial period, an alcohol interlock program was permanently introduced in Sweden in 2012. Participation in the program is voluntary and the duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. An evaluation of the program during the trial period showed a participation rate of about 11%. Aim: The main aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the interlock program and evaluate if the changes made from the trial period had led to increased participation. Reasons for denied participation and the time between the drink driving offence and decision about participation in the program were also studied.

    A sample of about 3600 drivers who had their license withdrawn due to drink driving was investigated. The data includes age and gender, information about the drink driving offence and the application process.

    The participation rate in the permanent program is about 30%. The age group with the highest participation is drivers between 35 and 64 years old with about 35% participation. Moreover, the participation rate of drivers with BAC > 1 g/L is almost twice as high as the rate for drivers with BAC < 1 g/L.

    The study shows that the participation rate has increased from about 11% in the trial period to about 30% in the permanent program. Thus, the attempt of increasing the rate has been successful.

  • 16.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Rattfylleriets omfattning bland svårt skadade förare: En skattning baserad på polisens misstanke2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten i den här studien visar att bland de förare som misstänks för påverkan av alkohol eller annat ämne enligt Strada så har detta också bekräftats i 65 procent av fallen (konfidensintervall: 54-76 %). Detta framkommer när registreringen i Strada jämförts med uppgifter i olycksmaterial som erhållits av polisen. I resterande fall är det många gånger okänt om föraren varit rattfull eller inte och därför kan endast en miniminivå av andel rattfulla skattas.

    Andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade personbilsförarna skattas till minst åtta procent. Motsvarande andel för motorcykelförare och mopedförare är sju respektive tio procent. Resultaten är alltså av samma storleksordning för alla dessa fordonsslag. Vidare visar resultaten att andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade är högre på natten än på dagen och högre i singelolyckor än i kollisionsolyckor.

    Man kan också konstatera att polisen endast i mycket begränsad utsträckning verkar utnyttja den möjlighet som finns att begära blodprov från förare som varit inblandade i en trafikolycka, även om ingen misstanke om rattfylleribrott finns.

  • 17.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skadade motorcyklister: en analys av var i vägnätet som motorcyklister skadas och skadornas svårhetsgrad2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study was to examine where on the road network motorcyclists are injured. Accidents involving four-wheelers (ATVs, quad bikes) have also been studied, although to a lesser degree. The study is based on police reported injury accidents in Sweden during the period 2003–2012. The results show that motorcyclists, to a greater degree than car occupants, are injured within built-up areas. The same is not true for drivers of four-wheelers. Injury patterns are distributed in the same way as for car occupants between built-up and non built-up areas. Killed and severely injured motorcyclists are overrepresented in accidents at intersections when compared to occupants of passenger cars. The opposite is true for injured four-wheeler drivers who are overrepresented on road sections. The exposure of motorcycle traffic on different parts of the road network is largely unknown. It is therefore, in general, not possible to calculate injury risks. However, when compared to other roads, there seems to be an increased risk of being killed or severely injured on roads with a 70 km/h speed limit.

  • 18.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utlandsföddas trafiksäkerhet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish traffic accident statistics have previously shown that involvement in accidents differs for people born in Sweden and people born abroad. The main aim of this report is to further illuminate this area through the use of four different studies. The introductory study is a literature review examining ethnicity and different aspects of traffic safety, focussing primarily on speed, accidents, use of seatbelts, alcohol and vulnerable road users. The term ethnicity was defined in different ways in the literature, if it was defined at all, and the term ethnic minorities was used as a collective term. The ways those terms are used complicate comparisons. Nevertheless, certain conclusions could be drawn. For example, the traffic behaviour of immigrants bore the imprint of the traffic norms prevalent in the country in which they grew up. Cultural values, the importance of language and socio-economical factors are dimensions of interest with regard to measures that can improve the traffic safety of immigrants living in Sweden. The second study identified the risk of a traffic accident for people who are born abroad but registered residents of Sweden. The results show that if the population is divided into nine zones, based on the country of birth, there are groups both with a higher risk of accidents than the Swedish-born and groups with a lower risk. Thus, immigrants should not be viewed as a homogeneous group. Furthermore, large parts of the differences can be explained by exposure, education, age and gender, through the use of logistical regression. In the third study a survey based on an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict the intention to speed, use seatbelt and use child restraints. The results show that previous behaviour and the perception of how others behave in traffic were the variables that best explained the intent to break speed regulations. This survey also indicates differences between groups, where the intent to use the seatbelt and protect children in the car was lower amongst some of the immigrants, while the intent to respect the speed limit was lower among the Swedish-born. The results of the survey could thus not unequivocally explain why certain groups identified by the accident analysis ran greater risks. In the fourth study interviews were carried out with seven men born in Iran but residing in Sweden. The subjects discussed were driving, speeding, alcohol and seatbelt use. The results showed that they experienced cultural differences in attitudes and behaviour in traffic, but that these differences gradually faded away. They showed zero tolerance when it came to drinking and driving. However, when it came to speeding and the use of seatbelts this was seen as unacceptable only in some contexts. Based on the compiled results recommendations are given, detailing specific actions that may increase the level of traffic safety among immigrants living in Sweden.

  • 19.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Unga mopedisters olycksinblandning: orsaker och konsekvenser2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study is to increase knowledge about the processes leading to accidents. This was done with a knowledge review, an in-depth study of moped crashes with serious injuries and an analysis of teenagers’ discussions on the internet about moped riding. Moped accidents are most common among young men. A number of different contributing factors have been identified as important for the possibilities to drive safely and avoid accidents. In addition to skills to maneuver the moped in traffic, other aspects important for motivation and choices before and during driving are presented. This may for example be age, sex, personality, group affiliation, socio economic standing and brain maturation. The statistics on moped sales show that fewer and fewer mopeds are sold in Sweden. The reduction in sales of class I is largest. There are several possible reasons for this, such as new rules for licensing or low economic growth. The reduction is also reflected in a reduction of the number of accident and injured persons over time. The domination by accidents involving 15-year-olds are also decreasing. From the interviews, it is obvious that riding moped in gangs is something that mainly boys are doing. Riding in gangs is also age related since when they are continuing to the gymnasium (high school), other interests than moped riding are taking over, occupying evenings and weekends. From the Internet analysis, it is clear that young people are discussing mopeds and moped riding in many different forums. The topics are spare parts, technical matters, tuning, speeding, helmet use, police chases etc. The discussions may be regarded as a basis for the development of role models and ideal for different subcultures within the moped world. Measures were discussed in the areas of police, rules and regulations, age limits, technical aspects, insurance, education, parental engagement, information campaigns, internet, vehicle classifications, infrastructure and future technical support systems.

  • 20.
    Hendricks, PJ
    et al.
    CSIR Transportek, South Africa.
    Ribbens, H
    CSIR Transportek, South Africa.
    Road safety development in South Africa2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, p. 5--23Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Howard, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Review of Swedish experiences concerning analysis of people injured in traffic accidents2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a review of Swedish experiences concerning the national road traffic accident information system STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition). STRADA contains information on accidents occurring in the Swedish road transport system as reported by the police, and medical data on persons injured as reported by the hospitals. By combining data from two sources, the STRADA system can provide more comprehensive information on both the circumstances and the consequences of road traffic accidents. The aim was to provide a review of accident and injury data in STRADA, including methods for collecting, sharing and analyzing the data. The primary focus is on the injury data provided by the hospitals and how these can be used in conjunction with police data. The main results provided in this report are descriptions of how the STRADA database is structured and what data are available, how the police and hospitals collect data, and how the data are made available to various stakeholders. The report describes the organizations involved in maintaining and developing the STRADA system and a number of examples of how hospital data has been used in various projects are also provided. Information about STRADA was compiled mainly from material provided by the responsible authority – The Swedish Transport Agency. In addition, a literature review was performed in order to identify examples of how hospital data has been used in different projects. The report was commissioned by the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI).

  • 22.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kollisioner och olyckor med rådjur i Sverige under 10 år (2003–2012): variation i tid, geografi och kostnader2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal for this project was to create a 10-year overview of the number of deer collisions in Sweden and accidents variation in time, geography and cost, both in terms of property damage and personal injuries. Accident statistics were gathered from NVR (National Wildlife Accident Council, data on collisions), Strada (fatalities and injuries in Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and Ofelia (collisions at railway). The results show that the number of deer collisions has increased over the 10-year period and that the increase has been much greater in the northernmost counties and Gotland. The number of deer collisions is higher during the early summer (May–June) and winter (October–December), whereas the number of fatalities and injury accidents is highest during the summer. The number of deer collisions varies during the day, but most accidents occur in the morning and evening for both property damage and personal injury accidents. For fatalities in accidents with roe deer, there are more than twice as many compared to the officially reported numbers, and the number of serious injuries is 177% higher than the official records. It is likely that the official statistics are also underestimating the number of fatalities and injuries from wildlife accidents caused by moose, deer and wild boar. This study shows that the total cost of roe deer collisions and accidents in 2012 exceeds 1 billion SEK, of which approximately 70% account for the cost of property damage.

  • 23.
    Karyd, Arne
    Linköpings universitet.
    Sweden's Vision Zero - the least mourned traffic casualty2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:3, p. 17-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the creation and end of Vision Zero, the Swedish traffic safety policy. It explores whether or not this concept, and others like it, are useful in improving highway safety.

  • 24.
    King, Julie A
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology.
    King, Mark J
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Linking the fifth pillar to the first in the UN decade of action2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN Decade of Action outlines five pillars of activity within a safe system framework to achieve the goal of slowing and then reversing the global growth in road traffic fatalities, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. The first four pillars - road safety management, safer roads and mobility, safer vehicles, and safer road users – have a strong focus on prevention of road traffic crashes and mitigation of energy exchange when a crash occurs. The fifth pillar – post-crash response – is far more specific, focusing only on crash victims in the event of a safe system failure. The victims appear to be relevant to the first four pillars only insofar as their numbers can be used to evaluate the success of road safety programs and identify the target groups and contributing factors. This paper argues that a better understanding of the lived experience of long term disability from traffic crashes has the potential to provide a feedback loop from the fifth pillar to the first. Research conducted in Thailand with male crash victims with spinal injury demonstrates that patterns of attribution and social and cultural factors have important implications for road safety management and for interventions aimed at influencing behaviour. In addition, the mobility constraints experienced by people with long term disability can point to systemic issues that might otherwise go unnoticed. The UN Decade of Action can benefit from a more thorough exploration of the experiences and circumstances of people with long term disability as the result of a road traffic crash. Rather than being evidence of the failure of the safe system, they can inform the development of more effective road safety management on low-income and middle-income countries.

  • 25.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Åtgärder mot trafikfarlig användning av kommunikationsutrustning under körning: en verktygslåda2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving, while at the same time preserve the positive effects. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas and are intended to function as alternatives to banning device usage. One is technical solutions, including countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. Another area includes education and information and describes different ways to increase knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, there are different possibilities for how society can influence the behaviour of individuals, both via bans, recommendations and incentives. We want to point out that the usage of communication devices while driving has both advantages and disadvantages. How to deal with device usage is a complex problem, and it is unlikely that one single countermeasure can provide a complete solution. One countermeasure may even depend on the implementation of others. The exact effect of most countermeasures is hard to predict, and possible side effects may occur. It is therefore necessary to be pragmatic, meaning that countermeasures whose advantages outweigh their disadvantages should be implemented. Also, different countermeasures can reinforce each other which may attenuate negative side effects.

  • 26.
    Kjeldgard, Linnea
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ohlin, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Elrud, Rasmus
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stigson, Helena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Friberg, Emilie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bicycle crashes and sickness absence: a population-based Swedish register study of all individuals of working ages2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In recent years, bicycle injuries have increased, yet little is known about the impact of such injures on sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP). The aim was to explore SA and DP among individuals of working ages injured in a bicycle crash.

    Method A nationwide register-based study, including all individuals aged 16-64years and living in Sweden, who in 2010 had in- or specialized out-patient healthcare (including emergency units) after a bicycle crash. Information on age, sex, sociodemographics, SA, DP, crash type, injury type, and injured body region was used. We analyzed individuals with no SA or DP, with ongoing SA or full-time DP already at the time of the crash, and with new SA >14days in connection to the crash. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals for new SA were estimated by logistic regression.

    Results In total, 7643 individuals had healthcare due to a new bicycle crash (of which 85% were single-bicycle crashes). Among all, 10% were already on SA or full-time DP at the time of the crash, while 18% had a new SA spell. The most common types of injuries were external injuries (38%) and fractures (37%). The body region most frequently injured was the upper extremities (43%). Women had higher OR (1.40; 1.23-1.58) for new SA than men, as did older individuals compared with younger (OR 2.50; 2.02-3.09, for ages: 55-64 vs. 25-34). The injury types with the highest ORs for new SA, compared with the reference group external injuries was fractures (8.04; 6.62-9.77) and internal injuries (7.34; 3.67-14.66). Individuals with traumatic brain injury and injuries to the vertebral column and spinal cord had higher ORs for SA compared with other head, face, and neck injuries (2.72; 1.19-6.22 and 3.53; 2.24-5.55, respectively).

    Conclusions In this explorative nationwide study of new bicycle crashes among individuals of working ages, 18% had a new SA spell in connection to the crash while 10% were already on SA or DP. The ORs for new SA were higher among women, older individuals, and among individuals with a fracture.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cykelhjälmsanvändning i Sverige 1988–2013: resultat från VTI:s senaste observationsstudie2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1988 VTI has performed annual observation studies of cyclists’ helmet wearing habits in 21 towns in Sweden. Below is a summary of the observations conducted in 2013 on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration. The 2013 study, in line with previous studies, focused on four main categories of cyclists: • Children (0–10 years) who cycle in their spare time in residential areas. • Children (6–15 years) who cycle to/from their primary or secondary school. • Adults (≥ 16 years) who cycle to/from work. • Adults (≥ 16 years) and children who cycle on cycle routes.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Olyckstypsklassificering: jämförelser i tid och rum2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis SIKA, VTI has written a historic account of accident type classification in Sweden, and made a review of international recommendations and of the way in which a number of neighbouring countries perform their accident type classification. The retrospective review in Sweden extends to 1966 when the Swedish Council on Road Safety Research drew up a classification system. It was based on the situations and manoeuvres that preceded the accident and was thus a causal system. The system was however more detailed than the accident types which were presented in the official statistics. Over the years, minor changes were made to the accident types, certain events or conflicts were assigned to different accident types, as in the case of e.g. U turns, and accidents involving wildlife were made a separate accident type. Over many years, accident type classification was carried on by both the Swedish National Road Administration (VV) and Statistics Sweden SCB, but after 1994, when VV took charge of accident classification for the entire Swedish road network, the police in 1997 stopped direct reporting to SCB of road traffic accidents involving personal injury. VV was thus the only body that was responsible for accident type classification, and for some there had been a progressive increase in the automatic classification of accidents. When STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) was introduced in 2003, accident types were given a consequence orientation (the way damage and/or injuries occurred). A few new accident types were introduced, but the names of the previous types were retained in spite of the fact that they no longer describe the same things as before.

  • 29.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skador i trafikolyckor med buss åren 2003-2006: särskilt barns skolresor2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the (lack of) safety associated with school children's journeys to/from the school has attracted attention. In this project, an analysis has been made of bus related accidents during the period of 2003-2006, with the aim of acquiring a better insight into accidents sustained by children during journeys by bus, chiefly during school hours. A comparison has also been made with the outcome at other times and for other age groups. This is expected to provide further opportunities for assessing how the measures proposed for improving children's road safety may also affect journeys both during and outside school hours. Every year, on average, three children aged 6-16 are killed in conjunction with journeys by bus over the whole service day. At the time of the accident they are usually pedestrians on the way to/from the bus. Most of the injuries to those in the 6-16 age group (two thirds) occurred during school hours. When only injuries during school hours are studied, it is found that about one half of those injured were bus passengers. However, among the most severe injuries (including fatalities) it is pedestrians who dominate, 69%. It may be pointed out by way of comparison that, during the same hours, almost 77% of those killed or severely injured in bus related accidents in the 25-64 age group were either bus passengers or passenger car occupants.

  • 30.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafikskador 1998-2005 enligt patientstatistik2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been known for a long time that many traffic accidents are not known to the police, but are dealt with by the health service. Because of this, the official statistics concerning persons injured in traffic, which are based on accidents known to the police, are misleading. In this study, data from the hospital records of the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare concerning treatment events terminated during the period 1998-2005 were therefore examined. On average, more than 12,100 people were annually treated in hospital because of road traffic accidents over the period 1998-2005. The level is slightly higher in the years after the turn of the century.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafikolyckor i Sverige: skattningar av bortfallsfaktorer via STRADA2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the national economic valuation of road accidents which the Swedish Road Administration uses, both the number of seriously and slightly injured persons, known to the police, is adjusted with the same nonresponse factor (expansion factor) of 2.4. This applies regardless of the type of environment (rural or built-up area), road type and accident type/road user category. It therefore appears necessary to examine how reasonable this expansion factor is at present. In the project, a review has been made of how the reporting of road injuries to the police (police-STRADA) and to the hospitals (hospital-STRADA) differ with respect to degree of injury, accident type/road user category and type of environment. This was done with the help of accident data for 2003-2005 in some counties/ municipalities where, in principle, all accident & emergency hospitals were members of STRADA, an information system for data concerning accidents and injuries in the road transport sector. The study comprises a total of 55,578 injury accidents (including "pedestrian-single"), reported by the police and/or an emergency hospital. If pedestrian-single accidents are excluded, there remain 46,444 injury accidents. Of these, 11,399 (24.5%) were reported only to the police and 24,631 (53%) only to a hospital, while 10,414 (22.4%) were reported to both.

  • 32.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sun, Yilin
    KTH.
    Chen, Yuan
    Zhejiang University.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH.
    The effect of residential housing policy on car ownership and trip chaining behaviour in Hangzhou, China2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 62, p. 125-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China has recently initialised affordable housing policies to provide low rent housings for medium and low income households aiming to satisfy the growing demand in the housing market. The travel behaviour of residents in these two different types of housing is likely to differ, since public housing tenants have a limited choice of residential location, as the location of low-rent housing is fixed, while residents in commodity housing are able to take their travel patterns into account in choosing their housing location. Therefore, this paper investigates the differences in car ownership and trip chaining behaviour arising from living in different types of residential housing. The self-selection bias caused by the differences in the observed individual and household characteristics is partially controlled by a propensity score matching approach. The study further considers the endogenous effect of car ownership on travel chaining behaviour, thus controlling for the self-selection bias at car ownership level. The results show that residents in private commodity housing are more likely to own a car than those in low-rent housing with similar individual and household characteristics. Different life cycle stages play a vital role in car ownership after self-selection in residential housing has been taken into account. Living in private commodity housing has a direct negative effect on trip chaining complexity, after controlling for endogenous car ownership, although this effect is offset by the tendency for private commodity housing owners to do complex trip chaining because they have one or more cars.

  • 33.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Gillberg, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Fatigue at sea: a field study in Swedish shipping2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to collect data about the fatigue level of bridge watch keepers to use for revising earlier sleep models, and devise innovative solutions for the shipping industry. Data collection included interviews with shipping companies and a field study onboard 13 cargo vessels. 32 participants took part in representing two watch systems; 2-watch and 3-watch. Subjective sleepiness and stress estimations were performed once every hour. Electrooculography was used to record eye movement behaviour. Reaction time test was made to examine performance. 3-watch participants are more satisfied with their working hours and working situation. Tendencies indicate that 2-watch participants are a bit more tired, whereas the stress is the same. All are less sleepy and less stressed at home. Time on shift had effect on sleepiness. The highest Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores were recorded in the late night and early morning. After night shift the reaction times have higher variance and more long reaction times are present. The mean value after night shift was significantly higher than after day shift. All thirteen shipping agreed that officers on the bridge always have tasks sensitive to fatigue but no company experienced fatigue as a problem during normal conditions. All were positive to monitoring devices, mentioning safety matters.

  • 34.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Statistik över cyklisters olyckor: faktaunderlag till gemensam strategi för säker cykling2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 153 cyclists were killed between 2007 and 2012, while more than 44,000 were so badly injured that they were admitted to A&E departments. 8,400 of the injured cyclists were seriously injured and 1,100 very seriously injured. Half the serious injuries are injuries to the arms and shoulders. About 90% of all cycling accidents in which cyclists are seriously injured happen in urban areas. Eight of every ten cyclists seriously injured sustained their injuries in single-bicycle accidents, and just over one-tenth in bicycle-motor vehicle accidents. The majority, 69%, of cyclists killed, lost their lives in collisions with motor vehicles, usually cars. Given what are judged to be the underlying causes of bicycle accidents, improved ice removal and winter tyres for bikes are considered to be the measures with the biggest potential for reducing the number of cyclists seriously injured, as well as the use of a cycle helmet and a protective jacket and trousers. Other important accident prevention measures are the removal of loose grit, good surface maintenance and adjusted kerbstones, followed by segregated cycle paths, safe bicycle crossings/overpasses and the removing of fixed objects on and beside the cycle path. Many serious injuries to cyclists can also be avoided by remedy deficiencies on the bicycle or its equipment. The most important measures for reducing the number of cyclist fatalities are increased helmet use and the prevention of collisions with motor vehicles or a reduction of the violence of such collisions by means of segregation, safe bicycle crossings/overpasses, emergency brakes and/or an external air bag on cars, and, for lorries, a warning system alerting drivers to the presence of cyclists in the “dead angle”. The analyses presented in this report were undertaken on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration, and forms part of the work to devise a policy strategy for safe cycling.

  • 35.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Cykelfaktorer som påverkar huvudskador: simulerade omkullkörningar med cykel i VTI:s krocksäkerhetslaboratorium2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, single bicycle crashes have been simulated in the VTI crash safety laboratory. Crash tests including bicycles are scarce and when performed they usually simulate collisions with motor vehicles, although earlier studies have shown that cyclists are more frequently injured in single bicycle crashes. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of bicycle design and speed on the head impact when suffering from a single bicycle crash, and the possibility to study this using crash tests. In order to do that, two bicycle crash scenarios were simulated: “a sudden stop” and “sideways dislocation of the front wheel”; using four different bicycle types: a “lady’s bicycle”, a commuter bicycle, a recumbent and a pedelec; at two speeds: 15 and 25 kilometer per hour. In addition, sideway falls were performed with a bicycle standing still. All tests were done with a Hybrid II 50 percentile crash test dummy, with acceleration measurements in the head, placed in the saddle of the bicycles.

  • 36.
    Ohlin, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Alguren, Beatrix
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lie, Anders
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Analysis of bicycle crashes in Sweden involving injuries with high risk of health loss2019In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objectives of the present article were to (a) describe the main characteristics of bicycle crashes with regard to the road environment, crash opponent, cyclist, and crash dynamics; (b) compare individuals who describe their health after the crash as declined with those who describe their health as not affected; and (c) compare the number of injured cyclists who describe their health as declined after the crash with the predicted number of permanent medical impairments within the same population.

    Methods: A sample of individuals with specific injury diagnoses was drawn from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA) database (n = 2,678). A survey form was used to collect additional information about the crash and the health-related outcomes. The predicted number of impaired individuals was calculated by accumulating the risk for all individuals to sustain at least a 1% permanent medical impairment, based on the injured body region and injury severity.

    Results: Nine hundred forty-seven individuals (36%) responded, of whom 44% reported declined health after the crash. The majority (68%) were injured in single bicycle crashes, 17% in collisions with motor vehicles, and 11% in collisions with another cyclist or pedestrian. Most single bicycle crashes related to loss of control (46%), mainly due to skidding on winter surface conditions (14%), followed by loss of control during braking (6%). There was no significant difference in crash distribution comparing all crashes with crashes among people with declined health. The predicted number of impaired individuals (n = 427) corresponded well with the number of individuals self-reporting declined health (n = 421).

    Conclusions: The types of crashes leading to health loss do not substantially differ from those that do not result in health loss. Two thirds of injuries leading to health loss occur in single bicycle crashes. In addition to separating cyclists from motorized traffic, other preventive strategies are needed.

  • 37.
    Oxley, Jennie
    et al.
    Monash University.
    O’Hern, Steve
    Monash University.
    Burtt, Duane
    Victoria Walks.
    Rossiter, Ben
    Victoria Walks.
    Falling while walking: a hidden contributor to pedestrian injury2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking is a sustainable mode of transportation which is beneficial to both individuals and to the broader community, however, there are risks and it is essential that road design and operation provides safe conditions for walking. In Victoria, pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road user groups, accounting for approximately 12 percent of all road fatalities and serious injuries. These figures largely represent injuries where the pedestrian has been struck by a vehicle with the extent of pedestrian-only injuries largely un-reported.

    Falling while walking may be a significant contributor to pedestrian only injuries. Indeed, the World Health Organisation has identified falls generally as the second leading cause of unintentional injury death in older populations. Despite the prevalence of fall-related injuries, there has been relatively little research undertaken to address the issues surrounding falls that occur while walking for transport and in public spaces. This study, therefore, aimed to address this gap in our knowledge.

    Analyses of various data sources were undertaken to enhance our understanding of fall-related injuries while walking in Victoria. Two sources of data were accessed:

    • Hospital data: Victorian Injury Surveillance Unit (VISU) Data (5-years between 2009 and 2014)
    • Crash data: Victorian Police Report Crash Data (Crash Stats) (5 years between 2008 and 2013)

    Only 85 fall-related incidents were reported in the crash-based data, however, pedestrian falls while walking in the road environment accounted for an average of 1,680 hospital admissions and 3,545 emergency department presentations each year, and this number is rising.

    The findings in this study show clearly that Police data is of little use when attempting to understand issues of safe travel for pedestrians other than vehicle-pedestrian incidents. However, analysis of hospital data provides a more realistic indication of the extent of pedestrian fall-related injuries and highlights the significant number of pedestrian fall-related injuries that occur each year. Moreover, the findings identified that older pedestrians are significantly over-represented amongst fall-related injuries that require hospital admission, while also having the highest rate of emergency department presentations when adjusting for age. The study also highlighted that the most common injury sustained from a fall were fractures.

    The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of enhancements to the physical environment (particularly footpath, kerb and ramp construction and maintenance), implementation of fall hazard assessment and management strategies, and educational programs to highlight the risks for falls and recommend preventative strategies, and overall enhancements of general fall interventions to include falls while walking outside (including exercise interventions).

  • 38.
    Schepers, Paul
    et al.
    Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Agerholm, Niels
    Aalborg University.
    Amoros, Emmanuelle
    IFSTTAR, Université de Lyon.
    Benington, Rob
    Public Health (Bristol).
    Bjørnskau, Torkel
    TØI Institute of Transport Economic.
    Dhondt, S.
    de Geus, Bas
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Hagemeister, Carmen
    Technische Universität Dresden.
    Loo, Becky P. Y.
    University of Hong Kong.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share2015In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, no E1, p. e138-e143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. A literature search identified figures (largely from western countries) on SBC casualties who are fatally injured, hospitalised or treated at an emergency department. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate how bicycle modal share is related to SBCs.

    On average, 17% of fatal injuries to cyclists are caused by SBCs. Different countries show a range of values between 5% and 30%. Between 60% and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospitals or treated at emergency departments are victims of SBCs. The proportion of all injured cyclists who are injured in SBCs is unrelated to the share of cycling in the modal split. The share of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result from SBCs. As found in previous studies of cyclists injured in collisions, this study found that the increase in the number of SBC casualties is proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share.

  • 39.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Taillard, Jacques
    Universite de Bordeux.
    Philip, Pierre
    Universite de Bordeux.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: Popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness2012In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 595-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n=8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  • 40.
    Siegrist, Stefan
    Swiss Council for Accident Prevention.
    Forecasting the public health effect of a national road safety programme2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common understanding of evidence-based policy is that any new measures should have been proven to be effective. At best, these kinds of methodologically sound evaluation studies show the effect of a measure in a given situation. The results are then an essential basis for the design of a broader safety policy. However, at present there is generally little understanding of the effect of the measure in another situation, or of how it would interact with other measures in a programme. Yet, it is precisely such questions that need to be answered if the requirements of policy makers are to be met. Politicians need to be able to estimate whether the expected benefits of a programme justify the investment. Therefore, evidence-based road safety policy should not rely solely on evaluation studies of single measures and ex-post assessments of safety programmes. The method outlined here is for the ex-ante estimation of the potential of a road safety programme in reducing the number of severe and fatal injuries, i.e. the most relevant indicator from a public health point of view. Results of a case study show that the potential of the Swiss road safety programme VIA SICURA is 1/3 of fatalities and ¼ of severe injuries referring to 2010.

  • 41.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Exploring the organisational preconditions for occupational accidents in food industry: A qualitative approach2007In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 355-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuing high frequency of occupational accidents in the Swedish food industry calls for new approaches to better understand the underlying factors. In the present study, 54 accidents involving hand injuries were investigated from the operators' perspective, to explore the organisational preconditions. In-depth interviews were conducted with operators and their supervisors, and 24 of these interviews were analysed using the grounded theory method. The core category 'safety as a process' was identified encompassing the perception of the process of the accident at operative level and organisational preconditions that increased the risk of occupational accidents. These preconditions were open factors: deficiencies in technical/physical environment and work organisation; and concealed factors: insufficient communication and learning, a high level of responsibility in combination with low control, conflicting goals and a gap between procedures and practice. These preconditions lead to risk acceptance, resignation towards improved safety and normalisation of risk. Through the analysis a five-step hypothesis was empirically generated. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42. Sundström, Kristian
    et al.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swedish consumers' willingness to pay for food safety: a contingent valuation study on salmonella risk2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper examines the value to Swedish citizens of reducing the risk for salmonella bacteria in chicken filet. The contingent valuation (CV) study is based on the results of a postal questionnaire that was distributed to 2 000 randomly selected Swedish citizens aged 18-74. The valuation format used is a stated preference double bounded dichotomous choice. We employ the non-parametric Turnbull Lower Bound method in combination with Monte Carlo simulations to obtain lower bound estimates of the mean and median values of expected willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing the risk for salmonellosis, as well as values of a statistical case (VSC) and a statistical life (VSL). We find a VSC of between SEK 121 045 (110 297-131 814) and SEK 182 966 (167 915-197 896) depending on the format used (values in parentheses constitute a 90 percent confidence interval). VSL values of SEK 13.3 million and 48.3 million are estimated using different formats, but neither estimation is statistically significant. Since this is the first Swedish study on WTP for food safety, mean and median values of VSL and VSC cannot be directly compared with previous results, but the values obtained are in line with comparable Swedish studies on WTP for traffic safety as well as with international studies related to food safety. We do not find any strong linkage between WTP and income, age or gender. Scale sensitivity seems to depend on which model is chosen, while household size, risk perception ability and perceived Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY:s) lost seem to be strong predictors of WTP.

  • 43.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30 years2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilised the Swedish national travel survey covering a period of over 30 years. We investigated the long-term trends in activity-travel patterns of individuals in different life-cycle stages and generations using cohort analysis and a path model. The main findings are summarised as follows. The women, including mothers, in younger generations have become more active in out-of-home non-work activities and their trip chaining has become more complex, compared to their male counterparts. While men are still driving more than women, the gap is decreasing in the younger generations. The gender difference among teenagers in terms of out-of-home time use diminishes in younger generations. Teenagers of younger generations spend more of their leisure time inside their homes, possibly due to the rise of online activities and gaming and more time-consuming school trips, the latter attributed to changes in school choice policy. Older adults travel more, possibly due to better paratransit transport service, supported by better health services.

  • 44.
    Tarko, Andrew
    et al.
    Purdue University.
    Romero, Mario
    Purdue University.
    Li, Mingyang
    Purdue University.
    Thomaz, Jose
    Purdue University.
    Shafiul, Azam
    Purdue University.
    SNIP2 - A tool for developing a strategic safety improvement plan by multiple agencies2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method of systematic evaluation of road safety needs – the Safety Needs Identification Package (SNIP) and a concept called SNIP2 – an expansion that can match identified safety needs with safety interventions at the regional and city levels. SNIP and SNIP2 can be used by agencies involved in safety planning and management.

    This paper presents the SNIP concept and its implementation for safety planning on Indiana roads. SNIP utilizes GIS road and crash databases to help identify road locations that experience safety problems such as night crashes, right-angle crashes at signalized intersections, etc. It can also be applied to user-related safety needs such as drunken driving, motorcycle crashes, speeding, or young driver safety.

    SNIP2 involves two new key components: (1) a catalog of safety improvement programs and (2) a safety improvement program builder that identifies the most cost-effective safety improvement programs to address the safety needs identified with SNIP. The novelty of the proposed approach is in developing the safety improvement plan based on specific needs already identified for various locations, thereby providing a realistic approach to safety planning. The known safety effectiveness of the considered safety improvement programs and their unit costs allow planners to control the level of spending.

    To make the optimization problem tractable for large regions with multiple alternative safety interventions, an approximate greedy search is applied to the knapsack problem to optimize recurring annualized benefits and costs. This simplified approach fits well the long-term transportation planning where a long-term “static” solution is sough while providing identification of focus areas more realistic than the current practice of developing strategic safety plans.

    The paper presents the details of the catalog of safety improvements preliminarily developed for Indiana and formulation of the optimization program for selecting improvement programs. It discusses the implementation issues and the expected benefits from coordinating the development of the strategic safety plans by state agencies.

  • 45.
    Thulin, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafikolyckor och alkohol baserat på officiell statistik1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt den officiella statistiken var är 1989 6-7 % av de olycksinblandade fordonsförarna misstänkt alkoholpåverkade vid olyckstillfället. Denna andel var ungefär lika stor för personbilsförare, motorcyklister och mopedister. Bland de motorfordonsförare som var inblandade i dödsolyckor detta år var enligt den officiella statistiken 10 % misstänkt alkoholpåverkade.

    Procentandelen misstänkt alkoholpåverkade är enligt den officiella statistiken olika stor för olika åldersgrupper. Betydligt större för de yngre åldersgrupperna än för de äldsta. Sålunda var 8-9 % av de olycksdelaktiga personbilsförarna i åldersgrupperna upp till 35 är misstänkt alkoholpåverkade vid olyckstillfället. Tar man hänsyn till tid på dygnet exempelvis tiden mellan klockan 24 och 4 på natten blir motsvarande andel så hög som 35 % för dessa grupper.

    Den officiella statistiken underskattar emellertid av olika skäl antalet alkoholrelaterade trafikolyckor. Hur stort detta bortfall är och vilken karaktär det har man flyktiga kunskaper om.

    Olika undersökningsresultat antyder emellertid att bortfallet är betydande. En undersökning som TSV redovisade sommaren -91 visade att 30 % av bilförarna som omkommit i trafikolyckor varit alkoholpåverkade- ca 55 % i singelolyckor och ca 11 % i flerfordonsolyckor. En undersökning som redovisades av rättsläkare i Umeå under hösten -91 visade att nära 60 % av bilförare omkomna i singelolyckor varit alkoholpåverkade.

    I föreliggande undersökning som bekostats av NTF görs en särskild bearbetning av den officiella statistiken. Syftet är att skapa ett underlag för att bedöma hur stort antalet skadade och dödade i alkoholrelaterade trafikolyckor är i den officiella statistiken.

  • 46.
    Thulin, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    TEMA Cykel - skadade cyklister: analys baserad på sjukvårdsregistrerade skadade i STRADA2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to describe the accident and injury situations associated with cyclists. The study was based on information obtained from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition), including the descriptions and details of the events leading up to the accidents. Travel data from the Swedish national travel survey was also utilised, enabling the risk situation for cyclists to be assessed. The most common accidents among cyclists were single accidents, accounting for 72% of all cyclists injured. Next most common, with 17%, were accidents involving motor vehicles, followed by accidents between cyclists, with 8%. The biggest influencing factor in the cause of single accidents was slippery surfaces, stated as a contributory cause in 23% of the accidents. Snow and ice were the main causes but loose grit, from winter maintenance, was also frequently given as a reason. Kerbstone edging, uneven road surfaces, collisions with temporary or permanent objects were also stated as the cause of many single accidents. Alcohol influence was another common contributory cause. The risk of being injured as a cyclist in traffic was as likely for both male and female genders. The highest risk groups were those of the young and the elderly.

  • 47.
    Törner, Marianne
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Eklöf, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Pousette, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Stave, Christina
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Högre säkerhet i livsmedelsindustrin: Ett interventionsprojekt för bättre säkerhetsklimat2011Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Utvärdering av ändrade hastighetsgränser: långtidseffekter på trafiksäkerhet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has since 2008 undertaken to review speed limits on the national road network. The aim of this study is predominantly to describe and analyse the long-term traffic safety effect of increased, as well as, reduced speed limits. The evaluation is based on accident rates from the accident data base Strada (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) combined with information on roads from National Road database, NVDB. The present study is a before and after study with control group where the change in accident and injury outcome on roads with new speed limits is compared with the corresponding change in the control group. Results show an extensive reduction in fatalities on rural roads with reduced speed limit from 90 to 80 km/h where the number of fatalities decreased by 14 per year, while no significant changes were seen for the seriously injured. On motorways with an increased speed limit to 120 km/h, the number of seriously injured increased by about 15 per year, but the number of deaths is in principle unchanged. The number of seriously injured increased on all types of motorways, but the worst development was seen for narrow motorways (21.5 m wide). For 2 + 1 roads with decreased speed limit from 110 to 100 km/h, the injury accidents decreased by about 10 per year and the seriously injured decreased by about 16 per year. On 2 + 1 roads with increased speed limit from 90 to 100 km/h, the number of injury accidents increased by about 19 per year. In conclusion, the results show that in total about 17 lives per year have been saved on the road network with changed speed limits. The number of seriously injured remain in principle unchanged.

  • 49.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Barn i bil: studie av dödsolyckorna 19961997Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Wessel, J
    et al.
    Free university of Berlin, Germany.
    Schneider, V
    Free university of Berlin, Germany.
    Mortality rates of motorcyclists compared with car occupants: a comparison between East and West Germany for 1980 - 19982001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 196-208Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A tragic consequence of the reunification of Germany in 1989 was the increasein traffic related fatalities. This paper addresses motorcycle accidents inGermany before and after the reunification. Several sources of statisticswere used in order to get a database for further analysis. Comparisons aremade with car accidents and fatalities of vehicle occupants. Considerabledifferences are found for the period before 1989. After the reunificationaccident rates for the former German Democratic Republic increases with anenormous rate. The author discusses possible explanations to this phenomenon.In general, it is concluded, that a sudden push in motorisation with thepresence of vehicles with more powerful engines together with inexperienceddrivers and a less developed road network led to this increase in fatalities.For the western part of Germany there seems to be no effect at all of thereunification process when it comes to traffic related accidents.

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