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  • 1.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Determinants of Capacity Utilisation in Road Freight Transportation2014In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 48, 137-152 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent performance indicators in the European road freight transport sector show there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilisation in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. Using a joint econometric modelling framework, the paper shows that they can be explained as a function of haul, carrier, and truck characteristics. For estimation, a unique dataset from the Danish heavy vehicle trip diary was used. The results indicate distance and being a for-hire carrier have a positive effect on capacity utilisation, whereas the effect of truck size is non-linear.

  • 2.
    Abate, Megersa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    De Jong, Gerard
    University of Leeds.
    The optimal shipment size and truck size choice: The allocation of trucks across hauls2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, 262-277 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how firms allocate their trucks across hauls, and how this allocation changes under various economic environments. This study investigates how variations in route/haul, carrier and vehicle characteristics affect the optimal vehicle size choice and the associated choice of shipment size. We show that the two choices are derived from the same optimization problem. There can be a continuum of shipment sizes, but decision-makers in freight transport have to choose from a limited number of vehicle alternatives. Therefore, we use a discrete-continuous econometric model where shipment size is modeled as a continuous variable, and vehicle size/type choice as a discrete variable. The results indicate that when faced with higher demand, and during longer trips firms are more likely to use heavier vehicles and ship in larger quantities which suggest that firms are realizing economies of scale and economies of distance. The study also discusses the effect of vehicle operating cost on the vehicle selection process and its policy implications.

  • 3.
    Abate, Megersa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    de Jong, Gerard
    University of Leeds.
    Joint econometric models of freight transport chain and shipment size choice2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In freight transportation, decisions regarding the choice of transport mode (or chains of modes) and shipment size are closely linked. Building on this basic insight, in this paper we estimate and review various joint econometric models using the Swedish National Commodity Flow surveys. Robust parameter estimates from this exercise will be used to update the current deterministic Swedish national freight model system (the SAMGODS model) to a stochastic one.

  • 4.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Intermodala transporter: definition, aktörer och omfattning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermodal and combined transport is often used synonymously today. The concept of combined transport has been around much longer and referred to as transportation where railway and a truck are being combined. Nowadays a combined transport often means that the goods either go by rail, inland waterways or sea and by road, or between two transport modes where trucks are not included. Intermodal and combined transport is often used synonymously today. The concept of combined transport has been around much longer and referred to as transportation where railway and a truck are being combined.

    Nowadays a combined transport often means that the goods either go by rail, inland waterways or sea and by road, or between two transport modes where trucks are not included. The EU’s so-called combi directive defines both in the same way and one of the EU Commission’s proposal to amend this directive is that EU should be considered to replace the concept of combined transport with intermodal transport. An intermodal transport precedes by a transportation decision, and this decision is often linked to a specific train path (tågläge in Swedish). If there is shortage of capacity on the track, the goods may have difficulties to be transported by train. This could potentially mean that some (rail) business / transports will not take place and the goods go by road instead.

  • 5.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Considerations when calculating percent road centre from eye movement data in driver distraction monitoring2009In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, 2009, 132-139 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Percent road center (PRC) is a performance indicator which is sensitive to driver distraction. The original definition of PRC is based on fixation data extracted from eye movement recordings, but it has also been suggested that PRC can be determined directly from the gaze data without segmenting it into saccades and fixations. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate if this is the case.

    Naturalistic driving data from a small scale field operational test comprising seven vehicles was used in the evaluation. It was found that PRC time traces based on gaze data and fixation data, respectively, were highly similar (correlation coefficient=0.95, average wavelet semblance=0.84) except for an absolute amplitude difference of about 8%. This indicates that the two approaches can be used interchangeably and that the processing step of segmenting gaze data into saccades and fixations can be left out.

    In addition to this finding, design issues related to the calculation of PRC are investigated. Especially, the impact of gaze cases pointing towards the intersection of the road centre area and the centre rear mirror were investigated. Results lead to conclude that gazes and fixations on the centre rear mirror should be removed from the PRC calculations, as they may negatively influence the correctness of the performance indicator.

  • 6.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector Traffic.
    Bicyclists’ visual strategies when conducting self-paced vs. system-paced smartphone tasks in traffic2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 41, 204-216 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual distraction among cyclists interacting with their mobile phones is a growing concern. Yet, very little research has actually investigated how cyclists apply visual strategies and adapt task execution depending on the traffic situation. The aim of this study is to investigate visual behaviour of cyclists when conducting self-paced (initiated by the cyclist) vs. system-paced (initiated by somebody else) smartphone tasks in traffic. Twenty-two cyclists completed a track in real traffic while listening to music, receiving and making calls, receiving and sending text messages, and searching for information on the internet. The route and the types of tasks were controlled, but the cyclists could choose rather freely when and where along the route to carry out the tasks, thus providing semi-naturalistic data on compensatory behaviour. The results show that the baseline and music conditions were similar in terms of visual behaviour. When interacting with the phone, it was found that glances towards the phone mostly came at the expense of glances towards traffic irrelevant gaze targets and also led to shortened glance durations to traffic relevant gaze targets, while maintaining the number of glances. This indicates that visual “spare capacity” is used for the execution of the telephone tasks. The task type influenced the overall task duration and the overall glance intensity towards the phone, but not the mean nor maximum duration of individual glances. Task pacing was the factor that influenced visual behaviour the most, with longer mean and maximum glance durations for self-paced tasks. In conclusion, the cyclists used visual strategies to integrate the handling of mobile phones into their cycling behaviour. Glances directed towards the phone did not lead to traffic relevant gaze targets being missed. In system-paced scenarios, the cyclists checked the traffic more frequently and intensively than in self-paced tasks. This leads to the assumption that cyclists prepare for self-initiated tasks by for example choosing a suitable location. Future research should investigate whether these strategies also exists amongst drivers and other road user groups.

  • 7.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Barceló, Jaume
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Linköpings universitet.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköpings universitet.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Traffic management for smart cities2016In: Designing, developing, and facilitating smart cities: urban design to IoT solutions / [ed] Vangelis Angelakis, Elias Tragos, Henrich C. Pöhls, Adam Kapovits and Alessandro Bassi, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, 211-240 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cities, participatory sensing as well as location data available in communication systems and social networks generates a vast amount of heterogeneous mobility data that can be used for traffic management. This chapter gives an overview of the different data sources and their characteristics and describes a framework for utilizing the various sources efficiently in the context of traffic management. Furthermore, different types of traffic models and algorithms are related to both the different data sources as well as some key functionalities of active traffic management, for example short-term prediction and control.

  • 8.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Sweco.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH.
    Smartphone based travel diary collection: Experiences from a field trial in Stockholm2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, 32-38 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a great need for new methods to collect travel data. Traditional methods have considerable drawbacks and, at the same time, the models used to analyse the transport system require more and more detailed and high-quality data. An alternative method that stands out as very promising is to capture raw data from devices that can use any positioning technology (e.g., GPS, WiFi positioning, GSM, etc.), followed by transforming the raw data into meaningful travel data. Since most smartphones are equipped with various sensors that can be used to determine the location of the smartphone, and since smartphones are integrated in the daily life of most people, they provide an unprecedented opportunity for large-scale travel data collection. This method has a great potential to solve the problems related to the estimation of distance/travel time, geographic coding of departure/destination locations and forgotten trips and it will also provide a more detailed and extensive data set. In a recently completed research project the feasibility of replacing or complementing the traditional travel diary, with a suite of tools that make use of smartphone collected travel data has been evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional method and the proposed method were studied. For a fair comparison, both methods have been tested in the same city, at the same time, and with the same respondents. To achieve the objectives of the project, MEILI, a system that consists of a smartphone application for capturing the movement of users and a web application for allowing the users to annotate their movement, has been deployed. The recruitment of respondents is a critical phase for traditional travel diaries and, as expected, this was the case also for the smartphone based method. A lesson learnt was that it is important to simplify the registration process as much as possible. In total 2142 trips were collected and annotated by 171 users. 51 of the users annotated trips covering more than a week. The experiences from the field trial shows that a smartphone based travel diary collection is a very useful complement to traditional travel diary collection methods since it appeals to a different age group and collects more detailed travel data for a longer period. The main findings of the paper are that smartphone based data collection is feasible, that the algorithms to save battery work well and that trips of the same respondent vary considerably depending on day of the week.

  • 9.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Banverket.
    Kollektivtrafik i storstad -: undviker människor att resa på grund av otrygghet?2003Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire, including questions pertaining to perceived attractiveness, feelings of unsafety and different types of risks connected to different transport modes (car, city bus, tram, regional bus, commuter train and subway), was filled out by 59 respondents. The results showed that perceived attractiveness might be affected by perceived risks and worry of being bothered, threatened or attacked by fellow passengers to a higher extent than perceived risks and worry of being involved in traffic accidents. Different circumstances, for instance the bus stop etc being remotely situated, were considered to contribute to feelings of unsafety when walking to and waiting at the bus stop etc. When travelling with different public transport modes the participants stated that they feel unsafe if for example drivers/personnel do not supervise their vehicle. Women stated to a higher extent than men that different circumstances contribute to feelings of unsafety when walking to and waiting at the bus stop etc. as well as when travelling with different public transport modes. A majority of the respondents stated that they avoid travelling with the red subway-line during night-time, especially during weekends. The respondents stated that they had a more positive attitude towards tram than towards regional bus and commuter train, which was not the case in a similar study conducted in Norrköping. This result might be explained by a successful introduction of a new tramway-line (Tvärbanan) in Stockholm.

  • 10. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Land use planning and transport investment appraisal2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    The impact of land use planning on Cost-Benefit Analysis rankings2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Almström, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The impact of travel costs and economic growth on cost-benefit analysis rankings2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a tool for selecting transport investments is often questioned. It is not unusual that politicians or others in the public debate argue that the outcome of a CBA completely rely on assumptions concerning a particular input factor, such as valuation of CO2 emissions or future fuel price. This paper explores whether the relative ranking of CBA outcomes are robust with respect to some key inputs in transport demand analysis driving cost, public transport fare and economic growth. We study six different infrastructure objects (three road and three rail objects) and four alternative assumptions on input factors compared to a reference scenario.

    The findings suggest that single input factors in a CBA, individually have a small impact on the ranking of the studied investments. In our model calculations we observe no change in rank between a road and a rail object.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hastighetsutvecklingen i Blekinge och Vägverksregion Sydöst 1996-20002001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Medelhastigheten på vägar i Blekinge har minskat något under perioden 996-2000. En svag tendens till minskande genomsnittliga årliga medelhastigheter föreligger på vägar med hastighetsgränserna 90 och 110 km/t i Blekinge. Den årliga förändringen är emellertid inte statistiskt skild från noll. Utvecklingen i Blekinge är ungefär densamma som i VSÖ i övrigt. Hastighetsmätningarna visar också att hastighetsnivån är generellt lägre i Blekinge än i VSÖ i övrigt. På 90-vägarna är medelhastigheten i Blekinge jämfört med VSÖ i övrigt nästan 5 km/t lägre och på 110-vägar utom motorvägar 0,5-1 km/t lägre.

    Den stora hastighetsförändringen under perioden föreligger på vägsträckor där hastighetsgränsen sänkts från 110 till 90 km/t. För Blekinge innebär det sänkta hastighetsgränser på större delen av E22:an som svarar för en stor del av trafikarbetet i länet. Minskningen i Blekinge som är ca 8–9 km/t är av samma storleksordning som för 110-vägar med sänkt hastighetsgräns till 90 km/t i VSÖ i övrigt.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad universitet.
    Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non near-proportionality of the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment where their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study where they were asked about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: A survival data approach2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 87, 68-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for total tonnage is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 16.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, Vol. 14, no 8, 874-880 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 17.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Ņkerstedt, Torbjörn Bjorn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Rumble strips in centre of the lane and the effect on sleepy drivers2011In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, Vol. 49, no 5, 549-558 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of sleep loss on behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness on a road containing a milled rumble strip in the centre of the lane. Particular attention was paid to behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness when using the centre lane rumble strip, and to possible erratic driving behaviour when hitting a rumble strip. In total 9 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift and after a full night sleep. The order was balanced. The experiment was conducted in a moving base driving simulator on rural roads with a road width of 6.5 and 9 meters. Out of the 1,636 rumble strip hits that occurred during the study, no indications of erratic driving behaviour associated with the jolt caused by making contact with the centre lane rumble strip could be found. Comparing the alert condition with the sleep deprived condition, both the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) increased for sleepy drivers. For the two road widths, the drivers drove closer to the centre line on the 6.5-meter road. The KSS and the SDLP increased with time on task. This simulator study indicates that rumble strips in the centre of the lane may be an alternative to centreline and edgeline rumble strips on narrow roads.

  • 18.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköpings unuversitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköpings högskola.
    Piloting smart safe school bus: exploration of security gains from implementation of a driver support system, additional technical equipment and intelligent bus stops2010In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 2, no 3, 157-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Road crash statistics reveal that school children are frequent victims and the most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus. The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible changes in speed, implementation of routines, hazard detection and child security gains from a driver support system integrated with intelligent bus stops and additional technical equipment.

    Methods: In total, 130 children with transmitters were using two specially equipped busses and bus stops. Speed of oncoming and overtaking cars, implementation of routines, the possibilities to discover potential hazards and experienced stress in the children were analysed by speed measurements, diary notes, questionnaires and focus group interviews.

    Results: This pilot study exploration showed that the speeds of other road users were reduced at one of two bus stops. The driver support system was frequently used in all its parts and was considered useful by the bus drivers. It also raised the level of routines and allowed the drivers to survey the children. Children reported feeling more secure with the system running and experienced less stress as a consequence of it.

    Conclusion: This pilot study shows that the evaluated systems may have the ability to reduce speed of other road users, raise the level of routines and make children feel more secure. Further studies are needed that apply a holistic approach on school transportation safety and security.

  • 19.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Liljas, Stina (red.)
    Sina Liljas AB.
    Varför skjutsar föräldrarna barnen till skolan?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många kommuner upplever problem i samband med att barnen skjutsas till skolan med bil av föräldrarna i stället för att gå, cykla eller åka buss eller skolskjuts. Detta leder i sin tur till minskad trafiksäkerhet i området kring skolorna. Den här skriften förklarar varför föräldrar skjutsar barnen till skolan genom att redovisa forskningsrapporter och redogöra för en studie som författarna gjort på några utvalda skolor. Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting har tagit fram skriften för att inspirera och stödja kommunerna i arbetet med att hitta lösningar som kan minska skjutsandet.

  • 20.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Harry
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Externt och internt buller samt vibrationer vid körning på sinusräfflor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien omfattar en jämförelse av ljudnivåer och vibrationer i fordon vid körning på två typer av räffelutformning, en konventionellt fräst räffla och en sinusformad räffla.

    Mätningar av interna och externa ljudnivåer samt vibrationer i chassi och säte har skett vid körning på fyra sträckor; en sträcka med vanlig fräst räffla (konventionell), vid denna har dels en äldre räffla ingått, dels en nyfräst räffla. Vidare har tre sträckor med sinusformade räfflor ingått.

  • 21.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Halmstad Universitet.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad Universitet.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Viktoria Swedish ICT,.
    Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation2015In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2015, 144-149 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency.

    Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

  • 22.
    Archer, Jeffery
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Vogel, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The Traffic Safety Problems in Urban Areas2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of people who reside and work in urban areas increases, so, too, do theneeds and demands placed on the infrastructure. This has led to severe congestion in manyEuropean cities, a situation which affects not only the environment in terms of pollution,but most notably levels of traffic safety. In Europe, tens of thousands of people are killed inroad traffic accidents, and more than 1 million are injured each year at a cost, which isestimated to exceed the total European Union budget by a factor of two. The majority ofaccidents involving injury occur within urban areas often at junctions, while the number offatalities outside these areas is greater, largely as a result of higher speed. Traffic safetyresearch has shown a biased interest in the problems associated with motorway and ruralareas in the past. There are many reasons, which advocate a greater interest in urban areas,in particular, those related to the safety of unprotected road users. In urban areas the trafficsystem context is more complex, where a mixed road user environment prevails and greaterperceptual and cognitive demands are placed on road users. In the past, many of the moresuccessful safety countermeasures have focused on designing the roadway to meet theneeds and limitations of road users. These solutions have, however, proved to be verycostly. Today, new and relatively cheap technological solutions referred to as IntelligentTransport Systems (ITS) have been developed which have the capacity to reduce exposure,accident risk, and accident severity. While the long term effects of these systems are largelyunknown, and problems associated with standardisation and legislation are in need ofresolve, systems such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation and advanced traffic control systemshave shown great potential with regard to the traffic safety problem in urban areas. In orderto effectuate this potential, a great deal of integrated multi-disciplinary research is required

  • 23.
    Aria, Erfan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Schwietering, Christoph
    Schwietering Traffic Engineers, DE.
    Investigation of Automated Vehicle Effects on Driver's Behavior and Traffic Performance2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 15, 761-770 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) offer the possibility of helping drivers to fulfill their driving tasks. Despite different encouraging factors, automated driving raise some concerns such as possible loss of situation awareness, overreliance on automation and system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effects of AV on driver’s behavior and traffic performance. A literature review was conducted to examine the AV effects on driver’s behavior. Findings from the literature survey reveal that conventional vehicles (CV), i.e. human driven, which are driving close to a platoon of AV with short THW, tend to reduce their THW and spend more time under their critical THW. Additionally, driving highly AV reduce situation awareness and can intensify driver drowsiness, exclusively in light traffic.

    In order to investigate the influences of AV on traffic performance, a simulation case study consisting of a 100% AV scenario and a 100% CV scenario was performed using microscopic traffic simulation. Outputs of this simulation study reveal that the positive effects of AV on roads are especially highlighted when the network is crowded (e.g. peak hours). This can definitely count as a constructive point for the future of road networks with higher demands. In details, average density of autobahn segment remarkably improved by 8.09% during p.m. peak hours in the AV scenario, while the average travel speed enhanced relatively by 8.48%. As a consequent, the average travel time improved by 9.00% in the AV scenario.

    The outcome of this study jointly with the previous driving simulator studies illustrates a successful practice of microscopic traffic simulation to investigate the effects of AV. However, further development of the microscopic traffic simulation models are required and further investigations of mixed traffic situation with AV and CV need to be conducted.

  • 24.
    Arnberg, PW
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Laser road surface tester: A system for simultaneous measurement of rut depth, roughness, macrotexture and friction1983Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Laser Road Surface Tester (RST) is the second generation of an integrated road surveying instrument developed in Sweden. The principal component of the Laser RST is a noncontact road profiling system. The first road surveying instrument, the Saab RST, has been used for surveying the Swedish road network since 1980. It has given practical experience concerning the measurement and evaluation of road surface characteristics. In this report the new system, The Laser Road Surface Tester, is presented.

  • 25.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceeding of road safety and traffic environment in Europe in Gothenburg, Sweden, september 26-28, 19901990Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of road safety and traffic environment in Europe in Gothenburg, Sweden, september 26-28, 19901990Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference Road safety in Europe: Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998. - Opening -national safety & safety audit1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference Road safety in Europe: Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998. - Safety of vulnerable road users - especially in urban areas1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road safety in Europe. Conference held in Berlin, Germany, September 30 - October 2, 1992. Part 1: Opening - European perspective - Roadside safety features. Proceedings1992Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road safety in Europe. Conference held in Berlin, Germany, September 30 - October 2, 1992. Part 2: Safety in some European countries - Safety and traffic management. Proceedings1992Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road safety in Europe. Conference held in Berlin, Germany, September 30 - October 2, 1992. Part 4: Markings, signs and signals - Vehicles. Proceedings1992Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Roads and traffic safety on two continents. Proceedings Gothenburg, Sweden, 9-11 September 1987: Speed, vehicle performance, crashworthiness1988Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Strategic Highway Research Program and traffic safety on two continents. Conference in Gothenburg, Sweden, September 18-20, 1991. Part 1: Opening. Motorist information systems. Accident studies and safety management. Proceedings1991Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Strategic Highway Research Program and traffic safety on two continents in Gothenburg, Sweden, 27-29 September, 1989. Proceedings: Asphalt: Long term pavement performance1990Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2001: sammanställning av konferensföredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 10-11 januari 20012001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2003: rapportsammanställning av föredrag i Linköping 8-9 januari 20032003Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från nedanstående sessioner finns redovisning i konferensrapporten:  

    Session 3 Godstransporter och samhälle  Session 4 Sjöfart. Fartyg  Session 5 Planering för hög produktivitet  Session 6 En flygmarknad i förändring  Session 8 Behovsdriven FoU - grunden för svensk bilindustris världsledande  ställning på säkerhetsområdet  Session 9 Samhällsplanera - med fokus på kollektivtrafiken  Session 10 Marginalkostnadsprissättning. Långsiktig planering  Session 11 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 12 Jämställt transportsystem  Session 13 Kunders värderingar.  Transportlösningar  Session 14 På väg mot bättre vägar och gator?  Vinterväghållning  Session 15 Återvinning eller deponering av tjärhaltiga beläggningsmaterial?  Session 16 Hot, visioner och styrmedel.  Tyst och vackert  Session 17 Utvärdering av ITS  Session 18 STRADA - Nationellt informationssystem om olyckor och skadade inom  vägtransportsystemet  Session 19 Förarutbildning  Del 1: Den grundläggande förarutbildningen och trafiksäkerhetsmålen  Del 2: Pedagogiska strategier och metoder i förarutbildningen  Session 20 Personlig integritet i trafiken  Session 21 Förorenad mark i infrastrukturen - risker, problem och lösningar  Session 22 Mobility Management  Session 23 Trafikverken i förändring  Session 24 Transportpolitik. Regionförstoring  Session 25 Järnväg.  I avregleringens spår  Session 26 Logistiksystem  Den kundorienterade järnvägen  Intermodalitet  Session 27 Sjöfarten och den mänskliga faktorn  Miljö och säkerhet inom sjöfarten  Session 28 Trafik för en attraktiv stad - TRAST  Session 29 Teknik och miljö  Flyget och miljön  Session 30 Parkering, mobilitet, ekonomi och miljö - ett område i behov av  samordnad kunskapsgenerering  Session 31 Försök med automatisk hastighetsövervakning (AH)  Session 32 Kostnadseffektiva åtgärdskombinationer och  åtgärdssekvenser  Session 33 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 34 Trafiksimulering  Session 35 Snålare motorer och fordon  Session 36 Planering  Kollektivtrafik  Session 37 Banunderhåll och grusväghållning  Komfort, sårbarhet och upphandling  Underhållets inverkan på trafik och trafikanter  Session 38 Vägteknik  Session 39 Erfarenheter från region-MaTs (Miljöanpassat transportsystem)  Emissionsdata & Modeller  Utan egen bil?  Session 40 Möjligheter med väginformatik  Dynamiska trafikmodeller för trafikledning - Nu färdiga för implementering i  verksamheten  Session 41 Ledarskap för överlevnad!  Session 42 Trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i tätort  Session 43 Den moderna spårvägens egenskaper och potential  Session 45 På jakt efter den tid som kommer - utmaningar för  vägtransportsystemet år 2025  Session 46 Fotgängaren - bortglömd som trafikant och social aktör?

  • 37.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 5. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 2000-01-12-13 beträffande: nya godstransporter i samverkan mellan transportslag - godstransporter-ETV verksamhet i förändring? - vägtrafikbeskattningen - fordonsteknik i samverkan med SVEA (Swedish Vehicle Engineers Association) - fordonsteknik-miljö och ekonomi - fordonsteknik inför framtiden - information och utbildning2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 8. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1999-01-13--14 beträffande: kvinnor och trafik - drift och underhåll av trafikens infrastruktur - dataförsörjning idag och i framtiden nytt nationellt prognossystem för persontrafik, SAMPERS - cykeltrafik - intermodala godstransporter1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1996-01-10--111996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1996-01-10--11 beträffande:

    • flyg
    • FoU-behov för järnvägstrafiken med hänsyn till kommunikationskommittens arbete
    • sjöfartsfrågor
    • järnväg
  • 40.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1996-01-10--111996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1996-01-10--11 beträffande:

    • lokal och regional kollektivtrafik
    • logistik och resursutnyttjande
    • infrastruktur och samhälle
    • kvinnligt - manligt - mänskligt, perspektiv på transportforskning och resande
  • 41.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1996-01-10--111996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1996-01-10--11 beträffande:

    • tågtrafik och samhällsutveckling
    • bil och transporter i ett kulturellt perspektiv
    • miljö
    • godstransporter och miljön
    • international workshop
    • biobränslen
    • att forska internationellt
    • el- och hybridfordonen på väg
  • 42.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--091997Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--09 beträffande:

    • logistik utifrån ett flödeskoncept
    • väginformatik
    • den trafikpolitiska beslutsprocessen
    • makt, moral och beslutsfattanden
  • 43.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--091997Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--09 beträffande:

    • IT i vägtrafiken, ett beteendevetenskapligt perspektiv
    • metoder och modeller
    • metoder att mäta värderingar
    • humanioraforskning vid CTS
    • teknisk forskning vid CTS
  • 44.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--091997Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--09 beträffande:

    • nordisk modellutveckling inom markanvändning, transporter och miljö 
    • infrastruktur och tågsystem
    • sjöfartens framtid i infrastrukturen
    • underhåll och drift av vägar
    • isolering och beläggning av Höga Kusten-bron
    • transportforskningens nya villkor
    • Dennnispaketet som metodutvecklare
  • 45.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--091997Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna 1997-01-08--09 beträffande:

    • inledning
    • öppningsanförande
    • bil och transporter i ett kulturellt perspektiv
    • transportinformatik
    • trafikteknik
  • 46.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1998-01-13--14. Del 51998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1998-01-13--14 beträffande:

    biodrivmedel

    sjöfart och transporter

    trafikens luftföroreningar

    fordonsteknik

    sjöfart

  • 47.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1998-01-13--14. Del 61998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1998-01-13--14 beträffande:

    trafikteknik och trafikmodeller

    människan som operatör i vägtrafiksystemet - problem eller resurs

    modeller och GIS

    hållbar utveckling

  • 48.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1998-01-13-14. Del 71998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1998-01-13-14 beträffande:

    gods 

    hur håller vi särintressena i schack?

    internaliseringen av trafikens externeffekter

    kollektivtrafik

  • 49.
    Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. Örebro Universitet.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, 195-205 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty.

    Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Provided that decisions are based on CBA outcomes, reducing uncertainty is still worthwhile, however, because of the huge sums at stake. Even moderate reductions of uncertainties about unit values, investment costs, future demand and project effects may increase the realized benefits infrastructure investment plans by tens or hundreds of million euros. We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 50.
    Barnard, Yvonne
    et al.
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Merat, Natasha
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vanderhaegen, Frederic
    UNIVAL.
    Polet, Philippe
    UNIVAL.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Chalmers.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Kircher, Albert
    Chalmers.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTOP.
    Dimgård, Markus
    MTOP.
    Selection of operator support systems across modes2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Deliverable provides an outline of the process involved in task 2.2 of the ITERATE project forselecting an appropriate set of hypotheses to be tested inWorkpackages 3 (Experimental design andscenario specification), and 4 (Experimental studies).During a workshop with all partners involved in the project, hypotheses were formulated for thethree main system functionalities outlined in D2.1: those that support speed management (SpeedManagement), systems that support system object detection and avoidance (Collision Avoidance)and those that monitor operator state (Operator State). In formulating these hypotheses, partnerswere encouraged to consider systematically the effect of operator state and different operatorgroups on interaction with these three systems. To allow succinct formulation of hypotheses, fouroperator based parameters which are thought to affect operator behaviour with the system, wereidentified: sensation-seeking, hazard perception, fatigue and (high and low) task demand. Informulating hypotheses, partnerswere encouraged to consider the whole process linking a cause toan effect, with a clear mechanism that would link the two.

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