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  • 1.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ecodriving på SJ: förarperspektiv på tekniska hjälpmedel för beslutsfattande och utbildning i Ecodriving2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att samtliga resor med SJs tåg i Sverige är märkta med Bra Miljöval skärps kraven på minskade utsläpp och energianvändning efter hand, varför SJ ständigt måste utveckla sin miljöprofil. På SJ har man därför arbetat fram en utbildning i energieffektiv körning (Ecodriving) samt låtit vissa av sina förare använda ett tekniskt hjälpmedel som stödjer detta, för att påvisa möjligheten till energibesparingar. Denna rapport tar upp två studier vilka är SJs försöksverksamhet inklusive en kritisk granskning av denna samt en kompletterande studie i form av observationer av utbildning i Ecodriving och intervjuer med förare. Resultaten av SJs försöksverksamhet är värdefulla och talar för att energibesparingar är genomförbara. Samtidigt så finns det en hel del osäkerhet i de energimätningsdata som samlats in varför det är svårt att dra några definitiva slutsatser. Resultatet av intervjuerna med förarna talar för att det finns en hel del oklarheter kring vilka risker och konsekvenser ett framtida införande av det tekniska hjälpmedlet för Ecodriving faktiskt innebär. Sammantaget finns anledning att genomföra fortsatta studier av hur man på bästa sätt kan införa energieffektiv körning av spårtrafik i sin helhet.

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  • 2.
    Abou-Senna, Hatem
    et al.
    University of Central Florida, Orlando.
    Radwan, Essam
    University of Central Florida, Orlando.
    Mohamed, Ayman
    University of Central Florida, Orlando.
    A methodology to quantify pedestrian crash rates against statewide averages for roadways and intersections2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To date there are no clear or uniform standards for a method to measure pedestrian crash rates and compare it against a statewide average. In this paper, a novel methodology to measure pedestrian crash rates along roadways and intersections were quantified. The main objective is to identify critical pedestrian crash locations that are operating above its corresponding statewide average.  It was crucial to address the pedestrian-vehicular conflict as the State of Florida currently tops the list in the “Dangerous by Design” report as having the highest four pedestrian incident locations in the Country. The main challenge was to identify a practical and correct exposure measure. In most cases, the exposure measure is either unavailable or can be obtained at a greater cost. The methods and procedures explained in this paper are considered detailed, practical and provide a broad depiction of the main factors that directly contribute to pedestrian crashes. The main parameters used in calculating pedestrian crash rates along roadways included functional classification, number of lanes, area type, AADT and the total length of the roadway category. Conversely, main parameters for computing pedestrian crash rates for intersections included daily pedestrian volumes, distance crossed and the AADT in addition to the number of pedestrian crashes either along the studied roadways or intersections. The pilot studies conducted for the roadways and intersections revealed several critical safety locations within District 5 when compared to the developed statewide average rates which required further investigation to identify main causes and emphasize mitigation improvements.

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  • 3.
    Adesiyun, Adewole
    et al.
    FEHRL, Brussels.
    Erdelean, Isabela
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Vienna.
    Hedhli, Abdelmename
    IFSTTAR, Marne la Vallée, France.
    Lamb, Martin
    Maple Consulting, Caerphilly, Wales.
    Ponweiser, Wolfgang
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Vienna.
    Strand, Niklas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Zofka, Ewa
    Erica Consulting, Warsaw, Poland.
    Overview of connected and automated driving test sites2020Ingår i: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, s. 7-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated vehicles potentially offer solutions to some key challenges for National Road Administrations (NRAs), such as reduction of accidents, increasing network capacity etc. As a result of this potential, both industry and certain national governments are undertaking trials that are mainly focused on technological challenges such as the ability of vehicles to drive safely in “random” situations etc. Far less attention has been paid to questions around the implications for NRAs. The overall aim of the STAPLE project is to provide a comprehensive review of technological and non-technological aspects of the most relevant connected and automated driving test sites in order to understand the impact of these sites on the NRAs’ core business and functions.

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  • 4. Adolph, T.
    et al.
    Schwedhelm, H.
    Lazaro, I.
    Versmissen, T.
    Edwards, M.
    Thomson, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Johannsen, H.
    Development of compatibility assessments for full-width and offset frontal impact test procedures in FIMCAR2014Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 414-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the project FIMCAR (Frontal Impact and Compatibility Assessment Research) was to define an integrated set of test procedures and associated metrics to assess a vehicle's frontal impact protection, which includes self-And partner-protection. For the development of the set, two different full-width tests (full-width deformable barrier [FWDB] test, full-width rigid barrier test) and three different offset tests (offset deformable barrier [ODB] test, progressive deformable barrier [PDB] test, moveable deformable barrier with the PDB barrier face [MPDB] test) have been investigated. Different compatibility assessment procedures were analysed and metrics for assessing structural interaction (structural alignment, vertical and horizontal load spreading) as well as several promising metrics for the PDB/MPDB barrier were developed.The final assessment approach consists of a combination of the most suitable full-width and offset tests. For the full-width test (FWDB), a metric was developed to address structural alignment based on load cell wall information in the first 40 ms of the test. For the offset test (ODB), the existing ECE R94 was chosen. Within the paper, an overview of the final assessment approach for the frontal impact test procedures and their development is given.

  • 5.
    Adolph, Thorsten
    et al.
    Federal Highway Research Institute.
    Eggers, Andre
    Federal Highway Research Institute.
    Thomson, Robert William
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Mizuno, Koji
    Nagoya University.
    Comparison of the dummy response in two different restraint system crash tests2014Ingår i: 2014 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2014, s. 545-561Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Project FIMCAR, a proposal for a frontal impact test configuration was developed which included an additional full width deformable barrier (FWDB) test. Motivation for the deformable element was partly to measure structural forces as well as to produce a severe crash pulse different from that in the offset test. The objective of this study was to analyse the safety performance of vehicles:

    • in the full width rigid barrier test (FWRB) and
    • in the full width deformable barrier test (FWDB)

    In total, 12 vehicles were crashed in both configurations. Comparison of these tests to real world accident data was used to identify the crash barrier most representative of real world crashes. For all vehicles, the airbag visible times were later in the FWDB configuration. This was attributed to the attenuation of the initial acceleration peak, observed in FWRB tests, by the addition of the deformable element. These findings were in alignment with airbag triggering times seen in real world crash data. Also, the dummy loadings were slightly worse in FWDB compared to FWRB tests, which is possibly linked to the airbag firing and a more realistic loading of the vehicle crash structures in the FWDB configuration. Evaluations of the lower extremities have shown a general increasing of the tibia index with the crash pulse severity.

  • 6.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Energimätning på tåg för rundvirkestransporter på sträckan Mora–Borlänge–Gävle2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det tredje delprojektet av ELVIS-demonstrationsprojektet för längre och tyngre godståg är syftet att mäta energianvändningen som ett tyngre tågset ger upphov till. Med tyngre avses här en ökad totalvikt genom fler vagnar, både fullastade och olastade, än vad som normalt körs på sträckan. Antagandet är att det med tyngre tåg finns möjlighet att göra (gods)transporter mer energieffektiva. Målsättningen är att framför allt testa hypotesen: · Att energianvändningen per tonkilometer kan reduceras genom att använda tyngre tåg. Rapporten belyser svårigheterna med att använda befintlig data för utvärdering av vad som driver energianvändningen på tåg. Datat i har inte varit kvalitetssäkrad för ändamålen i denna studie, vilket har orsakat en hel del fel och tillförlitligheten på vissa resultat är lägre än de skulle behöva vara. En slutsats från projektet att det skulle behövas en genomgång av databaserna hos Trafikverket om energianvändning ska studeras närmare, i alla fall om Trafikverkets utrustning för energimätning ska användas. Alternativt bör extern utrustning monteras på loken för att på så vis generera mer ändamålsenlig data, det senare var dock omöjligt då lokägaren inte godkände det. En annan slutsats är att körstilen spelar roll, det skiljer upp till 20 procent använd nettoenergi mellan förarna. Givet alla felkällor har ändå en regressionsanalys gjorts för att analysera hur energianvändningen för ett godståg kan bero på bruttovikten på tåget samt antal stopp tåget gör. Resultaten indikerar att det är skillnader på energianvändning för olika bruttovikter på tåget, men då det är oklart hur resultaten ska tolkas så krävs det mera mätningar för att kunna säga något bestämt. Detsamma gäller för hur antalet stopp påverkar användningen av energi, i en mätning fick vi ingen påverkan på energianvändningen av antal stopp medan vi fick det i en annan.

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  • 7.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Andersson, Jan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Scania.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Scania.
    Johnsson, Johanna
    Scania.
    Detecting sleepiness by Optalert: final report2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many crashes with heavy vehicle can be attributed to driver sleepiness or driving impairment due to sleepiness, and it is important to find methods to predict those situations and counteract this problem. The Optalert fatigue management system claims to be able to detect sleepiness. The aims of this study are to (a) evaluate if Optalert can detect sleepiness equally well as other sleepiness indicators and (b) if the data patterns obtained by Optalert correlates with these other sleepiness indicators. Twelve sleep deprived truck drivers drove for about 90 minutes in an advanced moving base truck simulator. The experimental setup, including the sleep deprivation, was designed so that the drivers should become increasingly sleepier during the trial and the intention was that they should fall asleep during the experiment.

    Four different indicators of sleepiness or driving impairment due to sleepiness were used to monitor the state of the drivers; the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the variability in lateral position (SDLP), the blink duration and the Optalert system. The results show that all four sleepiness indicators increased with time on task. An analysis of variance revealed that the changes were significant for KSS, blink duration and the Optalert system, and a correlation analysis showed that Optalert correlated significantly with blink duration and SDLP. However, even though these correlations were significant, they were all rather low with a maximum correlation coefficient of 0.24.

    In conclusion, the Optalert system is promising and the sleepiness rating provided by the system works at least equally well as the other three sleepiness indicators. There are some practical limitations to the system; there is no reliable threshold which can be used to determine when a driver is getting too sleepy to drive (this is also the case for other available sleepiness indicators), the driver needs to be attached to the vehicle via the spectacle frames and a wire, and the quality of the eye movement recordings often deteriorated when the driver started driving the truck. Moreover, during the experiment the technical reliability was sometimes low.

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  • 8.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Bolling, Anne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Andersson, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Validating speed and road surface realism in VTI driving simulator III2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya simulatormodeller för vibrationer, ljud och grafik har utvecklats och implementerats i VTI:S fordonssimulator III. Syftet med denna studie är att validera simulatorn med avseende på hastighet och återgivandet av olika vägyteparametrar. Tjugofyra försökspersoner deltog i studien. De fick köra en och samma rutt i såväl simulator III som på verklig väg. Tre vägavsnitt med olika kvalitet på vägytan, från mycket slät till ganska ojämn, ingick i försöket. Såväl den objektiva förarparametern hastighet som olika subjektiva parametrar avseende förarens uppfattning om vägytans egenskaper (jämnhet, tysthet, komfort) jämfördes. Ett vägavsnitt med skiftande hastighetsgränser var av speciellt intresse. Ingen signifikant skillnad kunde noteras mellan körning i simulator och på verklig väg vare sig avseende hastighet (på avsitt med konstant hastighetsgräns) eller gradering av jämnhet och tysthet. För sträckan med skiftande hastighetsgränser fanns dock en signifikant skillnad mellan hastigheten i bil jämfört med hastigheten i simulator, trots liknande hastighetsprofiler. Såväl accelerationerna som retardationerna var snabbare i simulatorn. Vägkomforten graderades högre i bil än i simulator, men i båda fallen var tendensen den att slätare vägar gav högre värdering av komforten. Dessa resultat indikerar absolut validitet för graderingen av jämnhet och tysthet och för det objektiva måttet hastighet, medan relativ validitet indikerades för såväl hastighet vid skylt för hastighetsändring som för gradering av komfort.

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  • 9.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Dukic, Tania
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Ivarsson, Erik
    SmartEye.
    Kircher, Albert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Rydbeck, Bosse
    SmartEye.
    Viström, Matias
    Saab Automobile.
    Performance of a one-camera and a three-camera system2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving and operating a vehicle is to a great extent a visual task. In driver behaviour studies it is therefore important to be able to measure where the driver is looking. Today this can be done unobtrusively and remotely in real-time with camera based eye tracking. The most common remote eye tracking systems use multiple cameras in order to give satisfactory results. However, promising results using only one camera has recently emerged on the market. The main objective of this study is to compare eye tracking systems with one and three cameras, respectively, during various measurement conditions.

    A total of 53 participants were enrolled in the study. Data from the two eye trackers were acquired and analysed in terms of availability, accuracy and precision. The results indicate that both availability and accuracy are affected by many different factors. The most important factors are the number of cameras that is used and the angular distance from straight ahead. In the central region (straight ahead) both one-camera and three-camera systems have a high degree of accuracy and availability, but with increasing distance from the central region, the results deteriorate. This effect falls harder upon the one-camera system. Interestingly, there were no significant effects when wearing glasses in either availability or accuracy. There was however an interaction effect between distance and glasses.

    Advantages with a one-camera system are that it is cheaper, easier to operate and easier to install in a vehicle. A multi-camera system will, on the other hand, provide higher availability and accuracy for areas that are far from the road centre. A one-camera system is thus mostly suitable for in-vehicle applications such as systems that warn drivers for sleepiness or distraction while multi-camera solutions are preferable for research purposes.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Georgoulas, George
    University of Patras.
    Kircher, Katja
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Towards a Context-Dependent Multi-Buffer Driver Distraction Detection Algorithm2021Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents initial work on a context-dependent driver distraction detection algorithm called AttenD2.0, which extends the original AttenD algorithm with elements from the Minimum Required Attention (MiRA) theory. Central to the original AttenD algorithm is a time buffer which keeps track of how often and for how long the driver looks away from the forward roadway. When the driver looks away the buffer is depleted and when looking back the buffer fills up. If the buffer runs empty the driver is classified as distracted. AttenD2.0 extends this concept by adding multiple buffers, thus integrating situation dependence and visual time-sharing behaviour in a transparent manner. Also, the increment and decrement of the buffers are now controlled by both static requirements (e.g. the presence of an on-ramp increases the need to monitor the sides and the mirrors) as well as dynamic requirements (e.g., reduced speed lowers the need to monitor the speedometer). The algorithm description is generic, but a real-time implementation with concrete values for different parameters is showcased in a driving simulator experiment with 16 bus drivers, where AttenD2.0 was used to ensure that drivers are attentive before taking back control after an automated bus stop docking and depot procedure. The scalability of AttenD2.0 relative to available data sources and the level of vehicle automation is demonstrated. Future work includes expanding the concept to real-world environments by automatically integrating situational information from the vehicles environmental sensing and from digital maps.

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  • 11.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Kircher, Katja
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Rydström, Annie
    Volvo Car Corperation.
    Nåbo, Arne
    SAAB Automobile.
    Almgren, Susanne
    SAAB Automobile.
    Ricknäs, Daniel
    Scania.
    Effects of visual, cognitive and haptic tasks on driving performance indicators2012Ingår i: Advances in Human Aspects of Road and Rail Transportation / [ed] Neville A . Stanton, San Francisco, USA: CRC Press , 2012, s. 673-682Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving simulator study was conducted by using the same setup in two driving simulators, one with a moving base and one with a fixed base. The aim of the study was to investigate a selection of commonly used performance indicators (PIs) for their sensitivity to secondary tasks loading on different modalities and levels of difficulty, and to evaluate their robustness across simulator platforms. The results showed that, across platforms, the longitudinal PIs behaved similarly whereas the lateral control and eye movement based performance indicators differed. For modality, there were considerable effects on lateral, longitudinal as well as eye movement PIs. However, there were only limited differences between the baseline and the cognitive and haptic tasks. For difficulty, clear effects on PIs related to lateral control and eye movements were shown. Additionally, it should be noted that there were large individual differences for several of the PIs. In conclusion, many of the most commonly used PIs are susceptible to individual differences, and, especially the PIs for lateral control, to the platform and environment where they are acquired, which is why generalizations should be made with caution.

  • 12.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Leeuwen, Wessel van
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Jansson, Herman
    Smart Eye AB, Sweden.
    Finér, Svitlana
    Smart Eye AB, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Real-Time Adaptation of Driving Time and Rest Periods in Automated Long-Haul Trucking: Development of a System Based on Biomathematical Modelling, Fatigue and Relaxation Monitoring2021Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hours of service regulations govern the working hours of commercial motor vehicle drivers, but these regulations may become more flexible as highly automated vehicles have the potential to afford periods of in-cab rest or even sleep while the vehicle is moving. A prerequisite is robust continuous monitoring of when the driver is resting (to account for reduced time on task) or sleeping (to account for the reduced physiological drive to sleep). The overall aims of this paper are to raise a discussion of whether it is possible to obtain successful rest during automated driving, and to present initial work on a hypothetical data driven algorithm aimed to estimate if it is possible to gain driving time after resting under fully automated driving. The presented algorithm consists of four central components, a heart rate-based relaxation detection algorithm, a camera-based sleep detection algorithm, a fatigue modelling component taking time awake, time of day and time on task into account, and a component that estimates gained driving time. Real-time assessment of driver fitness is complicated, especially when it comes to the recuperative value of in-cab sleep and rest, as it depends on sleep quality, time of day, homeostatic sleep pressure and on the activities that are carried out while resting. The monotony that characterizes for long-haul truck driving is clearly interrupted for a while, but the long-term consequences of extended driving times, including user acceptance of the key stakeholders, requires further research.

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  • 13.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Wörle, Johanna
    Würzburg Institute for Traffic Sciences (WIVW), Germany.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    Volvo Cars Safety Centre, PV22, Sweden.
    Frederik, Diedrichs
    Fraunhofer IOSB, Germany.
    Road Vehicle Automation and Its Effects on Fatigue, Sleep, Rest, and Recuperation2023Ingår i: The Handbook of Fatigue Management in Transportation: Waking Up to the Challenge / [ed] Christina M. Rudin-Brown and Ashleigh J. Filtness, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2023, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Assisted and automated driving brings new challenges and opportunities when it comes to driver fatigue. With lower levels of vehicle automation, driver monotony and boredom in combination with demanding attentive monitoring leads to higher levels of fatigue, especially during the night when the sleep pressure is high. With higher levels of vehicle automation, when the driver is not required to continuously monitor the roadway and the automation system, task-related fatigue can be counteracted by engaging in non-driving-related activities. Finally, with the highest levels of vehicle automation, it may even become possible for drivers to sleep while on the move. Aside from making it possible for private car drivers to take strategic naps during a drive, this also opens up the possibility for more flexible, risk management-based, hour of service regulations for professional drivers. This chapter summarises the current state of the art on how assisted and piloted driving affects driver fatigue and how automation may facilitate recovery and recuperation from fatigue while on the move. It also covers how automated functions will impact driver monitoring systems and how new ways of counteracting driver fatigue may arise when automation is available.

  • 14.
    Ainge, Mike
    et al.
    TRL, UK.
    Altekoester, Carsten
    BASt, Germany.
    Nelson, Paul
    TRL, UK.
    Phillips, Steve
    FEHRL.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Steven, Heinz
    TÜV Nord, Germany.
    Treleven, Colin
    TRL, UK.
    Watts, Greg
    TRL, UK.
    Final report si2.408210: Tyre/road noise2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    Final report
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    Appendices
  • 15.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Kurt, Filiz
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR).
    Isberner, Alessa
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR).
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH.
    Assessing innovations in High-Speed Rail infrastructure2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovations in high-speed rail (HSR) have had substantial effects on different stakeholders within and outside the railway system. As part of the European Shift2Rail research programme, several innovative solutions are developed for, among others, improving the HSR infrastructure. The joint undertaking behind this research program has set objectives for these innovations in terms of punctuality, capacity, and life cycle costs. With a focus on infrastructure-related innovations for HSR, this paper aims at assessing their impacts in relation to these targets. We review the relevant research literature about the effects of HSR innovations and their assessment. The paper presents a hybrid assessment methodology combing different approaches to assess capacity, punctuality, and cost effects. This contributes to reducing the existing gap that is found in the research literature. Based on a reference scenario for HSR line and collected data from different stakeholders, the results indicate that infrastructure innovations in HSR, being developed within the European Shift2Rail research programme, can contribute to reaching the target set for punctuality. Further innovations in HSR infrastructure and/or other railway assets may be needed to reach additional targets and for more accurate improvement values giving more insights into their impacts.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 16. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturanalysen har varit att beskriva ett mönster för skadehändelser och dödsfall relaterade till stads- och långfärdsbusstransporter och att identifiera möjliga framtida säkerhetsåtgärder speciellt med tanke på passiv säkerhet. Den internationella litteraturen var mycket disparat vilket föranledde författarna att använda sig av begreppet skadehändelser relaterade till buss med syfte att täcka alla typer av skadehändelser som förekommer hos busstransporter. I denna litteraturöversikt är endast kategorierna M2 och M3-bussar inkluderade, dvs. bussar som väger mer än 3,5 ton. Andelen bussar av det totala antalet fordon uppgår till 1 % i nästan samtliga OECD länder. Busspassagerarnas genomsnittliga antal personkilometer utgör 10 % av det totala antalet personkilometer räknat för alla fordon.

    Antalet döda och skadade orsakade av stads- och långfärdsbusstrafik har legat på en stabil nivå de senaste åren i den Europeiska Unionen (EU). När det gäller risk att dödas, är buss tio gånger säkrare per km än att resa med bil. Dödsfall i busstrafik utgör mellan 0,3 och 0,5 % av alla dödsfall i trafiken. De kroppsdelar som skadats mest hos bussresenärer i alla typer av krascher var nedre extremiteter (35 %), övre extremiteter (33 %) samt huvud och ansikte (28 %). Vältningar och rullningar var orsaken till i stort samtliga svåra krascher. Tre huvudkategorier av skador kategoriserades vid svåra krascher; thoraxskador, massiva skador fördelade över hela kroppen och bäckenfrakturer.

    Hårda sidvindar verkar påverka långfärdsbussarnas aerodynamiska och fordonsdynamiska egenskaper, speciellt högbyggda bussar. I Sverige kolliderade bussar med gående, cyklister eller mopedister i en tredjedel av alla fall. Sidokollisioner för stadsbussar var den vanligaste krockriktningen. Flera fynd indikerar att ca 1/3 av alla skadehändelser härrör från på- och avstigning. Om långfärdsbussen har mer än ett plan verkar passagerare i det övre planet vara mera utsatta för att skadas än dem i nedre planet.

    Säkerhetsbälten i långfärdsbussar kan med stor sannolikhet förbättra den passiva säkerheten. Ett 2-punkts midjebälte förhindrar att man kastas ut ur bussen vid en krasch men kan vid en frontalkollision göra att överdelen av bålen samt huvudet slår emot det framförvarande sätet. Ett 3-punktsbälte ger dock det bästa skyddet, då det håller fast passagerarna i sin stol.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 17. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linder, Astrid
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Evaluation of extrication techniques. - Is there any other quality measurement then time?2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Albinsson, Anton
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Required friction utilization for friction estimation on wet asphalt, an experimental study2018Ingår i: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, s. 407-412Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time information about the friction coefficient between the tyre and the road can be used to improve active safety systems and is an enabler for autonomous vehicles. Large tyre force excitation is normally required to obtain an accurate friction estimate. This paper quantifies this requirement for four different tyre models on wet salted asphalt at water freezing temperatures. Cost functions and different tyre models are evaluated and the results are compared to a previous study performed for snow conditions. The suitability of commonly used tyre models for friction estimation on snow and wet asphalt has thus been investigated.

  • 19.
    Albinsson, Anton
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Jonasson, Mats
    Volvo Cars Cooperation.
    Tire Force Estimation Based on the Recursive Least Square Method Utilizing Wheel Torque Measurement2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates a new tire force estimator based on the recursive least square (RLS) method. Tire force estimation with known driving wheel torque is studied and compared to the case with torque estimation from the internal combustion engine. This is motivated by a future scenario with electric propulsion, which reasonably gives improved wheel torque estimations. Sensitivity to vehicle parameters and challenges with individual lateral tire force estimation are also investigated. The results, experimental and simulation data, show good performance and potential for tire force estimation using the RLS method.

  • 20.
    Aldman, Bertil
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Huvudstöd1971Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport anges frekvensen av och principerna för skydd mot skador på huvud och hals för förare och passagerare i bilar vid påkörning bakifrån. Resultaten av en undersökning över hur några av de vanligaste skyddssystem som f n finns i Sverige och Finland svarar mot dessa principer redovisas och diskuteras.

    Termen huvudstöd har, i analogi med utländskt språkbruk (eng headrests, ty Kopfstützen) , använts för sådana skyddssystem. Den i allmänt språkbruk vanliga benämningen nackstöd har undvikits då den i olika sammanhang bedömts vara mindre adekvat. Den alternativa benämningen nackskydd, som föreslagits i pressen, betecknar enligt svensk standard den del av klädseln på motoristhjälmar som täcker nacken och har därför bedömts som mindre lämplig för den typ av skyddssystem som här avses.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Aldulaimi, Mustafa
    Concordia University, Montreal.
    Road lighting and safety: a pilot study of Arthabaska region2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the specification of roadway lighting for safety to understand the elements needed in statistical analysis of road collisions during night time. Several goals were targeted. First, which type of response is best, or whether both responses should be used. Second, which indicator of lighting should we favor? Third, which other factors should be included in the analysis and fourth, how effective is lighting in reducing nigh-time collision. The case study comprised illuminance and luminance measurements collected for the Arthabaska region in Quebec, along with available operational and geometric variables expected to explain roadway collisions. A zero-inflated negative-binomial model was used to analyze the impact of predictors on collision frequency and severity using classical maximum likelihood validated by a Full Bayesian regression. It was found that collision severity is best, resulting in more factors being significant in the expected sense of contribution. Luminance was the best indicator for road lighting. A correlation matrix aided in the identification of linearly dependencies between factors and the response or other factors. The last goal was investigated by comparing daytime with night-time collision analysis. The night time analysis included luminance and glare. The results were very close between day and night, with luminance proving to be an effective countermeasure for night collisions. A three-time difference on the coefficient for traffic volume was found. The use of a dummy variable related to standard levels of illumination is presented and will be key in future research for the estimation of effective levels of lighting.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    et al.
    HiQ.
    Isaksson, Calle
    HiQ.
    Raisins: towards general usability and drivability for ViP platform resources2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The original purpose of the Raisins project was to make an inventory of the gathered software resources of ViP as they appear at the ViPForge, analyse their usability for reuse and propose a technical roadmap. In addition to this an investigation of industrial needs was planned to grip prioritization and complementation demands from the industrial partners. During the start-up process the idea of a more visionary approach for the ViP simulation software came up as an alternative path to take. The Raisins project was divided into four separate activities; inventory and evaluation of existing resources at ViPForge, review of the report from the early ViP project “Industrial Needs”, workshops with each of the industrial partners, and finally an activity at HiQ to sketch an alternative software approach.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Amantini, Aladino
    et al.
    Kite.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Shinar, David
    BGU.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Chalmers.
    Kircher, Albert
    Chalmers.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTOP.
    Initial plan of dissemination and use of results2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This document contains the initial plan for using and disseminating knowledge and foreground developed within the ITERATE Project.

    The Deliverable contains five main Chapters and an Appendix.

    The first Chapter describes the purpose of the document, its structure, and introduces the other sections. Chapter 2 and 3 define the dissemination strategy of the ITERATE project and provide a classification of dissemination activities. For each type of dissemination action, the corresponding implementation approach is proposed. Then, for each type of dissemination activity, the actions already performed and those planned are described in some details. The dissemination materials already produced by the project and their usage are briefly described. Materials and products already completed, as well as planned, are described, even though a dedicated Deliverable is foreseen in the future that will contain copies of the actual products provided for dissemination purposes. The Exploitation plan is discussed in the last Chapter of the Deliverable. The two different natures and typology of partners , i.e., academic and industrial/consultancy, are considered. In particular, for each partner, a market and competition analysis is performed and the objectives and guidelines for subsequent exploitation of the results is preliminarily discussed. Finally, the appendix contains, for completeness, the Dissemination and Exploitation Questionnaire utilised to collect information among partners.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Andersen, Camilla Sloth
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Reinau, Kristian Hegner
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Agerholm, Niels
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    The relationship between road characteristics and speed collected from floating car data2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed is of great importance to the safety level of a road. Speed choice is strongly influenced by the road environment and the drivers’ assessment of safe speed level at a specific location. This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between speed and road characteristics and speed and driver characteristics. The analysis is based on big data on speed and driver characteristics combined with data on road characteristics on 49 secondary rural two-lane roads in Denmark. Data is modelled using multivariate linear regression. The results show a primarily influence from road and shoulder width, the extent of road markings and the section lengths on speed. Secondly, they also show the presence of woodland and intersections influencing speed as do gender, age of vehicle and time of day.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Betnér, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Rolff, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

    A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

    The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Buffoni, Lena
    IDA, Linköping University.
    Powertrain Model Assesment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behavior in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköping University.
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, s. 131-139Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation, estimating parameters for the powertrain model, the choice of numeric solver, and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

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  • 29.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonssystem och körsimulering, FSK.
    Insulander, Martin
    GEISTT, Sweden.
    Blissing, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonssystem och körsimulering, FSK.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonssystem och körsimulering, FSK.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Friström, Jon
    Scania, Sweden.
    Lindvall, Linus
    Scania, Sweden.
    Co-simulation architecture with pedestrian, vehicle, and traffic simulators2021Ingår i: Actes (IFSTTAR), Driving Simulation Association , 2021, s. 181-184Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated and connected traffic systems with cooperative functionality need effective testing. One way to enable such testing is to represent the current traffic environment by co-simulating different simulators using a communication layer between the simulators for cooperative functionality. With this approach, this paper presents a platform with its included simulators (vehicle, pedestrian, and traffic simulators), the used run-time infrastructure (RTI) for co-simulation, and the connection to the Unreal Engine based visual system for the simulators. The architecture was tested with two vehicle simulators (one autonomous bus and a truck), one pedestrian simulator, and one traffic simulator connected using a cloud-based service for the RTI.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    A Moving Base Simulator Investigation of Effects of a Yaw Stability System Caused by a Side Impact2011Ingår i: Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, ISSN 1530-9827, E-ISSN 1944-7078, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 044501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate how an electronic stability control (ESC) system may aid the driver in a critical sideswipe accident. Another objective was to investigate the possibility of having a realistic simulation of a sideswipe accident in a large moving base simulator. The experiment can be divided into two parts. In part one, the driver is unaware of the sudden side impact and in part two, the side impact was repeated six times.

    The experiment was driven by 18 persons. With the ESC system active no driver lost control, while with the system inactive there were five drivers that lost control in part one. In part two, the ESC system showed to stabilize the vehicle faster, and the improvement in stabilization time was between 40% and 62%. It was also seen that 2% loss of control occurred with an ESC system active and 45% without.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    A Framework for Credibility Assessment of a Powertrain Model in Driving Simulator Studies2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing a driving simulator study, validity of the vehicle model for the intended driving task is of key importance; otherwise, the reliability of the study results might be jeopardized. In this paper a framework for real-time credibility assessment of the simulated longitudinal dynamics by a powertrain model in a moving base driving simulator is presented. The framework consists of the physical system model and a quality model which run in parallel in real time. The developed framework has been evaluated by offline simulations, as well as in real-time in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation results showed that the developed framework can accurately capture the validity of the powertrain model in different driving conditions and provide the credibility level of the simulation results to the simulator operator in real-time.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example2018Ingår i: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 93-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator2016Ingår i: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, s. 99-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

    Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Parameterization Procedure of a Powertrain Model for a Driving Simulator2015Ingår i: Proceedings  of the 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulations.

    In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors. Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non-invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Kenneth
    Swedish Transport Administration, Gothenburg.
    Fatalities in road traffic: a result of accidents or suicides2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most fatalities in road traffic are accidents, but some are suicides. The Swedish Parliament decided in 2010 to identify suicides in road traffic and separate them from fatalities caused by accidents. To undertake this task a method has been developed for classification of road traffic fatalities in order to determine if the fatality was caused by accident or suicide. It can be difficult to assess whether a fatality is due to one or the other. Reporting statistics about suicides is a difficult task as the hidden cases are to be aware of. Vision Zero is the Swedish ethical standpoint against road accidents and it is based on the idea that any loss of life in traffic is unacceptable. No-one should be killed or permanently disabled because of road traffic. In-depth studies are made for all road fatalities in Sweden, since 1997 by investigators at the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). In each case information of the vehicle, the road and event, and the road user are collected. The aim of this study was to assess the number of road traffic suicides by studying fatality from three angles; the vehicle, the road and the road user. The main focus was to devise and undertake a psychosocial examination of the road user.

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  • 36.
    Andhill, Carl Johan
    et al.
    Dynagraph.
    Orebäck, David
    Dynagraph.
    Holmertz, Pontus
    HiQ.
    Leandertz, Richard
    Scania.
    Manelli, Matteo
    Scania.
    Persson, Fredrik
    Volvo Cars.
    Ödblom, Anders
    Volvo Cars.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    AB Volvo (GTT).
    ViPCity2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today simulation studies in ViP are mainly carried out in countryside driving environments. There is a lack of city environments. This is probably due to the fact that creating and running countryside environments in some aspects are easier than creating and running city environments. Another reason might be that countryside driving is very relevant in Swedish studies.

    As projects, and markets, become more international the need for city simulator studies becomes more important. Many drivers around the world do most of their driving in cities.

    In the ViPCity project software has been developed which facilitates the generation of driving environments for city simulations on the ViP platform. The project result is a number of assets (software, file formats and 3D components) which integrates well with the ViP platform. These assets together give simulator users the possibility to design city environments in a fast and easy way. The software has been implemented and tested successfully in Scania’s truck simulator.

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  • 37.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Blissing, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo AB.
    Svanberg, Bo
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Holmertz, Pontus
    HiQ.
    Night-time scenarios in simulators: a prestudy of needs, knowledge and possible solutions2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study in this publication investigates the need and potential for night-time scenarios in driving simulators, determines how such night-time scenarios could be reproduced and identifies the objects most important to reproduce. Although on average 12 out of every 24 hours are dark and considering that most situations are more demanding for drivers in dark conditions, simulations of driving scenarios with different degrees of darkness are not common. The project work comprised a pre-study that involved an investigation of the need and potential of night-time scenarios with the help of input from different stakeholders, consolidation of what is known up to now through benchmarking and state of the art, and a review of available technical solutions. The objective was to identify pros and cons with existing solutions and aspects that are important to consider in order to reproduce the most important components in realistic night-time scenarios. Based on the results, six important use cases were identified and two of these (‘Driver fatigue’ and ‘Objects without light sources’) were studied in more detail. It was concluded that for night-time scenarios there is enough darkness in general in the simulator environment. The question is whether it is possible to create sufficient contrast for objects that are meant to be observable. For daytime scenarios, the light levels in the simulator are clearly unrealistically low and this limitation might even trigger unwanted sleepiness.

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  • 38.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Child safety in cars: Literature review2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

    Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

    • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
    • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
    • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
    • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
    • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
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  • 39.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Larsson, Kristina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Weidel, My
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Hardestam, Hugo
    Transdev, Sverige.
    Monstein, Christian
    Transdev, Sverige.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Bröms, Per
    RISE.
    Autonoma elektrifierade bussar: sammanlagda erfarenheter med fokus på användare2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ride the future är en mobilitetslösning med tre elektrifierade autonoma bussar som trafikerar en 4,2 km lång slinga vid Linköpings Universitet och Vallastaden. Ett av målen för Ride the future är att visa hur en autonom elektrifierad buss kan vara en del av mobiliteten i den moderna förtätade staden. För att nå upp till det målet finns ett behov av att summera resultat från forskningsprojekt som har studerat användningen av de autonoma bussarna. Syftet med den här rapporten är att sammanfatta och diskutera dessa resultat med utgångspunkt i användares behov och erfarenheter.

    I sammanfattningen ingår aspekter kring fordon och drift, infrastruktur och användarnas uppfattning kring attraktivitet, tillgänglighet, bekvämlighet och inkludering.

    En sammanställning av genomförda användarstudier visar att majoriteten av de resenärer som testat bussarna är positiva till resandet, men att det krävs insatser för att attrahera bilister. Vidare behövs ett ökat fokus på utvecklingen av hur fordonen ska kunna kommunicera med resenärer i bussen, men även med de som interagerar med bussen utanför (fotgängare, cyklister och andra fordonsförare). Föraren är viktig sett utifrån den situation vi har idag med en till viss del omogen teknik. Förarna stöttar såväl bussen som resenärerna och då i synnerhet barn, äldre och personer med funktionsnedsättning. För att mobilitetstjänsten ska vara tillgänglig för alla passagerare behövs ändå utveckling och förbättring av både fysisk infrastruktur och digitala lösningar.

    Projektet Ride the futures parter avser att fortsätta med den gemensamma ambitionen att testa och bidra till utvecklingen av de lösningar som krävs för ett framtida hållbart mobilitetssystem inom både den förtätade staden och landsbygden. Frågeställningar som är nödvändiga att arbeta vidare med är både tekniska, mellanmänskliga samt affärsmässiga.

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  • 40.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Renner, Linda
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Waara, Nina
    Smartare Säkrare Skolbuss: ett pilotförsök i Kristianstad2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Some 400,000 children go to school by school bus in Sweden every day. The most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus entering or exiting, lack of routines being the major cause. The present study utilised off-the-shelf technology, in order to create a driver support system that raises the level of routines in school transportation and facilitates communication between the drivers and the children. Two buses, driven by seven drivers were equipped with the system during 2008, comprising data for 130 children. Moreover, two bus stops were equipped with flashing lights, triggered by radio transmitters that the children wore. The evaluations of the system showed that it does raise the level of routines and allows the drivers to survey the children in order to take action in case of an emergency. The system has frequently been used in all its parts and been considered useful. Children reported feeling more secure with the system and experienced less stress as a benefit of it. The average speed of cars has significantly been reduced by the flashing bus stops. For the cost of 0.5-2 SEK per school day and child, the system could prevent fatal injuries in school transportation, generating monetary benefits on a societal level.

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  • 41.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE.
    Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, s. 206-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

  • 42.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonssystem och körsimulering, FSK.
    Fu, Jiali
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Selpi, Selpi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Behavioral adaptation of drivers when driving among automated vehicles2022Ingår i: Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, ISSN 2399-9802Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore whether drivers would adapt their behavior when they drive among automated vehicles (AVs) compared to driving among manually driven vehicles (MVs).Understanding behavioral adaptation of drivers when they encounter AVs is crucial for assessing impacts of AVs in mixed-traffic situations. Here, mixed-traffic situations refer to situations where AVs share the roads with existing nonautomated vehicles such as conventional MVs.

    Design/methodology/approach: A driving simulator study is designed to explore whether such behavioral adaptations exist. Two different driving scenarios were explored on a three-lane highway: driving on the main highway and merging from an on-ramp. For this study, 18 research participants were recruited.

    Findings: Behavioral adaptation can be observed in terms of car-following speed, car-following time gap, number of lane change and overall driving speed. The adaptations are dependent on the driving scenario and whether the surrounding traffic was AVs or MVs. Although significant differences in behavior were found in more than 90% of the research participants, they adapted their behavior differently, and thus, magnitude of the behavioral adaptation remains unclear.

    Originality/value: The observed behavioral adaptations in this paper were dependent on the driving scenario rather than the time gap between surrounding vehicles. This finding differs from previous studies, which have shown that drivers tend to adapt their behaviors with respect to the surrounding vehicles. Furthermore, the surrounding vehicles in this study are more “free flow'” compared to previous studies with a fixed formation such as platoons. Nevertheless, long-term observations are required to further support this claim.

  • 43.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonssystem och körsimulering, FSK.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Englund, Christofer
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons2021Ingår i: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 10, artikel-id 100381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is currently unknown how automated vehicle platoons will be perceived by other road users in their vicinity. This study explores how drivers of manually operated passenger cars interact with automated passenger car platoons while merging onto a highway, and how different inter-vehicular gaps between the platooning vehicles affect their experience and safety. The study was conducted in a driving simulator and involved 16 drivers of manually operated cars. Our results show that the drivers found the interactions mentally demanding, unsafe, and uncomfortable. They commonly expected that the platoon would adapt its behavior to accommodate a smooth merge. They also expressed a need for additional information about the platoon to easier anticipate its behavior and avoid cutting-in. This was, however, affected by the gap size; larger gaps (30 and 42.5 m) yielded better experience, more frequent cut-ins, and less crashes than the shorter gaps (15 and 22.5 m). A conclusion is that a short gap as well as external human–machine interfaces (eHMI) might be used to communicate the platoon's intent to “stay together”, which in turn might prevent drivers from cutting-in. On the contrary, if the goal is to facilitate frequent, safe, and pleasant cut-ins, gaps larger than 22.5 m may be suitable. To thoroughly inform such design trade-offs, we urge for more research on this topic. © 2021 The Author(s)

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  • 44.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonssystem och körsimulering, FSK.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    A Novel Risk Indicator for Cut-In Situations2020Ingår i: 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cut-in situations occurs when a vehicle intentionally changes lane and ends up in front of another vehicle or in-between two vehicles. In such situations, having a method to indicate the collision risk prior to making the cut-in maneuver could potentially reduce the number of sideswipe and rear end collisions caused by the cut-in maneuvers. This paper propose a new risk indicator, namely cut-in risk indicator (CRI), as a way to indicate and potentially foresee collision risks in cut-in situations. As an example use case, we applied CRI on data from a driving simulation experiment involving a manually driven vehicle and an automated platoon in a highway merging situation. We then compared the results with time-to-collision (TTC), and suggest that CRI could correctly indicate collision risks in a more effective way. CRI can be computed on all vehicles involved in the cut-in situations, not only for the vehicle that is cutting in. Making it possible for other vehicles to estimate the collision risk, for example if a cut-in from another vehicle occurs, the surrounding vehicles could be warned and have the possibility to react in order to potentially avoid or mitigate accidents.

  • 45.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework-consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators-for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS.

  • 46.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Halmstad University.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, s. 255-258Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

  • 47.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Patel, Raj Haresh
    EURECOM.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Härri, Jerome
    EURECOM.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF. EURECOM.
    Bonnet, Christian
    Evaluating Model Mismatch Impacting CACC Controllers in Mixed2018Ingår i: Proceedings IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 1867-1872Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At early market penetration, automated vehicles will share the road with legacy vehicles. For a safe transportation system, automated vehicle controllers therefore need to estimate the behavior of the legacy vehicles. However, mismatches between the estimated and real human behaviors can lead to inefficient control inputs, and even collisions in the worst case. In this paper, we propose a framework for evaluating the impact of model mismatch by interfacing a controller under test with a driving simulator. As a proof- of-concept, an algorithm based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) is evaluated in a braking scenario. We show how model mismatch between estimated and real human behavior can lead to a decrease in avoided collisions by almost 46%, and an increase in discomfort by almost 91%. Model mismatch is therefore non-negligible and the proposed framework is a unique method to evaluate them.

  • 48.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Kolbenstvedt, Marika
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, TØI, Oslo.
    Policy för spridning av elbilar: några aktuella perspektiv och forskningsbehov: en förstudie2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport baseras på en förstudie som har haft särskilt fokus på att utforska policy för spridning av elbilar i Norge respektive Sverige. Elbilar utgör en av de fordonstekniker som står i centrum i förhållande till målsättningar om en fossiloberoende fordonsflotta, som antagits av länder som Sverige och Norge. Förstudien har haft som övergripande syfte att belysa vad som påverkar policyutformningen i respektive land samt hur policy förhåller sig till forskning och kunskap om spridning av miljötekniska innovationer. Detta för att belysa framtida kunskaps- och forskningsbehov kring spridning av elbilar specifikt och miljötekniska innovationer på fordonsområdet mer generellt. Förstudien innefattar en svensk och en norsk delstudie av nationell miljö- och transportpolicy med bäring på spridning av elbilar samt FoU-policy med anknytning till denna fordonsteknik. De båda delstudierna har på olika sätt använt och relaterat till internationell forskning och teoribildning kring spridning av miljötekniska innovationer i de analyser som har genomförts. Via delstudierna har kunskapsbehov kopplat till policyutveckling och tre tematiska områden för vidare forskning identifierats: Mång- och tvärvetenskaplig forskning om spridning av miljötekniska fordon- och transportinnovationer. Tema handlar om att inlemma spridningsfrågorna tydligare inom ramen för forskning och innovation på fordons- och transportområdet, Kunskapsbaserad policyforskning. Temat knyter an till föregående tema och handlar om att bedriva policyforskning i nära anslutning till kunskapsproduktionen kring spridning av miljötekniska innovationer inom fordons- och transportområdet i syfte att utveckla mer kunskapsbaserad policy, Policy som politisk process. Temat handlar om utforskning av olika aktörers makt och inflytande över policyprocesser och utfall, som beslutsfattare, tjänstemän, experter, industriaktörer, intresseorganisationer och miljöorganisationer.

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  • 49.
    Arnberg, PW
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Prestanda hos systemet förare-fordon i samband med slitage av styr- och hjulupphängningskomponenter1976Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 50.
    Arnberg, PW
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Odsell, O
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Degradation of steering and suspension components affecting driver-vehicle performance during emergency situations1978Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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