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  • 1.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ecodriving på SJ: förarperspektiv på tekniska hjälpmedel för beslutsfattande och utbildning i Ecodriving2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though all trips with SJ trains in Sweden are labeled “Bra Miljöval” (Good environmental choice), the requirements for reduced emissions and energy usage are constantly increased. Thus, SJ has to constantly develop their environmental profile. To investigate potential energy savings, SJ developed an education program in energy efficient driving (Eco-driving) and also let some of their train drivers use a technical tool supporting eco-driving. This report includes two studies. A critical review of the experimental study conducted by SJ and a complementary study based on observations of the education in energy efficient driving, along with interviews with the train drivers that participated in SJs experimental study. The experimental study provided valuable results, suggesting that energy savings through driver training and support are feasible. At the same time, there are contingencies in the collected energy data, making it difficult to draw any definite conclusions. The results of the interviews with the drivers show that there are ambiguities about what risks and consequences a future introduction of the technical tool for eco-driving could imply. Altogether, there are reasons to conduct further studies on how to best introduce energy-efficient driving in railway traffic as a whole.

  • 2.
    Abou-Senna, Hatem
    et al.
    University of Central Florida, Orlando.
    Radwan, Essam
    University of Central Florida, Orlando.
    Mohamed, Ayman
    University of Central Florida, Orlando.
    A methodology to quantify pedestrian crash rates against statewide averages for roadways and intersections2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date there are no clear or uniform standards for a method to measure pedestrian crash rates and compare it against a statewide average. In this paper, a novel methodology to measure pedestrian crash rates along roadways and intersections were quantified. The main objective is to identify critical pedestrian crash locations that are operating above its corresponding statewide average.  It was crucial to address the pedestrian-vehicular conflict as the State of Florida currently tops the list in the “Dangerous by Design” report as having the highest four pedestrian incident locations in the Country. The main challenge was to identify a practical and correct exposure measure. In most cases, the exposure measure is either unavailable or can be obtained at a greater cost. The methods and procedures explained in this paper are considered detailed, practical and provide a broad depiction of the main factors that directly contribute to pedestrian crashes. The main parameters used in calculating pedestrian crash rates along roadways included functional classification, number of lanes, area type, AADT and the total length of the roadway category. Conversely, main parameters for computing pedestrian crash rates for intersections included daily pedestrian volumes, distance crossed and the AADT in addition to the number of pedestrian crashes either along the studied roadways or intersections. The pilot studies conducted for the roadways and intersections revealed several critical safety locations within District 5 when compared to the developed statewide average rates which required further investigation to identify main causes and emphasize mitigation improvements.

  • 3. Adolph, T.
    et al.
    Schwedhelm, H.
    Lazaro, I.
    Versmissen, T.
    Edwards, M.
    Thomson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Johannsen, H.
    Development of compatibility assessments for full-width and offset frontal impact test procedures in FIMCAR2014In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 414-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the project FIMCAR (Frontal Impact and Compatibility Assessment Research) was to define an integrated set of test procedures and associated metrics to assess a vehicle's frontal impact protection, which includes self-And partner-protection. For the development of the set, two different full-width tests (full-width deformable barrier [FWDB] test, full-width rigid barrier test) and three different offset tests (offset deformable barrier [ODB] test, progressive deformable barrier [PDB] test, moveable deformable barrier with the PDB barrier face [MPDB] test) have been investigated. Different compatibility assessment procedures were analysed and metrics for assessing structural interaction (structural alignment, vertical and horizontal load spreading) as well as several promising metrics for the PDB/MPDB barrier were developed.The final assessment approach consists of a combination of the most suitable full-width and offset tests. For the full-width test (FWDB), a metric was developed to address structural alignment based on load cell wall information in the first 40 ms of the test. For the offset test (ODB), the existing ECE R94 was chosen. Within the paper, an overview of the final assessment approach for the frontal impact test procedures and their development is given.

  • 4.
    Adolph, Thorsten
    et al.
    Federal Highway Research Institute.
    Eggers, Andre
    Federal Highway Research Institute.
    Thomson, Robert William
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Mizuno, Koji
    Nagoya University.
    Comparison of the dummy response in two different restraint system crash tests2014In: 2014 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2014, p. 545-561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Project FIMCAR, a proposal for a frontal impact test configuration was developed which included an additional full width deformable barrier (FWDB) test. Motivation for the deformable element was partly to measure structural forces as well as to produce a severe crash pulse different from that in the offset test. The objective of this study was to analyse the safety performance of vehicles:

    • in the full width rigid barrier test (FWRB) and
    • in the full width deformable barrier test (FWDB)

    In total, 12 vehicles were crashed in both configurations. Comparison of these tests to real world accident data was used to identify the crash barrier most representative of real world crashes. For all vehicles, the airbag visible times were later in the FWDB configuration. This was attributed to the attenuation of the initial acceleration peak, observed in FWRB tests, by the addition of the deformable element. These findings were in alignment with airbag triggering times seen in real world crash data. Also, the dummy loadings were slightly worse in FWDB compared to FWRB tests, which is possibly linked to the airbag firing and a more realistic loading of the vehicle crash structures in the FWDB configuration. Evaluations of the lower extremities have shown a general increasing of the tibia index with the crash pulse severity.

  • 5.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Energimätning på tåg för rundvirkestransporter på sträckan Mora–Borlänge–Gävle2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The third sub-project of ELVIS demonstration project for longer and heavier freight trains aims to analyze and measure energy usage of heavier trains. With heavier refers to a higher overall weight by more wagons, both loaded and unloaded, than would normally run on the route. The assumption is that heavier trains are able to do (freight) transport more energy efficient. The goal is to primarily test the hypothesis: · That energy consumption per ton can be reduced by using heavier trains. The report also illustrates the difficulties of using existing data for the evaluation of energy consumption on trains. The data in these has not been quality assured for the purposes of this study, which has caused a lot of errors and the credibility of some results are lower than otherwise would be needed. Thus, a conclusion from the project is that it would take a review of the databases of the Swedish Transport Administration on energy use should be studied further, at least if equipment such as their energy meter should be used. Alternatively, mount external equipment on locomotives to thereby generate more useful data; the latter, however, was not possible due to the owner of the locomotive. Given all sources of error associated with the data, the report analyze how the energy of a freight train is due to the gross weight of the train, the number of stops the train makes and drivers' driving style. Findings were that driving style plays a major role, between drivers the different in net energy used is up to 20 percent. Furthermore, there is differences in energy consumption connected to gross weights on the train, but then it's a bit unclear how the results should be interpreted in conjunction with the lack of quality of the data, it takes more measurements to be able to say anything definite. The same applies to the number of stops affecting the use of energy. On the first leg the number of stops had no impact on energy consumption, which it had on the investigation route.

  • 6.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Scania.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Scania.
    Johnsson, Johanna
    Scania.
    Detecting sleepiness by Optalert: final report2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many crashes with heavy vehicle can be attributed to driver sleepiness or driving impairment due to sleepiness, and it is important to find methods to predict those situations and counteract this problem. The Optalert fatigue management system claims to be able to detect sleepiness. The aims of this study are to (a) evaluate if Optalert can detect sleepiness equally well as other sleepiness indicators and (b) if the data patterns obtained by Optalert correlates with these other sleepiness indicators. Twelve sleep deprived truck drivers drove for about 90 minutes in an advanced moving base truck simulator. The experimental setup, including the sleep deprivation, was designed so that the drivers should become increasingly sleepier during the trial and the intention was that they should fall asleep during the experiment.

    Four different indicators of sleepiness or driving impairment due to sleepiness were used to monitor the state of the drivers; the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the variability in lateral position (SDLP), the blink duration and the Optalert system. The results show that all four sleepiness indicators increased with time on task. An analysis of variance revealed that the changes were significant for KSS, blink duration and the Optalert system, and a correlation analysis showed that Optalert correlated significantly with blink duration and SDLP. However, even though these correlations were significant, they were all rather low with a maximum correlation coefficient of 0.24.

    In conclusion, the Optalert system is promising and the sleepiness rating provided by the system works at least equally well as the other three sleepiness indicators. There are some practical limitations to the system; there is no reliable threshold which can be used to determine when a driver is getting too sleepy to drive (this is also the case for other available sleepiness indicators), the driver needs to be attached to the vehicle via the spectacle frames and a wire, and the quality of the eye movement recordings often deteriorated when the driver started driving the truck. Moreover, during the experiment the technical reliability was sometimes low.

  • 7.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andersson, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Validating speed and road surface realism in VTI driving simulator III2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New simulator models concerning vibration, noise and graphics have been designed and implemented in the VTI Simulator III. The objective of this study is to validate this simulator in terms of road surface realism. Twenty-four drivers participated in the study and drove the same route both in the simulator and on real roads. Three road sections ranging from very smooth to rather uneven were incorporated in the design. The comparison included the objective driving parameter speed as well as subjective parameters from questionnaires and rating scales (evenness, quietness and comfort level). A road section with five speed limit changes was of particular interest in the analyses. No statistically significant difference could be found between the simulator and the car, neither in the parameter speed (in sections with no speed limit changes) nor in the ratings evenness and quietness. Despite similar speed profiles surrounding the speed limit signs, there was a statistically significant difference between the speed in the car and in the simulator, with more rapid accelerations and decelerations in the simulator. The comfort rating was shown to be higher in the car compared to the simulator, but in both cases the general trend showed higher comfort on smoother roads. These results indicate absolute validity for the ratings evenness and quietness, and for the measure speed, and relative validity for comfort and speed surrounding speed limit signs.

  • 8.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ivarsson, Erik
    SmartEye.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rydbeck, Bosse
    SmartEye.
    Viström, Matias
    Saab Automobile.
    Performance of a one-camera and a three-camera system2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving and operating a vehicle is to a great extent a visual task. In driver behaviour studies it is therefore important to be able to measure where the driver is looking. Today this can be done unobtrusively and remotely in real-time with camera based eye tracking. The most common remote eye tracking systems use multiple cameras in order to give satisfactory results. However, promising results using only one camera has recently emerged on the market. The main objective of this study is to compare eye tracking systems with one and three cameras, respectively, during various measurement conditions.

    A total of 53 participants were enrolled in the study. Data from the two eye trackers were acquired and analysed in terms of availability, accuracy and precision. The results indicate that both availability and accuracy are affected by many different factors. The most important factors are the number of cameras that is used and the angular distance from straight ahead. In the central region (straight ahead) both one-camera and three-camera systems have a high degree of accuracy and availability, but with increasing distance from the central region, the results deteriorate. This effect falls harder upon the one-camera system. Interestingly, there were no significant effects when wearing glasses in either availability or accuracy. There was however an interaction effect between distance and glasses.

    Advantages with a one-camera system are that it is cheaper, easier to operate and easier to install in a vehicle. A multi-camera system will, on the other hand, provide higher availability and accuracy for areas that are far from the road centre. A one-camera system is thus mostly suitable for in-vehicle applications such as systems that warn drivers for sleepiness or distraction while multi-camera solutions are preferable for research purposes.

  • 9.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Rydström, Annie
    Volvo Car Corperation.
    Nåbo, Arne
    SAAB Automobile.
    Almgren, Susanne
    SAAB Automobile.
    Ricknäs, Daniel
    Scania.
    Effects of visual, cognitive and haptic tasks on driving performance indicators2012In: Advances in Human Aspects of Road and Rail Transportation / [ed] Neville A . Stanton, San Francisco, USA: CRC Press , 2012, p. 673-682Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving simulator study was conducted by using the same setup in two driving simulators, one with a moving base and one with a fixed base. The aim of the study was to investigate a selection of commonly used performance indicators (PIs) for their sensitivity to secondary tasks loading on different modalities and levels of difficulty, and to evaluate their robustness across simulator platforms. The results showed that, across platforms, the longitudinal PIs behaved similarly whereas the lateral control and eye movement based performance indicators differed. For modality, there were considerable effects on lateral, longitudinal as well as eye movement PIs. However, there were only limited differences between the baseline and the cognitive and haptic tasks. For difficulty, clear effects on PIs related to lateral control and eye movements were shown. Additionally, it should be noted that there were large individual differences for several of the PIs. In conclusion, many of the most commonly used PIs are susceptible to individual differences, and, especially the PIs for lateral control, to the platform and environment where they are acquired, which is why generalizations should be made with caution.

  • 10. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was to describe the pattern of injuries and fatalities related to bus traffic. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible future measurements for improvement of passive safety in buses. Bus crashes were presented in international literature virtually in as many ways as there were articles on the topic. Hence, the authors used the term bus incidents, in order to cover all types of injuries related to bus traffic. In this review only M2 and M3 buses, i.e. buses over 3.5 tonnes were included. In the vast majority of OECD countries, less than 1 % of the vehicle fleet was constituted of buses. Bus passenger's average person kilometres represented 10 % of the total road vehicle person kilometres annually.

    The number of fatalities and injured in bus incidents have been stable recent years in EU. The fatality risk is ten times lower for bus passengers compared with car occupants. Of all traffic fatalities, bus fatalities represented 0.3-0.5 %. The most frequent injury localisations from all types of bus crashes were lower limb (35 %), upper limb (33 %) and head/face (28 %). Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe crashes. Projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanism. Three major injury groups in severe bus crashes were thoracic injuries, massive injuries and pelvic fractures.

    Heavy wind seemed to be capable of affecting the bus dynamics, particularly on highly built buses (e.g. as high as 4.3 meters). Unprotected road users were hit by buses in about 1/3 of all cases in Sweden. Side impact was most common for local buses (38 %). Boarding and alighting were contributing to injuries in about 1/3 of all cases. If the coach has more than one section it seems that the upper section is more exposed to risk for injuries than the lower section.

    Safety belts can improve the passive safety in buses. The 2-point belt prevents passenger ejection but in frontal crashes the jack knife effect could cause head and thoracic injuries. However, the 3- point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes, as it keeps the passenger remained seated.

  • 11. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Evaluation of extrication techniques. - Is there any other quality measurement then time?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Albinsson, Anton
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Required friction utilization for friction estimation on wet asphalt, an experimental study2018In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 407-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time information about the friction coefficient between the tyre and the road can be used to improve active safety systems and is an enabler for autonomous vehicles. Large tyre force excitation is normally required to obtain an accurate friction estimate. This paper quantifies this requirement for four different tyre models on wet salted asphalt at water freezing temperatures. Cost functions and different tyre models are evaluated and the results are compared to a previous study performed for snow conditions. The suitability of commonly used tyre models for friction estimation on snow and wet asphalt has thus been investigated.

  • 13.
    Albinsson, Anton
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Jonasson, Mats
    Volvo Cars Cooperation.
    Tire Force Estimation Based on the Recursive Least Square Method Utilizing Wheel Torque Measurement2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates a new tire force estimator based on the recursive least square (RLS) method. Tire force estimation with known driving wheel torque is studied and compared to the case with torque estimation from the internal combustion engine. This is motivated by a future scenario with electric propulsion, which reasonably gives improved wheel torque estimations. Sensitivity to vehicle parameters and challenges with individual lateral tire force estimation are also investigated. The results, experimental and simulation data, show good performance and potential for tire force estimation using the RLS method.

  • 14.
    Aldman, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Huvudstöd1971Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport anges frekvensen av och principerna för skydd mot skador på huvud och hals för förare och passagerare i bilar vid påkörning bakifrån. Resultaten av en undersökning över hur några av de vanligaste skyddssystem som f n finns i Sverige och Finland svarar mot dessa principer redovisas och diskuteras.

    Termen huvudstöd har, i analogi med utländskt språkbruk (eng headrests, ty Kopfstützen) , använts för sådana skyddssystem. Den i allmänt språkbruk vanliga benämningen nackstöd har undvikits då den i olika sammanhang bedömts vara mindre adekvat. Den alternativa benämningen nackskydd, som föreslagits i pressen, betecknar enligt svensk standard den del av klädseln på motoristhjälmar som täcker nacken och har därför bedömts som mindre lämplig för den typ av skyddssystem som här avses.

  • 15.
    Aldulaimi, Mustafa
    Concordia University, Montreal.
    Road lighting and safety: a pilot study of Arthabaska region2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the specification of roadway lighting for safety to understand the elements needed in statistical analysis of road collisions during night time. Several goals were targeted. First, which type of response is best, or whether both responses should be used. Second, which indicator of lighting should we favor? Third, which other factors should be included in the analysis and fourth, how effective is lighting in reducing nigh-time collision. The case study comprised illuminance and luminance measurements collected for the Arthabaska region in Quebec, along with available operational and geometric variables expected to explain roadway collisions. A zero-inflated negative-binomial model was used to analyze the impact of predictors on collision frequency and severity using classical maximum likelihood validated by a Full Bayesian regression. It was found that collision severity is best, resulting in more factors being significant in the expected sense of contribution. Luminance was the best indicator for road lighting. A correlation matrix aided in the identification of linearly dependencies between factors and the response or other factors. The last goal was investigated by comparing daytime with night-time collision analysis. The night time analysis included luminance and glare. The results were very close between day and night, with luminance proving to be an effective countermeasure for night collisions. A three-time difference on the coefficient for traffic volume was found. The use of a dummy variable related to standard levels of illumination is presented and will be key in future research for the estimation of effective levels of lighting.

  • 16.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    et al.
    HiQ.
    Isaksson, Calle
    HiQ.
    Raisins: towards general usability and drivability for ViP platform resources2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The original purpose of the Raisins project was to make an inventory of the gathered software resources of ViP as they appear at the ViPForge, analyse their usability for reuse and propose a technical roadmap. In addition to this an investigation of industrial needs was planned to grip prioritization and complementation demands from the industrial partners. During the start-up process the idea of a more visionary approach for the ViP simulation software came up as an alternative path to take. The Raisins project was divided into four separate activities; inventory and evaluation of existing resources at ViPForge, review of the report from the early ViP project “Industrial Needs”, workshops with each of the industrial partners, and finally an activity at HiQ to sketch an alternative software approach.

  • 17.
    Amantini, Aladino (ed)
    et al.
    Kite.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Shinar, David
    BGU.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Chalmers.
    Kircher, Albert
    Chalmers.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTOP.
    Initial plan of dissemination and use of results2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document contains the initial plan for using and disseminating knowledge and foreground developed within the ITERATE Project.

    The Deliverable contains five main Chapters and an Appendix.

    The first Chapter describes the purpose of the document, its structure, and introduces the other sections. Chapter 2 and 3 define the dissemination strategy of the ITERATE project and provide a classification of dissemination activities. For each type of dissemination action, the corresponding implementation approach is proposed. Then, for each type of dissemination activity, the actions already performed and those planned are described in some details. The dissemination materials already produced by the project and their usage are briefly described. Materials and products already completed, as well as planned, are described, even though a dedicated Deliverable is foreseen in the future that will contain copies of the actual products provided for dissemination purposes. The Exploitation plan is discussed in the last Chapter of the Deliverable. The two different natures and typology of partners , i.e., academic and industrial/consultancy, are considered. In particular, for each partner, a market and competition analysis is performed and the objectives and guidelines for subsequent exploitation of the results is preliminarily discussed. Finally, the appendix contains, for completeness, the Dissemination and Exploitation Questionnaire utilised to collect information among partners.

  • 18.
    Andersen, Camilla Sloth
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Reinau, Kristian Hegner
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Agerholm, Niels
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    The relationship between road characteristics and speed collected from floating car data2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed is of great importance to the safety level of a road. Speed choice is strongly influenced by the road environment and the drivers’ assessment of safe speed level at a specific location. This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between speed and road characteristics and speed and driver characteristics. The analysis is based on big data on speed and driver characteristics combined with data on road characteristics on 49 secondary rural two-lane roads in Denmark. Data is modelled using multivariate linear regression. The results show a primarily influence from road and shoulder width, the extent of road markings and the section lengths on speed. Secondly, they also show the presence of woodland and intersections influencing speed as do gender, age of vehicle and time of day.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Betnér, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Rolff, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

    A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

    The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Buffoni, Lena
    IDA, Linköping University.
    Powertrain Model Assesment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification2016In: Proceedings of the 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behavior in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköping University.
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 131-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation, estimating parameters for the powertrain model, the choice of numeric solver, and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    A Moving Base Simulator Investigation of Effects of a Yaw Stability System Caused by a Side Impact2011In: Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, ISSN 1530-9827, E-ISSN 1944-7078, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 044501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate how an electronic stability control (ESC) system may aid the driver in a critical sideswipe accident. Another objective was to investigate the possibility of having a realistic simulation of a sideswipe accident in a large moving base simulator. The experiment can be divided into two parts. In part one, the driver is unaware of the sudden side impact and in part two, the side impact was repeated six times.

    The experiment was driven by 18 persons. With the ESC system active no driver lost control, while with the system inactive there were five drivers that lost control in part one. In part two, the ESC system showed to stabilize the vehicle faster, and the improvement in stabilization time was between 40% and 62%. It was also seen that 2% loss of control occurred with an ESC system active and 45% without.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    A Framework for Credibility Assessment of a Powertrain Model in Driving Simulator Studies2016In: Proceedings of the 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing a driving simulator study, validity of the vehicle model for the intended driving task is of key importance; otherwise, the reliability of the study results might be jeopardized. In this paper a framework for real-time credibility assessment of the simulated longitudinal dynamics by a powertrain model in a moving base driving simulator is presented. The framework consists of the physical system model and a quality model which run in parallel in real time. The developed framework has been evaluated by offline simulations, as well as in real-time in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation results showed that the developed framework can accurately capture the validity of the powertrain model in different driving conditions and provide the credibility level of the simulation results to the simulator operator in real-time.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example2018In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator2016In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

    Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lind, Simon
    Myklebust, Andreas
    Parameterization Procedure of a Powertrain Model for a Driving Simulator2015In: Proceedings  of the 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulations.

    In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors. Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non-invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Kenneth
    Swedish Transport Administration, Gothenburg.
    Fatalities in road traffic: a result of accidents or suicides2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most fatalities in road traffic are accidents, but some are suicides. The Swedish Parliament decided in 2010 to identify suicides in road traffic and separate them from fatalities caused by accidents. To undertake this task a method has been developed for classification of road traffic fatalities in order to determine if the fatality was caused by accident or suicide. It can be difficult to assess whether a fatality is due to one or the other. Reporting statistics about suicides is a difficult task as the hidden cases are to be aware of. Vision Zero is the Swedish ethical standpoint against road accidents and it is based on the idea that any loss of life in traffic is unacceptable. No-one should be killed or permanently disabled because of road traffic. In-depth studies are made for all road fatalities in Sweden, since 1997 by investigators at the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). In each case information of the vehicle, the road and event, and the road user are collected. The aim of this study was to assess the number of road traffic suicides by studying fatality from three angles; the vehicle, the road and the road user. The main focus was to devise and undertake a psychosocial examination of the road user.

  • 29.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo AB.
    Svanberg, Bo
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Holmertz, Pontus
    HiQ.
    Night-time scenarios in simulators: a prestudy of needs, knowledge and possible solutions2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study in this publication investigates the need and potential for night-time scenarios in driving simulators, determines how such night-time scenarios could be reproduced and identifies the objects most important to reproduce. Although on average 12 out of every 24 hours are dark and considering that most situations are more demanding for drivers in dark conditions, simulations of driving scenarios with different degrees of darkness are not common. The project work comprised a pre-study that involved an investigation of the need and potential of night-time scenarios with the help of input from different stakeholders, consolidation of what is known up to now through benchmarking and state of the art, and a review of available technical solutions. The objective was to identify pros and cons with existing solutions and aspects that are important to consider in order to reproduce the most important components in realistic night-time scenarios. Based on the results, six important use cases were identified and two of these (‘Driver fatigue’ and ‘Objects without light sources’) were studied in more detail. It was concluded that for night-time scenarios there is enough darkness in general in the simulator environment. The question is whether it is possible to create sufficient contrast for objects that are meant to be observable. For daytime scenarios, the light levels in the simulator are clearly unrealistically low and this limitation might even trigger unwanted sleepiness.

  • 30.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child safety in cars: Literature review2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

    Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

    • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
    • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
    • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
    • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
    • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
  • 31.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Waara, Nina
    Smartare Säkrare Skolbuss: ett pilotförsök i Kristianstad2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some 400,000 children go to school by school bus in Sweden every day. The most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus entering or exiting, lack of routines being the major cause. The present study utilised off-the-shelf technology, in order to create a driver support system that raises the level of routines in school transportation and facilitates communication between the drivers and the children. Two buses, driven by seven drivers were equipped with the system during 2008, comprising data for 130 children. Moreover, two bus stops were equipped with flashing lights, triggered by radio transmitters that the children wore. The evaluations of the system showed that it does raise the level of routines and allows the drivers to survey the children in order to take action in case of an emergency. The system has frequently been used in all its parts and been considered useful. Children reported feeling more secure with the system and experienced less stress as a benefit of it. The average speed of cars has significantly been reduced by the flashing bus stops. For the cost of 0.5-2 SEK per school day and child, the system could prevent fatal injuries in school transportation, generating monetary benefits on a societal level.

  • 32.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Andersson, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE.
    Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

  • 33.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework-consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators-for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS.

  • 34.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Halmstad University.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

  • 35.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Patel, Raj Haresh
    EURECOM.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Härri, Jerome
    EURECOM.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users. EURECOM.
    Bonnet, Christian
    Evaluating Model Mismatch Impacting CACC Controllers in Mixed2018In: Proceedings IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1867-1872Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At early market penetration, automated vehicles will share the road with legacy vehicles. For a safe transportation system, automated vehicle controllers therefore need to estimate the behavior of the legacy vehicles. However, mismatches between the estimated and real human behaviors can lead to inefficient control inputs, and even collisions in the worst case. In this paper, we propose a framework for evaluating the impact of model mismatch by interfacing a controller under test with a driving simulator. As a proof- of-concept, an algorithm based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) is evaluated in a braking scenario. We show how model mismatch between estimated and real human behavior can lead to a decrease in avoided collisions by almost 46%, and an increase in discomfort by almost 91%. Model mismatch is therefore non-negligible and the proposed framework is a unique method to evaluate them.

  • 36.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kolbenstvedt, Marika
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, TØI, Oslo.
    Policy för spridning av elbilar: några aktuella perspektiv och forskningsbehov: en förstudie2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a preliminary study that focuses in particular on exploring policy for the accelerated adoption of electric cars in Norway and Sweden. Electric cars are one of the central vehicle technologies when it comes to the targets for a fossil-independent vehicle fleet that have been set by countries such as Sweden and Norway. The overall purpose of the preliminary study has been to highlight what steers policy formulation in each country and how policy relates to research into and knowledge of the way green technology innovations are adopted. The aim is to pin down future knowledge and research needs regarding the accelerated adoption of electric cars specifically and green technology innovations in the transport field more generally. The preliminary study comprises one Swedish and one Norwegian sub-study of national transport and environmental policy with a bearing on the adoption of electric cars, plus R&D policy linked to this vehicle technology. Both these sub-studies have, in various ways, used and referred to international research and theorising on the adoption of green technology innovations in the analyses that have been conducted. The sub-studies have led to the identification of knowledge gaps in policy-making, research needs and three thematic areas for further studies: Increased multi- and cross-disciplinary research into the adoption of green technology innovations in vehicles and transport; Knowledge based policy research for “knowledge policies”, Policy as political process and the role of key players.

  • 37.
    Arnberg, PW
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Odsell, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Degradation of steering and suspension components affecting driver-vehicle performance during emergency situations1978Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Arnberg, PW
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Odsell, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Slitage av styrnings- och hjulupphängningskomponenter: Prestanda hos systemet förare-fordon i simulerade kritiska situationer1976Report (Other academic)
  • 39. Asp, Kenneth
    Proceedings of road safety and traffic environment in Europe in Gothenburg, Sweden, September 26-28, 19901990Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of road safety and traffic environment in Europe in Gothenburg, Sweden, september 26-28, 19901990Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference International forum on road safety research: Bangkok, Thailand, October 25-27, 1995. - Vehicle design for safety - Road safety and vulnerable road user group - Road safety and traffic management - Roadway and roadside design for increased safety1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Lille, France, September 26-28, 1994: Information and control systems, concrete and structures, highway operations1995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Lille, France, September 26-28, 1994: Opening, national and international road safety situation, road safety and road/roadside design, concrete and bituminous binders1995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Lille, France, September 26-28, 1994: Road safety of vulnerable road users, road safety and road/roadside design1995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Lille, France, September 26-28, 1994: Road safety, simulators and simulation, road safety education and training, age and road safety, concrete and bituminous binders, Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP)1995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Prague, the Czech Republic, September 20-22, 1995: Road and roadside design, hazardous situations1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference Road safety in Europe: Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998 - Vehicle safety-systems and components - The role of advanced technology for enhanced safety1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe: Birmingham, United Kingdom, September 9-11, 1996. - Research into vulnerable road users - Attitudes and values concerning road safety1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe: Birmingham, United Kingdom, September 9-11, 1996. -Technical solutions for the alcohol and drugs problem in traffic - Traffic safety management systems - Data and road safety targets. Proceedings1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 20002001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
1234567 1 - 50 of 439
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