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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Renner, Linda
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Fors, Carina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Strand, Niklas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Hultgren, J
    Almqvist, S
    Traffic safety effects when overtaking 30 meter trucks2012Inngår i: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics 2012- 14 Volume Set: Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 21-25 July 2012 / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy, Waldemar Karwowski, Taylor & Francis, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the introduction of extra-long and heavy trucks has an effect on traffic safety on Swedish roads, especially in relation to overtaking maneuvers. Traffic safety effects will be measured in terms of road user behavior concerning accelerations and time slots. First, focus group interviews with heavy truck drivers. Truck drivers that do not drive extra-long trucks believe that the introduction of extra-long trucks will create a number of traffic safety problems especially in terms of conflicts with ordinary road users. The drivers of extra-long trucks do not experience the problems that ordinary truck drivers predict. The problems they experience can be taken care of with more planning (thinking ahead). They also believe that the traffic sign on the back of the extra-long vehicle has a positive effect. The truck company, working environment and truck equipment are other important aspects mentioned by the drivers of the extra-long vehicles.

    The simulator study investigates overtaking situations on a 2+1-lane highway, with extra-long trucks (30.4 m) and ordinary trucks (18.75 m). The results reveal that the distance from the rear/front of the truck to the point where only one lane exists affects car drivers’ decision to overtake, independently of truck length. If the truck is in the relatively same position, the timeslot for a safe overtaking maneuver before next one-lane section was reduced significantly for extra-long trucks compared to ordinary trucks. The conclusion is that there exist small tendencies which point in the direction of enhanced traffic safety problems with the introduction of extra-long trucks. The results should, however, be interpreted with caution as the number of data points was few and collected in specific situations and in specific conditions. It was neither considered how the introduction of longer and heavier trucks, given a constant amount of goods, reduces the number of heavy trucks on the road network.

  • 2.
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Partl, Manfred N.
    KTH.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH.
    Modelling the flow of asphalt under simulated compaction using discrete element2019Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 227, artikkel-id 116432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow differences between the particles of asphalt mixtures compacted in the laboratory and in the field have been identified as one of the reasons for the discrepancies between laboratory and field results. In previous studies, the authors developed a simplified test method, the so-called compaction flow test (CFT), for roughly simulating the flow of particles in asphalt mixtures under compacting loads in laboratory. The CFT was used in different studies to examine its capability of revealing the differences between the flow behavior of different asphalt mixtures under various loading modes. The promising results encouraged further development of the CFT by investigating the possible impacts of simplifications and boundary conditions on the results of this test. For this reason, discrete element method (DEM) was utilized to investigate possible impacts of the mold size, geometry of the loading strip as well as the loading rate on the results of the CFT. The results of the simulation indicate that in case of wearing course layers with nominal maximum aggregate size of 11 mm, the length of the CFT mold can be increased from 150 mm to 200–250 mm for reducing flow disturbances from the mold walls. However, since the majority of the flow of asphalt mixture particles is expected to take place within the first 100–150 mm length of the mold, reasonable results can still be obtained even without changing the size of the CFT mold. Moreover, comparing results with different loading strip geometries and loading rates indicates that the current CFT setup still appears to provide consistent results.

  • 3.
    Linder, Astrid
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Neck injuries in rear impacts: Dummy neck development, dummy evaluation and test condition specifications2001Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the work underlying this thesis was firstly to develop a neck for a new rear impact dummy, to evaluate the complete dummy and to specify test conditions for a consumer test with attention to AIS 1 neck injuries in rear impacts. In the development of the dummy neck, a mathematical neck model was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, impact severity and seat designs were also investigated.

    Rear collisions can result in AIS 1 neck injuries. These injuries, which are becoming more frequent, occur mostly at low changes of velocity (less than 30km/h). Since AIS 1 neck injuries can result in long-term symptoms, it is of major importance to devise protection from these injuries. When testing the safety performance of seats and head restraints, an essential tool is the crash test dummy. However, the standard crash dummy of today, the Hybrid III, has had limitations in its interaction with the seat and head restraint.

    The new dummy neck developed was evaluated by using data from crash tests involving volunteers as well as post mortem human subjects. For comparison, the Hybrid III frontal impact dummy was also tested under the same conditions. The new neck was found to have more human-like motion than that of the Hybrid III in low velocity rear tests when compared to both volunteers and post mortem human subjects. This was found to be the case for the head relative to upper torso horizontal and angular displacement. The new dummy neck became a fundamental part of the new, low-velocity rear impact crash dummy, the BioRID. The BioRID was found to have more human-like motion than that of the Hybrid III in low velocity rear impact tests when compared to both volunteers and post mortem human subjects. This result was observed for angular, vertical and horizontal displacement of the upper torso.

    The variations in acceleration pulse characteristics in different vehicle models in identical impact conditions was shown to be substantial. A similar delta-V could be generated in a large variety of ways in terms of mean acceleration and acceleration pulse shape in a rear impact. The variation in crash pulse characteristics for the same car model from different real-world crashes of similar delta-Vs was also shown to be significant. This served as a background for the specifications of the test conditions for a proposed consumer test.

    Real-world rear impact collisions with crash recorder-equipped vehicles, were reconstructed on a sled reproducing the real-world crash pulse. The results illustrate the risk of sub-optimisation when using only a single test in assessing neck injury protection. Further, five different seat configurations were evaluated in a series of sled tests at four impact severities. Identical vehicle seats were found to perform differently in tests with of different severities. Changing the mean acceleration (from 4.2g to 7.6g) influenced key dummy readings more than changing the delta-V (from 15km/h to 25km/h). Therefore, it should be expected that different real-world rear collisions at similar delta-Vs imply highly differing loading conditions to the occupants. As a consequence, the test conditions for the proposed consumer test program included specifications for several levels of change of velocity and mean acceleration.

    The results of this thesis are expected to become important input in the definition of future rear impact test procedures for neck injury risk assessment.

  • 4.
    Osth, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads2016Inngår i: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, ISSN 0148-0731, E-ISSN 1528-8951, Vol. 138, nr 6, artikkel-id 061005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model.

  • 5.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. University of Iceland.
    A model for predicting permanent deformation of unbound granular materials2015Inngår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 653-673Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple model has been proposed to characterise the accumulation of permanent deformation (PD) in unbound granular materials (UGMs) under cyclic loading of variable magnitudes. The model was developed based on multi-stage (MS) repeated-load triaxial (RLT) tests. The material parameters of this model can be evaluated using an MS RLT test. The model was validated by calibrating it for a few UGMs with a range of grain size distributions, moisture contents and degrees of compaction.

    The calibrated model was further validated by predicting the PD behaviour of some of these UGMs for different stress conditions. Generally, quite satisfactory predictions were obtained with this model with the advantage of reduced effort required for its calibration compared to some existing models. Additionally, the sensitivity of the parameters of this model to moisture, degree of compaction and grain size distribution was investigated with the aim of incorporating them into the model in future.

  • 6.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. University of Iceland.
    Influence of moisture on Resilient Deformation behaviour of Unbound Granular Materials2014Inngår i: Asphalt Pavements: Proceedings of the International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, ISAP 2014, 2014, s. 571-580Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the influence of moisture on the Resilient Deformation (RD) properties of Unbound Granular Materials (UGMs). A typical UGM used in pavement constructions with three different grain size distributions were tested with a range of moisture contents using Repeated Load Triaxial tests (RLTTs). From the European standard, the procedure for the study of the RD behaviour was used where each stress path is applied for 100 cycles. Additionally, the Multi-Stage (MS) loading procedure for the study of the permanent deformation behaviour were used where each stress path is applied for 10,000 cycles, to compare the results using the two test procedures. Results showed that resilient modulus (MR) generally decreased with increase in moisture, where the finer grading was more affected. However, for the MS RLTTs, after a large number of load applications, some increase in MR with increasing moisture was observed. This happened when the moisture content increased up to close to the optimum; above the optimum, MR always decreased. This may be due to Post-Compaction (PC) aided by moisture in MS RLTTs where a large number of load cycles were applied.

  • 7.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Modelling the moisture dependent permanent deformation behavior of unbound granular materials2016Inngår i: Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2016, s. 921-928Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of moisture on the permanent deformation (PD) behavior of unbound granular materials (UGMs) was investigated based on multistage (MS) repeated load triaxial (RLT) tests. Two UGMs with different particle size distributions were tested for a range of moisture contents and the accumulation of permanent strains for the different moisture contents were modelled using a simple predictive model.

    Moisture was found to increase the accumulation of PD in the materials. Analyses of the variation of the parameters of the model with respect to moisture showed that it is possible to capture the moisture dependent PD behavior of the materials assuming a simple linear relationship between one of the parameters of the model and the moisture content.

  • 8.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. University of Iceland.
    Moisture influence on the resilient deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials2015Inngår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of moisture on the resilient deformation properties of unbound granular materials was investigated based on repeated load triaxial tests. Results showed that the resilient modulus (MR) decreased with increasing moisture for a relatively low number of load cycles (N) where the deformation behaviour was mostly resilient with a negligible amount of associated accumulated permanent deformation (PD). Modelling attempts on this behaviour were quite satisfactory.

    Furthermore, the MR showed an increasing trend with increasing moisture, up to the optimum, when the N was relatively large with a significant amount of accumulated PD. Above the optimum, the MR generally decreased. Further investigation suggested that moisture aided the post-compaction (PC) and possible particle rearrangement that resulted in the increased PD and increased MR. The existing model did not work in this case indicating that the effect of PC on MR should be considered in modelling.

  • 9.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. University of Iceland.
    Predicting permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials2015Inngår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 16, nr 7, s. 587-601Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To reliably predict the permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials (UGM) in a pavement structure, the material parameters of the constitutive models used in design should be evaluated using a multi-stage (MS) loading approach. This paper investigated the prediction of the accumulation of permanent strain in UGM using some current models, extended applying the time-hardening approach, based on MS repeated load triaxial tests (RLTTs).

    The material parameters of these models were optimised for five different UGM used in pavement construction using the MS RLTT data with a specific set of stress levels. With these models, the accumulations of permanent strain in the same materials for MS RLTTs with a different set of stress levels were predicted. Using this approach, three out of the four models performed very well, which may be further developed for field conditions for better prediction of rutting.

  • 10.
    Saevarsdottir, Thorbjorg
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Deformation Modelling of Instrumented Flexible Pavement Structure2016Inngår i: Procedia Engineering, 2016, s. 937-944Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible test road structure was built and tested in an Accelerated Pavement Test (APT) using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to monitor its performance behaviour. In the tests more than one million load cycles were applied, but mid-way the water table was raised, allowing the structure to be analysed in "moist" and "wet" state. The raised water level had a significant effect, decreasing the resilient modulus and increasing the rate of accumulation of permanent deformation (PD). The structure was instrumented to measure stress, strain and deflection responses as a function of load repetitions as well as PD manifested on the surface as rutting. The structure has been modelled in an axisymmetric analysis using a 2D multi layer elastic theory (MLET) as well as a 3D finite element method (FEM).

    The methods generally both agreed well with the measurements. The observed accumulation of PD of the unbound layers was modelled using three different material models, both stress and strain based with responses gained from both MLET and FEM. The modelled deformation, is compared to the measured deformation in both "moist" and "wet" state, with some difference observed between models and methods but generally reasonably agreement was established.

  • 11.
    Saevarsdottir, Thorbjorg
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. University of Iceland.
    Modelling of responses and rutting profile of a flexible pavement structure in a heavy vehicle simulator test2015Inngår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible test road structure was tested in a heavy vehicle simulator test to monitor its performance behaviour. Water was added to the structure half-way through the test. The raised water level had a significant effect, decreasing the resilient modulus and increasing the rate of accumulation of permanent deformation. Numerical analyses to simulate the pavement responses have been carried out using both a two-dimensional multi-layer elastic method as well as three-dimensional finite element analysis, with material properties based on field and laboratory testing.

    Little difference was found between the two methods and both methods generally agreed well with the measurements. The observed accumulation of permanent deformation manifested on the surface as rutting was modelled using two simple work hardening material models; a stress-based model and a strain-based model. The stress-based model was found to be sensitive to slight response changes and had a closer fit than the strain-dependent model.

  • 12.
    Salour, Farhad
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. University of Iceland.
    Characterizing Permanent Deformation of Silty Sand Subgrades by Using a Model Based on Multistage Repeated-Load Triaxial Testing2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 2578, s. 47-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple model for the prediction of permanent deformation of unbound pavement material was used to characterize the accumulation of permanent deformation of unsaturated silty subgrade soils from multistage repeated-load triaxial (RLT) tests. The model incorporated the time hardening concept; data obtained from RLT tests with cyclic loading of variable magnitudes, conducted on a single specimen, could be used to calibrate the material model parameters. This feature of the model allowed for characterizing the accumulation of permanent deformation of the material under a wide range of stress conditions.

    The tests were carried out on two silty sand subgrades and at different moisture contents with pore suction measurements (matric suction) incorporated into the stress state calculations used in the modeling. The shakedown ranges for the permanent deformations for each stress path were calculated, and the material parameters of the predictive models were optimized with the RLT test data. In general, the models performed satisfactorily in capturing the permanent deformation behavior of the selected subgrade materials.

    The model includes fewer parameters as compared with some existing permanent deformation models and requires reduced testing effort because it is based on results from a multistage RLT test with a single specimen. It can be concluded that the model and the approach have great potential for characterizing and modeling the permanent deformation of subgrade soils.

  • 13.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Renner, Linda
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Andersson, Jan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    The effect on passenger cars’ meeting margins when overtaking 30 meter trucks on real roads.2012Inngår i: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics 2012- 14 Volume Set: Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 21-25 July 2012, Taylor & Francis, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to study the effect of vehicle length on meeting margins during overtaking maneuvers. A field study video-recorded overtaking maneuvers of a 30 m and a 24 m truck on a two-lane road. The difference in average meeting margins between the trucks was not statistically significant. An ocular assessment of the video material revealed a few critical situations during the overtaking maneuvers of the 30 m truck; all with meeting margins less than 3 s. Although these results should be interpreted with great caution as the number of analyzed overtaking maneuvers was limited, two previous studies describe similar findings. The conflict technique is discussed as a tool in the assessment of critical meeting margins. It is concluded that more field studies and data are needed to estimate the risks when overtaking Longer Combination Vehicles.

  • 14.
    Thomson, Robert William
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Krocksäkerhet, KRO.
    EDR Pre-Crash Data: Potential For Applications In Active Safety Testing2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, May 2013, Seoul, 2013, artikkel-id 13-0414Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive safety testing has been based on accident research where objective physical evidence can be compiled and analysed when establishing technical test requirements. Active safety tests pose new challenges because objective data is more difficult to obtain. Until pre-crash variables became available in Event Data Recorders (EDR), the only sources of pre-crash vehicle motions were tire marks or witness statements. Both data sources have limitations since they may not always be available and require interpretation by the analyst. The pre-crash EDR data variables provide an objective source of data to active safety test development. However, the suitability of the data has not been thoroughly investigated in the published literature.

    The review of existing data shows that the variables identified in the new EDR requirement in FMVSS 563 are useful but incomplete for a comprehensive analysis of vehicle dynamics manoeuvres prior to a crash. In particular, the absence of vehicle yaw rate reduces the positioning accuracy of the vehicle in reconstructions. The objective data in the limited cases were used to compile the frequency of pre-crash braking and steering, and when possible, the magnitude of these driver inputs. Active Safety test development will benefit with more EDR analysis but the older data that does not conform to Part 563 has limited application.

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