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  • 1. Agustsson, Larus
    Danish experiences with speed zones/variable speed limits2001Ingår i: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:3, s. 12-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Danish Road Safety Action plan in 1989 reduced the number of fatalities and casualties by 30% by the year 2000. The goal of the new Danish Road Safety Action Plan is to reduce the number of fatalities and serious casualties by 40% from 1998 to the year 2012. One of the actions that will be used to actuate this plan is the implementation of speed management and speed zones. This paper discusses the Danish experience with speed zones and variable speed limits

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Numan
    et al.
    National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.
    Ahmed, Anwaar
    National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.
    Shah, Akhtar Ali
    University of Peshawar.
    Effectiveness of enforcement of seatbelt law: an exploratory empirical analysis using aggregate data2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing motorization has enhanced the risk of road traffic crashes worldwide. Enforcing legislation on key risk factors such as seatbelt use by vehicle occupants is critical in reduction of road crash fatalities and injuries. This study estimated an ordered probit model to explore the relationship between effectiveness of enforcement of seatbelt law and different exploratory variables using data from World Health Organization. This study categorizes the enforcement of seatbelt law into four different levels including very low, low, medium and high. Through this study an attempt has been made to establish the relationship between effectiveness of enforcement of seat belt laws and socio-economic conditions, road crash fatalities, road safety legislation and public policies. Model results revealed that effectiveness of enforcement of seat belt law is significantly associated with road crash fatalities per thousand registered vehicles, legislation on cell phone use while driving, availability of training in emergency medicine for doctors, existence of national or sub-national policy for promoting walking and cycling, the existence of funded lead agency and maximum speed limit on rural road of a country. This research aims to provide a preliminary insight to planners and enforcement agencies to identify significance of seatbelt enforcement and suggest measures compatible to the typical socio-cultural and institutional set up for making the roads safer.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Mätteknik och verkstad, MÄT.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Utvärdering av gummiasfalt: provväg E22 Mönsterås : etapp 12019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Laboratorieundersökningar och vägytemätningar utfördes på referens- och gummimodifierade asfaltbeläggningar på E22 Mönsterås.

    Laboratorieundersökningarna visar inte några tydliga skillnader i styvhet och skjuvmodul mellan massorna. Gummiasfalt har dock lägre fasvinkel jämfört med referens vilket betyder att gummiasfalten är mer elastisk. Gummiasfalten visar också lite lägre modul i låga temperaturer och lite högre modul i höga temperaturer vilket är bra för sprickbildning vid låga temperaturer respektive deformationsstabilitet. Utmattningsprovningen visar att gummiasfalt har något bättre utmattningsegenskaper men skillnaderna är inte signifikanta.

    De initiala fältmätningarna visar inte på några framträdande skillnader mellan sträckorna utan mätresultaten är väldigt likvärdiga. Det är dock för tidigt att dra slutsatser efter mindre än ett års trafik och fortsatta tillståndutvecklingen bör följas ytterligare innan slutsatser kan dras. Någon skillnad i spårbildning mellan sträckorna kan inte fastställas p.g.a. systematiska variationer inom provsträckan.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Full scale accelerated pavement tests to evaluate the performance of permeable and skeletal soil block pavement systems2016Ingår i: The Roles of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability: Engineering, Environment, and Economics, Springer International Publishing , 2016, s. 131-144Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing proportion of paved surface due to urbanization means that the conditions for urban trees and vegetation to survive have deteriorated. Factors such as air pollution, poor drainage, and the lack of usable soil for root growth contribute to the short life expectancy of urban trees. To meet this challenge, several permeable and "structural" or "skeletal soils" have been developed as alternatives to the typical compacted soil required to bear the weight of vehicular traffic in urban areas. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the resistance to permanent deformation of permeable and skeletal soil pavement structures based on full scale accelerated pavement tests (APT) using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). Interlocking paving stones of various types were used as permeable surface layer for the test structures. The results demonstrated that the permeable test structures exhibited higher permanent deformation than the corresponding impervious structures. The skeletal soil with bituminous base layer, however, produced performance comparable to the impervious reference test structures.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. KTH.
    Mechanistic-Empirical Modelling of Flexible Pavement Performance: Verifications Using APT Measurements2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic-Empirical  (M-E)  pavement  design  procedures  are  composed  of  a  reliable  response model to estimate the state of stress in the pavement and distress models in order to predict the different types of pavement distresses due to the prevailing traffic and environmental conditions. One of the main objectives of this study was to develop a response model based on multilayer elastic  theory   (MLET)  with  improved  computational  performance  by   optimizing  the   time consuming parts of the MLET processes. A comprehensive comparison of the developed program with  two  widely  used  programs  demonstrated  excellent  agreement  and  improved  computational performance.  Moreover,  the  program  was  extended  to  incorporate  the  viscoelastic  behaviour  of bituminous materials through elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. A procedure based on collocation of linear viscoelastic (LVE) solutions at selected key time durations was also proposed that improved the computational performance for LVE analysis of stationary and moving loads. A comparison  of  the  LVE  responses  with  measurements  from  accelerated  pavement  testing  (APT) revealed a good agreement. Furthermore the developed response model was employed to evaluate permanent deformation models  for  bound  and  unbound  granular  materials  (UGMs)  using  full  scale  APTs.  The  M-E Pavement  Design  Guide  (MEPDG)  model  for  UGMs  and  two  relatively  new  models  were evaluated  to  model  the  permanent  deformation  in  UGMs.  Moreover,  for  bound  materials,  the simplified  form  of  the  MEPDG  model  for  bituminous  bound  layers  was  also  evaluated.  The measured  and  predicted  permanent  deformations  were  in  general  in  good  agreement,  with  only small discrepancies between the models. Finally, as heavy traffic loading is one of the main factors affecting the performance of flexible pavement, three types of characterizations for heavy traffic axle load spectrum for M-E analysis and design of pavement structures were evaluated. The study recommended an improved approach that enhanced the accuracy and computational performance.

    Delarbeten
    1. Evaluation of permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials using accelerated pavement tests
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluation of permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials using accelerated pavement tests
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 178-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic-empirical (M-E) pavement design methods have become the focus of modern pavement design procedure. One of the main distresses that M-E design methods attempt to control is permanent deformation (rutting). The objective of this paper is to evaluate three M-E permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials, one from the US M-E pavement design guide and two other relatively new models. Two series of heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) tests with three different types of base material were used for this purpose. The permanent deformation, wheel loading, pavement temperature, and other material properties were continuously controlled during the HVS tests. Asphalt concrete layers were considered as linear elastic where stress-dependent behaviour of unbound materials was considered when computing responses for the M-E permanent deformation models with a nonlinear elastic response model. Traffic wandering was also accounted for in modelling the traffic by assuming it was normally distributed and a time-hardening approach was applied to add together the permanent deformation contributions from different stress levels. The measured and predicted permanent deformations are in general in good agreement with only small discrepancies between the models. Model parameters were also estimated for three different types of material.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Rutting (wheel), Unbound base, Granular, Stress (in material)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Infrastrukturteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Road: Highway design, Road: Pavement design; Road: Materials, Road: Aggregate and stone materials
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6941 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2012.755936 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-07-17 Skapad: 2014-07-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Modeling of flexible pavement structure behavior: Comparisons with Heavy Vehicle Simulator measurements
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Modeling of flexible pavement structure behavior: Comparisons with Heavy Vehicle Simulator measurements
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Advances in Pavement Design Through Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing / [ed] Jones, Harvey, Mateos & Al-Qadi, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, s. 493-503Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     A response model to be employed in a mechanistic-empirical pavement performance predictionmodel based on multilayer elastic theory has been developed. An iterative approach using a method of successiveover-relaxation of a stress dependency model is used to account for the nonlinear behavior of unbound materials. Asphalt and subgrade materials are assumed to be linear elastic. The response model was verified against two series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) response measurements made under a variety of wheel loadconfigurations and at different pavement temperatures. A comparison with Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)data was also carried out. The model was subsequently used to predict permanent deformation from the HVS testing using simple work hardening models. A time hardening approach has been adopted to combine permanentdeformation contributions from stress levels of different magnitude.The response model outputs and the predictedpermanent deformations were generally in good agreement with the measurements.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2012
    Nyckelord
    Pavement, Simulation, Deflectograph, Model
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsbyggnadsteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Road: Highway design, Road: Pavement design
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6942 (URN)10.1201/b13000-61 (DOI)ISBN 978-0-415-62138-0 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 4th International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-07-17 Skapad: 2014-07-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-08-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Fast layered elastic response program for the analysis of flexible pavement structures
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fast layered elastic response program for the analysis of flexible pavement structures
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 196-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key components in analysing pavement structural behaviour is the response model which is used to estimate the stresses, strains and displacements of the pavement structure subjected to the existing traffic, taking into account the material properties and prevailing environmental conditions. Multilayer elastic theory (MLET) is often preferred over other methods such as the finite element method, due to its computational performance for repeated applications. A new elastic response analysis program has been developed based on the Burmister MLET theory to calculate the response of flexible pavement structures. In the development of the program, the time-consuming part of MLET processes was optimised. To improve the convergence and accuracy of responses in the vicinity of the surface of the top layer, an approach based on Richardson's extrapolation was employed. Moreover, an iterative approach to model stress dependency of unbound granular materials was incorporated. A comprehensive comparison of the program with two frequently used programs demonstrated an excellent agreement and improved performance.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Elasticity, Flexible pavement, Model (not math)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsbyggnadsteknik
    Forskningsämne
    Road: Highway design, Road: Surfacing
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6944 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2012.757558 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-07-17 Skapad: 2014-07-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Characterization of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applications
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Characterization of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applications
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 488-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

     Heavy traffic axle load spectrum (ALS) is  one of the key inputs for mechanistic-empirical analysis and design of pavement structures. Frequently, the entire ALS is aggregated into Equivalent Number of Single Axle Loads (ESAL) or assumed to have Constant Contact  Area  (CCA)  or  Constant  Contact  Pressure  (CCP).  These characterizations affect the accuracy and computational performance of the pavement analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate these  characterizations  based  on  predicted  performances  to  rutting and fatigue cracking of several pavement structures subjected to ALS data collected from 12 Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion stations. The results indicated  that  for  layers  below  the  top  25  cm,  all  characterizations produced similar values of predicted rutting. However, for the top 25 cm, the methods differed in the predicted performances to rutting and fatigue cracking. Furthermore an improvement to the CCA approach was proposed that enhanced the accuracy while maintaining the same level of computational performance.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Axle load, Heavy vehicle, Pavement design, Rutting, Cracking, Prediction, Accuracy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Infrastrukturteknik
    Forskningsämne
    30 Road: Highway design, 32 Road: Pavement design
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6945 (URN)10.1080/10298436.2014.943131 (DOI)000354458200003 ()2-s2.0-84929283717 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-07-17 Skapad: 2014-07-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Viscoelastic modelling of pavement structure behaviour in a full scale accelerated pavement test
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Viscoelastic modelling of pavement structure behaviour in a full scale accelerated pavement test
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Viscoelasticity, Full scale, Flexible pavement, Test, Performance, Deformation, Model (not math), Rutting (wheel)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsbyggnadsteknik
    Forskningsämne
    30 Road: Highway design, 32 Road: Pavement design
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6947 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-07-17 Skapad: 2014-07-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. Evaluation of permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures by means of extra-large wheel tracking and full scale accelerated pavement tests
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluation of permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures by means of extra-large wheel tracking and full scale accelerated pavement tests
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    Rutting, Deformation, Bituminous mixture, Flexible pavement, Mathematical model, Full scale, Test
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsbyggnadsteknik
    Forskningsämne
    30 Road: Highway design, 32 Road: Pavement design
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6949 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-07-17 Skapad: 2014-07-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-01-25Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 6.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Biligiri, Krishna Prapoorna
    Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur .
    Hakim, Hassan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    An Algorithm to Estimate Rational Values of Phase Angles and Moduli of Asphalt Mixtures2013Ingår i: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology (IJPRT), ISSN ISSN 1997-1400, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 745-754Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an algorithm based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that can calculate rational values of phase angle (f) and moduli of the variants of asphalt mixtures for the data obtained from the different frequency sweep tests. f and moduli for ten different asphalt mixtures resulting in over 690 data points collected from both USA and Sweden were computed using FFT. Theoretical observations revealed that there were significant differences for f between FFT and other methods to the order of 10-50%; however, there was no difference in moduli estimates for any mix and was independent of the test. Precisely, the FFT method produced rational f for mixtures that deviate from conventional mixture properties. Furthermore, statistical comparisons corroborated the predicted f estimates indicative of significant differences between the analysis techniques; but, the moduli were unaffected by the analysis methods. The study successfully illustrated the FFT technique, a user-friendly analytical procedure that can obviate the errors in the rational estimation of the acutely sensitive viscoelastic parameters.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Characterization of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applications2015Ingår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 488-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Heavy traffic axle load spectrum (ALS) is  one of the key inputs for mechanistic-empirical analysis and design of pavement structures. Frequently, the entire ALS is aggregated into Equivalent Number of Single Axle Loads (ESAL) or assumed to have Constant Contact  Area  (CCA)  or  Constant  Contact  Pressure  (CCP).  These characterizations affect the accuracy and computational performance of the pavement analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate these  characterizations  based  on  predicted  performances  to  rutting and fatigue cracking of several pavement structures subjected to ALS data collected from 12 Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion stations. The results indicated  that  for  layers  below  the  top  25  cm,  all  characterizations produced similar values of predicted rutting. However, for the top 25 cm, the methods differed in the predicted performances to rutting and fatigue cracking. Furthermore an improvement to the CCA approach was proposed that enhanced the accuracy while maintaining the same level of computational performance.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Evaluation of a permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures using extra-large wheel-tracking and heavy vehicle simulator tests2015Ingår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 154-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates a mechanistic–empirical permanent strain model for asphalt concrete mixtures. The evaluation was carried out based on two different types of tests: an extra-large wheel-tracking (ELWT) test and a full-scale accelerated pavement test using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). Asphalt slabs from three different types of asphalt mixtures were prepared for the ELWT test and tested at several pavement temperatures and tyre inflation pressures. Lateral wandering was also incorporated.

    The measured permanent deformations in the asphalt slabs were thereafter modelled using the permanent strain model from the US Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide and model parameters were estimated for the three types of mixes. For validation, data from an HVS tested pavement structure consisting of the same asphalt mixtures as those tested using the ELWT were used. A set of calibration factors for the three mixtures were therefore obtained between the two tests. In all cases, the calibration factors were within ±20% from unity. Differences in geometry, scale, wheel loading configuration as well as the speed of loading between the two test devices could be the possible reasons for the differences in observed calibration factors.

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Evaluation of permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials using accelerated pavement tests2013Ingår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 178-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic-empirical (M-E) pavement design methods have become the focus of modern pavement design procedure. One of the main distresses that M-E design methods attempt to control is permanent deformation (rutting). The objective of this paper is to evaluate three M-E permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials, one from the US M-E pavement design guide and two other relatively new models. Two series of heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) tests with three different types of base material were used for this purpose. The permanent deformation, wheel loading, pavement temperature, and other material properties were continuously controlled during the HVS tests. Asphalt concrete layers were considered as linear elastic where stress-dependent behaviour of unbound materials was considered when computing responses for the M-E permanent deformation models with a nonlinear elastic response model. Traffic wandering was also accounted for in modelling the traffic by assuming it was normally distributed and a time-hardening approach was applied to add together the permanent deformation contributions from different stress levels. The measured and predicted permanent deformations are in general in good agreement with only small discrepancies between the models. Model parameters were also estimated for three different types of material.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Mechanistic modelling of HVS flexible pavement structure2012Ingår i: EPAM 2012: Malmö, Sweden, 5–7 September: 4th European pavement and asset management conference, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2012, , s. 13Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A response model to be employed in a mechanistic-empirical pavement performance prediction model based on multilayer elastic theory has been developed. An iterative approach using a method of successive over-relaxation of stress dependency model is used to account for the nonlinear behaviour of unbound materials. Asphalt and subgrade materials are assumed as linear elastic. The response model is verified using heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) response measurements made under variety of wheel load configurations and at different pavement temperatures. The permanent deformation behaviours of the HVS structure is also modelled using mechanistic empirical approach and by employing permanent deformation prediction models. A time hardening approach has been applied to combine permanent deformation contributions from stress levels of different magnitude. The response model outputs and the predicted permanent deformations are in general in good agreement with the measurements.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Numerical validation of viscoelastic responses of a pavement structure in a full-scale accelerated pavement test2015Ingår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the application of a generalised layered linear viscoelastic (LVE) analysis for estimating the structural response of flexible pavements. A comparison of the direct layered viscoelastic responses with approximate solutions based on the linear elastic (LE) and LVE collocation methods was also carried out. The different approaches were implemented by extending a layered elastic program with an improved computational performance. The LE and LVE collocation methods were further extended for analysis of pavements under moving loads.

    The methods were illustrated by analysing a pavement structure subjected to moving wheel loads of 30, 50, 60 and 80 kN using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The various responses (stresses and strains) in the pavement, at pavement temperatures of 0, 10 and 20°C, were measured using various types of sensors installed in the structure. It was shown that the approximated LVE solution based on the LE collocation method agreed very well with the measurements and is computationally the least expensive.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA. University of Iceland.
    Viscoelastic Response Modelling of a Pavement under Moving Load2016Ingår i: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, s. 748-757Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the application of a generalized layered linear viscoelastic (LVE) analysis for estimating flexible pavements' structural response. The procedure is based on the Multi-Layered Elastic Theory (MLET) and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle using a numerical inverse Laplace transform. A comparison of the direct layered viscoelastic responses with approximate solutions based on the elastic collocation method was also carried out. Furthermore, it is proposed to use the collocation method using LVE solutions at selected time durations in order to improve the accuracy of the elastic collocation method. The LVE collocation method was further extended for analysis of moving loads. The method was illustrated by analysing a pavement structure subjected to moving wheel loads of 30, 50, 60 and 80 kN using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The various responses (stresses and strains) in the pavement, at different pavement temperatures, were measured using various types of sensors installed in the structure. The LVE calculations agreed very well with the measurements.

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Impact of longer and heavier vehicles on the performance of asphalt pavements: A laboratory study2018Ingår i: Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields, BCRRA 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, s. 483-490Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, Longer and Heavier Vehicles (LHVs) have been permitted to operate in Sweden. Since 1996 and as of the beginning of 2015, the maximum gross vehicle weight of 60 tons and a length of up to 25.25 m have been permitted. The Swedish Transport Administration has decided to further increase the maximum gross vehicle weight to 74 tons and studies are undergoing to evaluate the impact of the proposed LHVs on existing transport infrastructure. To this end, repeated load triaxial tests and indirect tensile fatigue tests were conducted on selected conventional asphalt mixtures to investigate and quantify the impact of single, tandem and tridem axle configurations on permanent deformation and fatigue performances of conventional asphalt pavements. In addition, fatigue tests for selected LHV scenarios were conducted. This paper presents the results of the laboratory tests and simulations conducted. The test results have clearly demonstrated the impact of the different axle configurations on the rutting and fatigue performances of the mixture. Furthermore, such results can explain the significance of axle configuration on modelling the rutting and fatigue performances of asphalt pavements.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Impact of tire types and configurations on responses of a thin pavement structure2018Ingår i: Advances in Materials and Pavement Performance Prediction: Proceedings of the International AM3P Conference, 2018, London: CRC Press , 2018, s. 271-274Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of tire and tire configurations on the responses of a thin asphalt pavement structure by means of full-scale tests using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). A total of six different types of tires, four single and two dual tire configurations, were investigated. The structure was instrumented to measure tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt layer and vertical stresses and strains in the unbound base, subbase and subgrade layers. The results indicated that, in general, single tire configurations produced higher tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer and higher vertical stresses and strains in unbound base, subbase and subgrade layers.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    Nynäs AB.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Mätteknik och verkstad, MÄT.
    Pavement performance follow-up and evaluation of polymer-modified test sections2018Ingår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 2003 and 2006, a test road consisting of several conventional and polymer-modified structures was built on a motorway. Different combinations of styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer-modified binders were used. The test structures have been in service since then and have been monitored for over 9 years. The resistance of the different types of asphalt concrete mixes to rutting and cracking was measured and predicted. The impact of ageing on the mixes was also evaluated. Although all the sections are in good condition after 9 years of traffic, the predicted differences between the test sections based on the PEDRO (Permanent Deformation of asphalt concrete layers for Roads) approach and laboratory evaluations are noticeable. Lateral wander and transverse profile measurements indicated that studded winter tyre wear contributed to most of the rutting compared to permanent deformation due to heavy traffic. The unmodified mixes exhibited considerable ageing and the SBS-modified mixes were least affected by ageing. Furthermore, the SBS-modified base mix produced significantly better fatigue resistance than the conventional base mix. However, further investigations of the relationships between bitumen and mix properties and further follow-ups of the test sections are recommended to validate the findings.

  • 16.
    Alfredsson, Magnus
    et al.
    NCC.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Hintze, Staffan
    NCC.
    Johansson, Bo
    NCC.
    Lundström, Robert
    NCC.
    Winnerholt, Tomas
    Trafikverket.
    Funktionskriterier för vägkonstruktioner: Förstudie2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det projekt som här rapporteras har som syfte att identifiera och beskriva de svårigheter och möjligheter som totalentreprenader medför, respektive erbjuder, för alla parter. Målet är att utveckla totalentreprenader på ett sådant sätt att branschens effektivitet ökas. Denna rapport är en förstudie där det studerats vilka krav som byggherren ska ställa på utföraren av en vägkonstruktion i en totalentreprenad med funktionsansvar och hur utföraren ska verifiera kraven. Arbetet har genomförts med medlemmar från olika aktörer i branschen och omfattat främst litteraturstudier och intervjuer. Kunskaper och erfarenheter har sammanställts och analyserats för att slutligen kondenseras ned till ett antal förslag till fortsatt arbete.

    Förstudien har pekat ut ett antal områden som viktiga för att påskynda framtida utveckling av totalentreprenader:

    Terminologi – idag råder viss begreppsförvirring

    Analys av funktionella krav i tidigare projekt

    Trafikantkrav

    Miljökrav

    Utveckling av funktionella krav i samverkan

    Väghållarekonomi

    Regelbetingade begränsningar av funktionella krav

    Uppföljning och underlättande av erfarenhetsackumulering

    Implementering av nya mått och mätmetoder

  • 17.
    Allirani, Hemanthini
    et al.
    National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli.
    Santhakumar, Moses
    National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli.
    Kumar, Kavitha
    National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli.
    Analysis of factors influencing traffic accidents: a case study of Tiruchirappalli city2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Road safety is a major concern in many developing countries including India. Road accidents are responsible for an increase in deaths and disability throughout the world. Road accidents lead to loss of life, property and affect the general welfare of the people and the economy. India accounts for 10% of global road accidents and has the highest death rate in the world. In India, traffic fatalities have increased by 4.6% from 2014 to 2015. The analysis of road accident data reveals that about 57 accidents and 17 deaths take place every hour on an average in Indian roads. Road accidents have been increasing alarmingly in Tamil Nadu, being a major state contributing to total no. of accidents in India. Tamil Nadu reported the highest number of road accidents in 2015 sharing about 13.8% of the total accidents in the country. Tamil Nadu accounts for about 10.7% and 15.9% of total road fatalities and injury accidents in the entire country. Tamil Nadu ranked second highest and first in the country for fatalities and minor injury accidents.

    A case study of Tiruchirappalli city is considered for the present study. Tiruchirappalli city is situated at the geographical center of Tamil Nadu. Every year, a number of people are killed or injured due to road accidents. In Tiruchirappalli between the year 2010 and 2015, about 924 fatal accidents were reported and 974 people were killed due to road accidents. Hence, it is essential to find solutions to mitigate the problem. Road accidents are influenced by many factors such as traffic flow, geometric design of road sections, horizontal curvature, vertical grade, lane width, and shoulder width etc. Predicting the exact cause for the road accident is complex. Studies were done relating the factors like traffic volume, speed, road characteristics, road geometrics etc., with the road accidents. This study focuses on analysing road accident data and the relationship between various factors influencing road accidents so that suitable accident remedial measures can be suggested to enhance road safety.

  • 18. Alten, Karoline
    et al.
    Deix, Stefan
    Peelen, Willy
    Wessels, Jos
    Courage, Wim
    Ravnikar Turk, Mojca
    Skaric Palic, Sandra
    Acalin, Nina
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Asset service condition assessment methodology (ASCAM Project)2012Ingår i: EPAM 2012, Malmö, Sweden, 5–7 September: 4th European pavement and asset management conference, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2012, , s. 12Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating financial resources among different sub-assets of a country’s road infrastructure is a challenge that is highly dependent on the strategic priorities and organisational structure of the infrastructure operator. While some agencies in Europe deal with pavements, bridges, tunnels or road furniture completely independently, others find that they have one mutual budget that needs to be shared out among the different assets in a way that represents their respective need for maintenance. The criteria upon which such allocations are based may be political, empirical, or based on stakeholder/user interests. The goal of the project ASCAM – Asset Service Condition Assessment Methodology – was to develop a framework for cross-asset management that can be used to objectively assign a budget to certain assets. While previous research projects have already compiled lists of various key performance indicators, ASCAM aimed to find mutual indices such as an “end user service level” that could be used to judge all sub-assets on equal terms and thus compare their condition on the same scale.

    By looking at asset management in the ASCAM partner countries and other European road agencies, the best-practice in individual asset management was extracted to develop the framework and perform a proof-of-concept for the project. While other projects such as PROCROSS within the same ERA-NET call also worked on cross-asset management – but from a top-down approach – ASCAM’s bottom-up approach looked at the more technical aspects of evaluating infrastructure condition and making a budgetary assignment based on the current and predicted state of the assets.

  • 19.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Drift och underhåll av grusvägar: litteraturstudie1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grusvägarna omfattar en väsentlig del av det svenska vägnätet. Det statliga vägnätet omfattar 98 015 km väg varav 22 136 km (22%) är grusvägar (1997). Förutom de statliga grusvägarna finns även ca 35000 km enskilda grusvägar med statsbidrag och ca 210 000 km skogsbilvägar.

    Föreliggande litteraturstudie ingår som en första del i doktorandprojektet "”Effektiva produktionsmetoder inom drift och underhåll av grusvägar”".

    Denna rapport behandlar drift och underhåll av grusvägar huvudsakligen med inriktning mot grusslitlagret under barmarksperioden. I Sverige och de nordiska länderna infaller denna period normalt mellan maj och oktober. Med begreppet ”Drift och underhåll av grusvägar” menas i denna rapport all verksamhet som berör skötsel av grusvägar så att vägen hålls i farbart skick. Litteraturstudien består av tio kapitel vars rubriker finns i följande avsnitt:

    Kapitel 1 "Inledning", kapitel 2 "Grundläggande begrepp", kapitel 3 "Allmänt om vägnätet", kapitel 4 "Nedbrytning av grusvägar", kapitel 5 "Tekniska krav på grusvägar i Sverige", kapitel 6 "Faktorer som påverkar underhållet av grusvägar", kapitel 7 "Metoder för drift och underhåll av grusvägar", kapitel 8 "Tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar", kapitel 9 "Planering och värdering av drift- och underhålls-åtgärder", kapitel 10 "Referenser", Kapitel 11 "Figur- och tabellförteckning".

  • 20.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Miljöeffekter av dammbindning av grusvägar1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Operation and maintenance of gravel roads: a literature study1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravel roads form a large percentage of the road network in Sweden. The public road network under the jurisdiction of the Swedish National Road Administration has a total length of some 98,000 kilometres. About 22,000 km of this network consists of gravel roads. In addition, there are about 74,000 kilometres of private road and 210,000 kilometres of forest roads. The report describes the present position in the operation and maintenance of gravel roads. It presents a comprehensive literature survey of current and recent national and international research. It deals only with summer maintenance and focuses primarily on roads surfaced with aggregate. The following areas are treated in the report: - Definitions and terms regarding the operation and maintenance of gravel roads.- General description of the Swedish road network. - Major factors causing deterioration of gravel roads. - Technical requirements for Swedish gravel roads. - Factors, which influence the operation and maintenance of gravel roads. - Operation and maintenance methods. - Condition assessment of gravel roads. - Planning and evaluation of operation and maintenance measures.

  • 22.
    Alzubaidi, Hossein
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar: en sammanfattning av: On rating of gravel roads. Doctoral thesis at the Division of Highway Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till avhandlingen är att en metod for tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar utgör en viktig del av ett styrsystem som skall leda till effektivitet i underhållsverksamheter. Vägverket tillämpar en metod för tillståndsbedömning av grusvägar, förkortad VVMB 106, vilken tar hänsyn till jämnhet, löst grus samt damm. Representativa 100 m långa slumpvalda grusvägsdelsträckor används för själva bedömningen. Delsträckans tillstånd indelas i klass 1 (god), klass 2 (godtagbar) eller klass 3 (dålig). Tillståndet bedöms tillfredsställande om delsträckan placeras i klass 1 eller klass 2 avseende jämnhet och bundenhet, annars bedöms det otillfredsställande. Syftet med avhandlingen är dels att analysera VVMB 106 för att finna dess svagheter, dels att utveckla en ny och förbättrad metod.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    Swedish Transport Administration.
    Suicide And Accident Classification Method Used In Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2010 Sweden has been presenting statistics on suicides in road traffic separately from that on fatalities caused by accidents. To undertake this, a method has been developed for classification of road traffic fatalities in order to determine if the fatality was caused by an accident or by a suicide. For more information, see abstract nr 180: “Suicide and accident classification methodology”.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Svensson, Kenneth
    Trafikverket.
    Suicide and accident classification methodology2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatalities in road traffic are not only due to accidents, some of them are suicides. Sweden has since 2010 described statistics on suicides in road traffic separately from fatalities caused by accidents. To implement this, a method has been developed for classification of road traffic fatalities in order to determine if the fatality was caused by an accident or by a suicide.The work has been carried out in cooperation between The Swedish Transport Administration, The Swedish Transport Agency, The National Board of Forensic Medicine and Suicide Prevention Western Sweden.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    AB Previa/ARA miljö.
    Jacobson, Torbjörn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Persson, Bengt-Olle
    Peab Asfalt.
    Tillsatsmedel i asfalt: påverkan på arbetsmiljö och omgivning (2006-02-06). Slutrapport2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vissa tillsatsmedel upplevs idag som besvärliga för arbetsmiljön vid tillverkning och utläggning av asfaltmassa. Vidstående projekt som finansierats av SBUF och Peab Asfalt AB syftar till att ta fram relevanta fakta om tillsatsmedel och dess hälso- och miljöproblem. Projektet har dels inriktats som en förstudie av vad som hitintills har gjorts inom asfaltmiljöområdet både i Sverige och i utlandet, dels kompletterande fältmätningar vid asfaltläggning av polymermodifierad asfalt. Studien har utförts i samarbete mellan Peab Asfalt AB, VTI och Previa/ARA-miljö.

  • 26.
    Andersson, G
    et al.
    Svenska Väginstitutet.
    Lundeberg, Erik
    Svenska Väginstitutet.
    Undersökningar rörande bromslängden för bilar vid olika väglag1931Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Bullervärden för samhällsekonomisk analys: beräkningar för väg- och järnvägsbuller2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Noise is a significant social problem. For example, more than 20 per cent of the European Union's population is exposed to higher noise than what is considered acceptable. The transport sector is a major contributor to society's increasing noise problem, due to increased traffic volumes and urbanization exposing more people to noise. Road traffic is admittedly the largest individual noise source in the transport sector, but other transport modes such as aircraft and railways are also responsible for considerable noise emissions. Noise entails costs for the society. This fact, and that society has different needs, means that policies and projects to reduce noise levels need to be evaluated to secure an efficient resource allocation. Benefit cost analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate noise abatement, but it requires both benefits and costs to be measured in a common metric, i.e. in monetary values. Today's official monetary values for all modes are based on the impact of road-traffic noise on property prices. It is a well established fact that the disturbance which individuals experience differs between modes, and therefore there is a need to estimate monetary values based on the respective modes. This report focuses on road and rail noise, two noise sources with different characteristics. This study describes the need to revise the current official Swedish policy values for noise abatement. Current values for road-traffic noise show a progressive relationship between the social cost and the noise level that is too strong, and values for railway noise has been missing and instead based on results for road noise. Valuation of health effects should also be based on EKM since it is sanctioned within the EU, instead of the approach now proposed by ASEK based on estimated total social costs from noise exposure in relation to estimates from willingness to pay studies.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    The effects on accidents of compulsory use of running lights during daylight in Sweden1981Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is an attempt to describe the effects on accidents of compulsory use of running lights - low beam or special lamps - during daylight in Sweden.

    The study is carried out on police reported traffic accidents with personal injury in Sweden. The before and after periods are two years before and two years after the operative day of the law, October 1st 1977.

    The use of running lights in the before-period was roughly speaking 50 % and in the after-period over 95 %.

    The basic assumption is that the use of running lights in daylight influences multiple accidents in daylight and only those. The method used is to study the relation of daylight to darkness numbers of multiple accidents. The corresponding relation for single vehicle accidents is taken as control.

    The estimated total effect depends both on the subdivision of accident data and the method used for accidents with unprotected road users. The estimates vary from 6 to 13 % reduction - from the before-period to the after period - of multiple accidents during daylight or 450 to 1100 less police reported accidents with personal injury per year. The estimated effects are not significant on a 5 % level.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Marginal railway renewal costs: a survival data approach2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1 500 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull accelerated failure time regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Smith, Andrew
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Wheat, Phillip
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds.
    The marginal cost of railway track renewals: a sample selection modelling approach2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic theory advocates marginal cost pricing for efficient utilisation of transport infrastructure. A growing body of literature has emerged on the issue of marginal infrastructure wear and tear costs, but the majority of the work is focused on costs for infrastructure maintenance. Railway track renewals are a substantial part of an infrastructure manager’s budget, but in disaggregated statistical analyses, they cause problems for traditional regression models since there is a piling up of values of the dependent variable at zero. Previous econometric work has sought to circumvent the problem by aggregation in some way. In this paper we work with disaggregate (track-section) data, including the zero observations, but apply censored and sample selection regression models to overcome the bias that would result from estimation using OLS. We derive track renewal cost elasticities with respect to traffic volumes and in turn marginal renewal costs using Swedish railway renewal data over the period 1999 to 2009. Our paper is the first paper in the literature that we are aware of to report usage elasticities specifically for renewal costs and therefore adds important new evidence to the previous literature where there is a paucity of studies on renewals and considerable uncertainty over the effects of rail traffic on renewal costs. In the Swedish context, we find that the inclusion of marginal track renewal costs in the track access pricing regime, which currently only reflects marginal maintenance costs, would add substantially to the existing track access charge.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Bestämning av vägkonstruktioners egenskaper genom upprepad belastning1970Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    An explanation to the VTI FILTER documents2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Andrén, Peter
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Fyrhjulsmodeller för bestämning av vägojämnhet: dokumentation av verksamhet på VTI 2002-–20112012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Normalt beräknas längsgående ojämnheter på svenska vägar med måttet International Roughness Index (IRI). Detta mått beräknas från en längsprofil, och beskriver den ackumulerade rörelsen mellan hjul och chassi (fjäderrörelse) på en kvartsbilmodell. Resultatet redovisas som fjäderrörelse per färdad längd, vanligtvis millimeter per meter. IRI-modellen beskriver endast rörelsen i vertikalled, dessutom med en ganska orealistisk fordonsmodell som alltid går i 80 km/h. Denna rapport redovisar arbetet med att ta fram en så kallad FullCar-modell (möjligtvis helbilsmodell på svenska, men jag fortsätter att använda ”FullCar” som en generellt beteckning i denna rapport) som kan användas för en mer realistisk modellering av ett fordons rörelser under normal färd. Fördelen med en, ur fordonssynpunkt, mer realistisk modell är att man kan konstruera mått som stämmer bättre överens med det som förare och passagerare upplever när de färdas på vägen. Det bör nämnas att det tidigare har visats att det finns en relativt hög korrelation mellan IRI och hur förare och passagerare upplever vägens tillstånd. En FullCar-modell borde dock kunna ge mer detaljerad information om vägytans effekt på fordonet. Till exempel skulle en lastbilsmodell kunna detektera avsnitt med farliga tvärfall. En realistiskt fordonsmodell skulle även kunna användas till nedbrytningsstudier av vägar, där vägytan dels slits av överfarter, dels deformeras av kontaktkrafter. Med en enkel modell skulle hundratusentals överfarter kunna simuleras på några minuter.

  • 34.
    Andrén, Peter
    Datamani.
    Tema Vintermodell: etapp 3: dokumentation av programkod2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vintermodellen är ett verktyg som ger underlag för att bestämma strategier för vinterväghållning.

    Föreliggande dokument är avsett att vara ett stöd för framtida utveckling av programkoden till Vintermodellen. Ingen manual har skrivits tidigare eftersom programmet till Vintermodellen endast används inom VTI.

    Matlab-programmet till Vintermodellen skrevs från januari 2013 till mars 2014. En stor del av det arbete som presenteras i föreliggande dokument utgjordes av en omstrukturering av koden, samt flytt av indata från Matlab-koden till kalkylark (Excel-filer).

    Redovisningen inleds med viss grundläggande information som är av stor vikt vid körningen av vintermodellen. I kapitel 6–8 beskrivs koden i stora drag. I slutet av redovisningen beskrivs möjligheter för export av resultaten.

    Trafikverket äger Vintermodellen och ansvarar för vidareutveckling av verktyget. VTI förvaltar Vintermodellen på Trafikverkets uppdrag.

  • 35.
    Andrén, Peter
    et al.
    Datamani.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Prognosmodeller för tillståndsmått i Trafikverkets Pavement Management System: IRI och spårdjup2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägytans tillstånd på det statliga svenska vägnätet har inventerats med mätbil sedan 1987. Av kostnadsskäl mäts inte alla vägar varje år, istället kan man använda modeller som prognostiserar tillståndet för de år då mätningar saknas. Syftet med vägytemätningarna är att förse Trafikverkets Pavement Management System (PMS) med tillståndsdata. De främsta användningsområdena för tillståndsmåtten är: • Beskrivning av det övergripande vägtillståndet och tillståndförändringen för att bedöma hur valda drift- och underhållsstrategier lyckats. • Stöd vid underhållsplanering. • Underlag vid beräkning av framtida underhållsbehov. • Stöd vid val av åtgärdsmetod. • Kontroll av utförande av byggnation eller underhåll. • Stöd vid forskning. Trafikverket har behov av en fullständig tillståndsbeskrivning av vägnätet, bland annat för att kunna redovisa för regering och riksdag hur uppdraget att underhålla statens vägar fullföljs. Ett sätt att årligen beskriva tillståndet för hela vägnätet är att använda modeller som prognostiserar tillståndet för de år då mätningar saknas. I valet mellan att använda en global eller lokal modell för att beskriva tillståndsutvecklingen för IRI (International Roughness Index) och spårdjup på enskilda 100-meterssegment visar rapporten att en modell med lokal anpassning är att föredra. Vid anpassning av en global modell får forskarna inte tillräckligt hög förklaringsgrad och ser inte heller ett konsekvent mönster i regressionskoefficienterna för de förklaringsvariabler som provats.

  • 36.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Räfflor: effekter och konsekvenser av olika räffeltyper vid mitträffling på 2-fältsvägar2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Längsgående räfflor i vägbanan är ett sätt att påkalla förares uppmärksamhet när de ofrivilligt är på väg att lämna körfältet. Hur räfflorna kan se ut varierar. Dels finns de mer konventionella intermittenta räfflorna som används i Sverige. Dessa räfflor har tydliga kanter med en plan yta mellan räfflorna. Dels finns de mer sinusformade räfflorna som är vågformade utan en plan yta mellan de nedsänkta räfflorna. Sinusräfflan har uppkommit med en förväntan att den ska minska nivån av externt buller. Jämförelsen har haft som avsikt att beakta externt buller, internt buller, vibrationer, skador i vägbeläggningen och slitage samt kostnader för utförandet. Variationerna i mätresultat är stora för såväl intermittenta räfflor som för sinusräfflor. Resultaten visar att den konventionella räfflan bedöms ge en ökning av externt buller på 2–8 dB(A). Motsvarande siffra för sinusräfflan är 0,0–4 dB(A). Vidare kan det konstateras att den skillnad man ser i externt buller är att sinusräfflan ger mer lågfrekvent buller (30–40Hz) jämfört med andra typer av räfflor som ligger 60–160 Hz högre. När det gäller det interna bullret så har de flesta studier fokuserat på personbilar och där ser man en ökning av internt buller vid körning på intermittent räffla på 13–17 dB(A) och på sinusräffla på 1–6 dB(A). Resultat från simulatorstudier visar att även låga nivåer av internt buller är till hjälp för förare som är på väg att lämna körfältet beroende på sömnighet.

  • 37.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Räfflor i mitten av körfältet: ett försök i Skaulo2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the study was to evaluate the effects on road user behavior when using milled rumble strips in the centre of the lane on a road 6.5 meters wide. The evaluation included measurements of speed and lateral position. Measurements were done before and after milling, and focus group interviews were perfomed with motorcyclists and truck drivers after realisation. The results of the measurements of speed and lateral position showed that milled rumble strips in the middle of the lane do not affect car drivers. A slight increase in the standard deviation of the lateral position for passenger cars may be noted. Truck drivers were affected slightly more: significantly lower speed was detected as well as that trucks moved closer to the road centre, and the standard deviation of lateral position increased. This is not what the drivers themselves report to experience. They say that their choice of speed is unchanged. All in all truck drivers were negative to the rumble strips in the centre of the lane. One argument was that they disturbe the "line" during the drive and make it difficult to choose the placement they want to have. Truck drivers do not believe that they, in case of falling asleep, (in contrary to expectations) would have time enough to act in order to aviod a crash, since the roads are too narrow. Also the motorcyclists are negative to the centre lane location of rumble strips. They agree, however, that rumble strips in the centre of the road and in the roadside are postitive in terms of traffic safety.

  • 38.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Dukic, Tania
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    CERTH/HIT.
    Project presentation2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a European research project carried out by research institutes, universities and industry in order to enhance safety for children on their daily way to school. SAFEWAY2SCHOOL aims to design, develop, integrate and evaluate technologies for providing a holistic and safe transportation service for children, from their home door to the school door and vice versa, encompassing tools, services and training for all key actors in the relevant transportation chain. These include optimal route planning and rerouting for school buses to maximize safety, on-board safety applications (i.e. for speed control and seat belts), "intelligent" bus stops, effective warning and information systems for bus drivers, children, parents and the surrounding traffic; as well as training schemes for all actors. The project innovative systems, services and training schemes will be tested in 4 sites Europewide, including North (Sweden), Central (Austria), South (Italy) and Eastern (Poland) Europe; to evaluate their usability, efficiency, user acceptance and market viability; taking into account the very different children's transportation to/from school systems across the different European regions as well as key cultural and socio-economic aspects.

  • 39.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Fors, Carina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Eriksson, Jennie
    Occas AB.
    Utvärderingsmodell för ITS-baserade system vid hållplats: kunskapsöversikt och förslag på forskningsbehov2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns nya produkter av typen varningssystem som syftar till att öka säkerhet och trygghet för oskyddade trafikanter. De har ofta tagits fram med särskilt fokus på barn. Produktutvecklarna har utvärderat sina produkter med positiva resultat och intresset hos Trafikverket och kommuner är stort för flera av dessa produkter. En typ av system är utmärkning vid hållplatser där blinkande ljus aktiveras när det finns oskyddade trafikanter i närheten, ett så kallat ITS-baserat varningssystem. Det finns idag ett antal platser i landet där sådana anläggningar är i bruk som ”försök” och det har skett utvärderingar av valda system vid hållplats som visat att systemen sannolikt är effektiva när det gäller att reducera hastigheten hos förbipasserande. Det finns dock en avsaknad av ett samlat utvärderingsupplägg. Avsaknaden av systematisk utvärdering har bidragit till bristen på formella beslut för att integrera denna typ av produkt i Vägar och Gators Utformning, VGU eller i Trafiklagstiftningen. I Trafikverkets region Stockholm har man utifrån resenärernas behov och i samarbete med kommunerna kring glesbygdsproblematik, särskilt intresse i att dessa produkter blir möjliga att använda. En förutsättning för detta är en systematisk utvärdering med avseende på om ett specifikt system fyller den funktion som det var avsett att fylla.

  • 40.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Boende, pendlare och lastbilsförare tycker till om riksväg 23 och riksväg 402012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är tydligt att de boende vid en väg vill vara delaktiga när en ombyggnation genomförs i deras närområde. Enligt en studie som VTI har gjort skulle Trafikverket med stor sannolikhet tjäna på att göra de boende mer delaktiga under processen och att tydligt informera om trafiksäkerhetspotentialen i de åtgärder som genomförs. En ökad kunskap om åtgärdernas potentiella bidrag till säkerheten kan förväntas ge en ökad acceptans.

    Syftet med VTI-studien angående riksvägarna 23 och 40 var att få en bild av hur ombyggnation uppfattas av boende och resande samt av lastbilsförare.

    Lastbilsförarna som deltog i studien angående en av vägarna var positiva till ombyggnationen även om deras farhågor om bristande respekt för spärrlinjerna hade besannats. De tyckte även att det var negativt att stigningsfälten var för korta, i några fall hade de gärna sett att stigningsfältet började tidigare.

    Vidare förespråkade lastbilsförarna djupare räfflor så att dessa även är till nytta för förare av tunga fordon. Kör man lastbil så känns de knappt, enligt förarna. De var positiva till omkörningsfälten och kände att dessa bidrar till att minska stressen.

    Trots att vägarna före ombyggnad hade en hög trafikintensitet med många farliga omkörningar och ett stort antal viltolyckor fanns inte den fulla förståelsen för de åtgärder som genomförts. Det fanns en hög grad av acceptans för det viltstängsel som monterats. De övriga åtgärderna som genomförts för att öka trafiksäkerheten på sträckan var mer svårmotiverade enligt studien.

  • 41.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Kircher, Albert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    The effect of milled rumble strips versus virtual rumble strips on sleepy drivers: a driving simulator study2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the EU project IN-SAFETY is to create effective combinations of traditional infrastructure measures combined with new technology to increase the self-explanatory and forgiving nature of the road traffic system. This report describes the method, results and conclusions of a driving simulator experiment with the aim to evaluate the effect of two scenarios of importance selected on a theoretical framework within IN-SAFETY: lane departure warning in terms of milled rumble strips or as a driver support system, and the effect of an in-vehicle warning system informing there is a school bus ahead, simulating a system based on vehicle to vehicle information. Concerning the "lane departure warning", the experiment considered possibilities and consequences of replacing the infrastructure element milled rumble strips with a haptic in-vehicle system. Both centre and side line rumble strips on a two-lane highway were studied and compared with a baseline. In-vehicle "School bus ahead warning" was considered as an example of in-vehicle information used to inform the driver of upcoming events. Both rumble strips and school bus warning was studied for drivers after not having slept the night before driving as well as after a night's sleep in order to investigate consequences of driver state on system effectiveness. The results showed that there is a potential to substitute the infrastructure measure rumble strips with an in-vehicle assistance system. Moreover, in-vehicle information was found to be an effective way of reducing the subjects' speeds during temporary critical situations concerning traffic safety.

  • 42.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Trafikanternas uppfattning om frästa räfflor i mitten på 2-fältsväg: fokusgrupper med motorcyklister och pendlare samt vägkantsintervjuer2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of crashes caused by driver sleepiness or driver distraction is high. Rumble strips (milled) could be an alternative countermeasure on narrow roads where fences are not possible to be used. The Swedish Road Administration has initiated an evaluation of the effects of the use of milled rumble strips in the road centre on narrow roads. The evaluation includes crash studies, measurements of speed and lateral position in traffic flow and the drivers' opinions about the measure. This study focuses on the drivers' opinions. Discussions within focus groups with motorcyclist and commuters have been performed, but also road side interviews with 360 drivers at spots along roads where rumble strips are used. The results from the discussions within focus groups indicate that rumble strips are not a problem for either the motorcyclists or the commuters, taking into account both traffic safety aspects and accessibility. The motorcyclists do not seem to be influenced at all, in opposite to commuters who discussed the influence on speed and lateral position. The results from the road side interviews show that the majority (85%) do not think they reduce speed because of rumble strips. The majority of the drivers (58%) said that they do not change the distance to the centre of the road because of the rumble strips. In conclusion 90% of the drivers reported that they thought that the rumble strips will contribute to increased traffic safety. From the drivers' point of view we recommend further use of rumble strips in the centre of the road on roads with a lane width of around 9 meters.

  • 43.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Petersson, Mats
    Yrkesförares förväntningar och erfarenheter av frästa räfflor med omkörningsfält på rv 332007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    In order to increase the traffic safety on narrow roads the Swedish Road Administration has decided to use milled rumble strips at centre line in combination with overtaking sections. One of the road sections were this will be used is parts of road 33 between Eksjö and Målilla. The road is 8 meters wide, with an annual flow of 2,600 to 3,700 vehicles per day. This report is based on a qualitative study aiming to capture the professional drivers' opinions and expectations about a road design using milled rumble strips at centre line in combination with solid line and overtaking sections. The expectations were aimed to focus on both traffic safety and accessibility.

  • 44. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Suer, Pascal
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Larsson, Lennart
    Toomväli, Cecilia
    Förutsägelse av långtidsegenskaper hos restprodukter: teknik och miljö i vägar2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, use of industrial by-products is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. This report describes a three-year research project aiming to identify the key processes of ageing related to the usefulness of by-products in roads; investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the by-products, and propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict long-term properties. The project has compared naturally aged samples of two by-products used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh by-products from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterized in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The working hypothesis was that ageing processes lead to changes in pH, effective particle size and mineralogy, which in turn determine leaching, stiffness and stability of the material. One of the conclusions from the project is that the test results confirmed that the pavement edge material is ageing faster than the road centre material is.

  • 45.
    Arnadottir, Audur Th.
    et al.
    Icelandic Road and Coastal Administration.
    Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F.
    University of Iceland.
    Kim, Sungyop
    University of Missouri-Kansas City.
    Traffic safety of tourist drivers in an unfamiliar driving environment2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of tourists visiting Iceland has increased rapidly in recent years.  In 2010 a little less than 0.5 million tourists arrived but in 2016 the number had risen to almost 1.8 million and this increase is expected to continue, at least for a while. Given that the population of Iceland, as of January 2017, is less than 340 thousand people, it is quite a challenge to facilitate this increased tourism. 

    More and more tourists choose to rent a car and explore Iceland on their own and as the circumstances on the Icelandic road system may be different from what the foreign guests are used to, special attention needs to be given to traffic safety. In general, tourist drivers are driving in a new and unfamiliar driving environment. In Iceland, the difference may be more stark and more identifiable since the roadway system may differ more from highly urbanized driving environments. There are still long stretches of gravel roads, there are one-lane bridges and narrow pavement in areas, traffic shoulders may be narrow and the roadside is steep or rocky in many locations. Traffic signage is similar to that of the Nordic nations, which means it is somewhat different from the signage used in Asia and North America, and even some signs are unique to Iceland.

    There are already indications of a rise in traffic crashes, including fatal crashes, in relation to the added traffic volume by tourist drivers. The aim is to develop an understanding of those crashes in order to assist in improving tourist driver safety.

  • 46.
    Arnfelt, Harry
    Statens Väginstitut.
    Kalciumkloridens dammbindningsförmåga vid låg temperatur1948Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Arnfelt, Harry
    Svenska Väginstitutet.
    Några undersökningar av sulfitlut1941Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Arnfelt, Harry
    Statens Väginstitut.
    Skador på betongvägar uppkomna genom saltbehandling vintertid1943Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Arnfelt, Harry
    Statens Väginstitut.
    Snabb bestämning av bitumenhalten i vägbeläggningar1942Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Energieffektiv vinterväghållning: val av driftstandardklass2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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