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  • 1.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Khaled A
    et al.
    Egyptian National Institute of Transport.
    Al-Hosseiny, Ahmed T
    Egyptian National Institute of Transport.
    A generic approach for in depth statistical investigation of accident characteristics and causes2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:3, p. 13-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this research is to develop a generic approach for the utilization of statistical methods to conduct depth investigation of road accident characteristics and causes. This approach is applied in an effort to analyse the 1998 accident database for the main rural roads in Egypt. This database is composed of traffic accident data collected for 14 road sections representing nine major roads of the Egyptian rural road network. The proposed approach is composed of two main stages of analysis. Within each stage, several analytical steps are conducted. The first stage is mainly concerned with developing cluster bar charts, where different characteristics and causes of accidents are portrayed in relation to variations in the three main accident contributing factors, namely types of roads, vehicles and drivers. The second stage is concerned with conducting in-depth statistical analysis of the collected accident data. Within this stage, four levels of statistical investigations were conducted. These are meant to examine a number of issues.

  • 3.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Campus Gotland.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Climate change and climatic events: Community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 4.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 5.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.

  • 6.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether short-term responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 7.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 8.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years.

    The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  • 9.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. 1-11, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 10.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 11.
    Amato, Fulvio
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Cassee, Flemming R.
    Centre for Sustainability & Environmental Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Gehrig, Robert
    EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hafner, Wolfgang
    Department of Environmental Protection, Municipality of Klagenfurt on Lake Worthersee.
    Harrison, Roy M.
    University of Birmingham.
    Jozwicka, Magdalena
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Kelly, Frank J.
    King's College London.
    Moreno, Teresa
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC.
    Prevot, Andre S. H.
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Schaap, Martijn
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona.
    Querol, Xavier
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 275, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges.This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Buffoni, Lena
    IDA, Linköping University.
    Powertrain Model Assesment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification2016In: Proceedings of the 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behavior in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköping University.
    Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 131-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation, estimating parameters for the powertrain model, the choice of numeric solver, and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    A Framework for Credibility Assessment of a Powertrain Model in Driving Simulator Studies2016In: Proceedings of the 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing a driving simulator study, validity of the vehicle model for the intended driving task is of key importance; otherwise, the reliability of the study results might be jeopardized. In this paper a framework for real-time credibility assessment of the simulated longitudinal dynamics by a powertrain model in a moving base driving simulator is presented. The framework consists of the physical system model and a quality model which run in parallel in real time. The developed framework has been evaluated by offline simulations, as well as in real-time in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation results showed that the developed framework can accurately capture the validity of the powertrain model in different driving conditions and provide the credibility level of the simulation results to the simulator operator in real-time.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 16.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Effects of motion parallax in driving simulators2012In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion parallax due to the driver’s head movement have been implemented and tested in VTI Driving Simulator III. An advanced camera-based system was used to track the head movements of the driver. The output from the tracking system was fed to the simulation software, which used low-pass filtering and a forward prediction algorithm to calculate an offset. The offset was then used by the graphics software to display the correct image to the driver.

    The effects of driving with motion parallax in the simulator were also observed by an initial study. During the experiment, the subjects caught up with several slower vehicles which forced the driver to make an overtaking maneuver. Oncoming traffic forced the subject to search for a suitable gap for overtaking. The study also included a speed perception test. The results from the study showed no difference in lateral positioning when running behind a slower vehicle nor in speed perception with and without motion parallax.

  • 17.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS): en kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport redovisas det arbete som pågått inom ESS-programmets första fas inom temaområde naturolyckor. Detta temaområde innefattar skred, ras, erosion och översvämningar. Målet med det arbete som presenteras i denna rapport har varit att skapa en överblick över hurman idag arbetar med dessa frågor i Sverige med fokus på kommunal nivå. Arbetet utgörs aven sammanställning av tidigare studier, beskrivning av metoder samt intervjuer med svenska och norska kommuner och myndigheter. I de svenska kommunerna har politiker och tjänstemän intervjuats.

    Förebyggande åtgärder för att minska sannolikheten för, eller konsekvensen av, olyckor vidtas ofta. Åtgärderna är baserade på en analys eller akut reaktion på en specifik händelse. Vissa åtgärder är platsspecifika och kan vara både fysiska och icke fysiska. Andra åtgärder är mer generella såsom lagstiftning och utbildningsinsatser, regional, nationell och internationell policy, direktiv och ramverk.

  • 18.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstads universitet.
    Landslide risk and climate change: economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase. In response to this the SGI, on commission of the Environmental ministry, has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden.

    The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. a function of hazard probability and consequences of the hazard. Elements at risk in the valley include for example, human life, transport and other infrastructure, properties and industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to describe the consequence of the landslide.

    This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 19.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Fallsvik, Jan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Hultén, Carina
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Climate change in Sweden: geotechnical and contaminated land consequences2008In: WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science,2008, 2008, p. 52-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 20.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Melica.
    Janhäll, Sara
    IVL.
    Simulations of ozone formation from different emission sources in Sweden1995In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 2045-2050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emission inventory concerning volatile organic compounds (VOC) and their emission profile linked to their sources in Sweden has been undertaken. The inventory has been used in model simulations to predict the ozone formation from different emission source categories in Sweden. The studies have been carried out using the IVL photochemical trajectory model for two types of air masses which describes clean and polluted air. In Sweden mobile sources contribute to 45 % by mass of the total national VOC emissions, 58 % of the NOx emissions and to at least 43 % of the ozone formation from national sources. In general, the ozone formation in Sweden is more dependent and sensitive to emissions of NOx rather than VOC

  • 21.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    COWI AB.
    Thorson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Moback, Ulf
    Göteborgs stad.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    An integrated method for assessing climate related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation.

    The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines.

    The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.

  • 22.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    MKB-handböcker om kulturmiljön: en studie utgående från användarens erfarenheter2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handböckerna om kulturmiljövärdenas för arbetet med miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) för vägar börjar bli föråldrade och bör bytas ut. De konsulter som beskriver konsekvenserna för kulturmiljön i MKB är akademiskt skolade landskapsarkitekter och saknar utbildning i flera av de klassiska kulturmiljöämnena. Det är två slutsatser av föreliggande undersökning om kulturmiljö och MKB.

    För att stärka kulturmiljövårdens intressen i MKB-arbetet föreslås:

    • att Vägverket vid upphandlingen av MKB för vägprojekt ställer krav på kulturmiljöcertifiering avMKB-författaren,
    • att kulturmiljövårdens organisationer tar fram bättre underlagsmaterial iform av regionalt anpassade beskrivningar av Sveriges kulturvärden och
    • att det ges kurser och anordnas seminarier om kulturmiljöfrågor för konsulter

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning och på vilket sätt två handböcker om kulturvärden och MKB används av MKB-konsulter. Detta undersöktes i enkäter och intervjuer bland konsulter inom VV-regionerna Sydöst, Mälardalen, Skåne och Väst. Enkäten besvarades av 29 av de 34 tillskrivna konsultföretagen.

    Arbetet avses utgöra ett hjälpmedel till Vägverkets arbete att nå de transportrelaterade miljömålen.

  • 23.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser av svenska väg- och järnvägsprojekt2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser har blivit allt vanligare sedan 1995. Det ständigt pågående utvecklingsarbetet med uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser, vid Vägverket och Banverket, visar många positiva resultat. Bland annat har flera genomgripande uppföljningsprogram tagits fram för några vägobjekt, även om enstaka uppföljningsformuleringar i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) och arbetsplaner/järnvägsplaner fortfarande dominerar.

    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) har studerat ca 70 uppföljningsarbeten, producerade under 1990-talet, huvudsakligen från 1996 och framåt. Materialet har eftersökts vid Vägverkets regionkontor Sydöst, Väst och Mitt samt inom hela Banverket. Det har varit svårt och tidskrävande att få tillgång till relevant material. För att underlätta eftersökningen har dessutom en rad initierade personer vid Vägverkets regionkontor kontaktats.

    Några av de viktigare slutsatserna är att:

    • det sedan 1995 har blivit vanligare med uppföljningsformuleringar, 
    • uppföljning inte självklart omfattar såväl byggskede som tiden efter färdigställande,
    • uppgifter om före-data är ovanliga,
    • de vanligaste uppföljningsparametrarna är vatten, buller, djur och landskapsbild,
    • mätmetoder sällan anges,
    • kompetenskrav sällan anges,
    • fastställda statistiska krav sällan anges,
    • syftet med uppföljningen sällan anges, och att
    • kommunikation med olika aktörsgrupper såsom allmänhet är en ovanlighet.

    Det material som insamlats, även om det är magert, kommer att kunna användas som en utgångspunkt i såväl upprättande av en handbok för uppföljning i samband med MKB, som vid utvecklandet av ett informationssystem om uppföljning.

  • 24.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sträckprognoser E62013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road stretch forecasting is a method for forecasting the weather situations or road conditions, especially slipperiness. This project has been a start on implementing the road stretch forecasting technique on Swedish roads. Road stretch forecasting is already implemented in several parts of the world including Norway and the Czech Republic and is a method for forecasting the weather situations or road conditions on the stretches between the existing Road Weather Information System outstations (RWIS). RWIS outstations are located all over Sweden and mainly in places where there is a high probability of slipperiness. But if the area around the station is changed, for example modifications of the vegetation, the conditions can be changed compared to the original mapping of the road. This leads to a high probability for extreme points in road stretches in between the RWIS outstations. To make a model that describes the road, it is necessary to make a thermal mapping and an analysis of the topoclimate to know the variations in temperature, altitude, shading etcetera, along the road. Then the road is divided into segments representing the different variations of the road. The model calculates the forecast for the road surface temperatures and road conditions, the modelled values are compared and adjusted with the measured temperatures from the thermal mapping. In conclusion, the results regarding this road stretch along E6 show good congruence between the modelled values and the measured temperatures.

  • 25.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sustainability and climate change considerations in winter maintenance2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    The Winter Model: Socio-Economic Cost Calculations for the Future2016In: Routes/Roads, ISSN 0004-556X, no 369, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Klimatanpassning av vägkonstruktion, drift och underhåll2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global climate change is a reality and affecting society and transport systems. Climate change adaptation of transport systems will make the means of transportation more resilient and decrease the risk and magnitude of disruptions. Generally, climate change adaptations in road construction, operation and maintenance will need relatively large changes, but there is a shortage of the specific knowledge required as to what steps need to be taken, when and where, before measures can actually be implemented. Since climate change effects vary among Sweden's climatic zones, the impact of climate change on the road behavior and longevity is extremely difficult to predict. The need for winter maintenance in Sweden will generally decrease due to the warmer climate. Ploughing frequency will probably decrease as well, but preparedness should not be reduced too much since occasions with more extreme instances will increase. In order to succeed in making the road transport system resilient to climate change, we conclude that there is a need to develop more knowledge about the impact on the road infrastructure system as well as the operation and maintenance of the system including how to adapt through different types of variable and flexible climate adaptation measures and the effects of extreme weather events.

  • 28.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    The impact of climate change on the use of anti- and de-icing salt in Sweden2012In: Transportation Research Circular: Winter Maintenance and Surface Transportation Weather, 2012, p. -10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future needs for winter maintenance will probably be influenced by the climate change in different ways in different parts of the world. As Sweden is a country with several climate zones, the influence of climate change on winter maintenance will therefore differ between regions within the country. To understand the influence of climate change on the future needs of salt consumption in winter maintenance, modeled road weather data were calculated in the IRWIN project (a joint research project through ERA-NET ROAD funded by the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission), where climate change scenarios from ECHAM5 (the fifth generation of the European Centre Hamburg Model general circulation model from the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) were combined with field data from the road weather information system in Sweden.

    These modeled road weather data were used in project KLIVIN (the study presented here) in three Swedish regions (Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Sundsvall) and was combined with the Swedish winter severity index in order to calculate the trends of future salt needs. In this study the needs of salt for each of the three investigated regions were calculated in 30-year periods between 1970 and 2100. The results show that salt use related to snowfall will decrease in all three regions, while the salt use related to temperature will increase in the northernmost region (Sundsvall) and show a small decrease in the two other regions (Gothenburg and Stockholm).

  • 29.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference traffic safety on two continents: Malmö, Sweden, September 20-22, 1999. Part 1: Opening - Safety data and modelling1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bergman, Ramona
    et al.
    SGI.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet.
    Efficiency of preventive actions for landslides and flooding : evaluation of Scandinavian practices2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results presented here covers natural hazards with focus on land slides and flooding. The results are based on Swedish/Scandinavian contexts. Natural events such as erosion, flooding and land slides are common, but the number of accidents (events causing severe negative impact) is rare. Therefore, in such analysis there is limited data and other information available which can be used for example in statistical analysis of actions and their effects. Instead, the analysis must be based on other information. The analysis may have to include aspects that only can be assessed by scenario and "what-if" analyses.

    In this project the main method has been interviews with officials in Swedish municipalities and national agencies in Sweden and Norway. In all municipalities, one politician and officials working with planning and rescue service have been interviewed. The study covers hazard and risk mapping, follow up of such maps, physical planning and lessons learned from previous events and activities.

    The final outcome of the research will be a review of what is found to be well functioning, identification of weak points and recommendations for the management of landslides, erosion and flooding. The present results indicate that hazard/risk maps are of great importance, but the knowledge about the maps and how to use them varies depending on who you ask and between municipalities. Most officials in municipalities are aware of climate change (CC) but, due to high uncertainties and since climate induced events such as natural hazards are rare, the issues are often not prioritized. Further, the results indicate that the documentation, communication and the responsibilities among different units is not always clear, having impacts on for example the knowledge transfer to new personnel.

  • 31.
    Björketun, Urban
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    En GIS-baserad metod för validering av normalvärden avseende länk- och korsningsolyckor2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The primary aim has been to study whether the standard values for road links and intersections - number of accidents, risks, consequences, number of injured etc. - according to the Swedish Road Administration's The effects of roadworks 2000: New construction and improvements can still be regarded valid or whether modification is needed. Accident data have been extracted both from OLY/VITS for the period 2000-2002 and from STRADA for the period 2003-2005. One further objective has been to find whether data from the above accident data systems can be processed and treated in a similar way. The road network studied comprised all roads assigned numbers in VDB as per 31.12.2005. Information has been collected for a total of 55,591 injury accidents in OLY/VITS, and for 55,026 injury accidents in STRADA. Of these, 58,707 or 53 per cent can be referred to the VDB network, and 15 per cent have been classified as node accidents and 85 per cent as link accidents. The study primarily concentrated on motor vehicle accidents outside urban areas. The foremost reason is that here we have a comprehensive accident material and no interference from municipal streets which are not described in VDB.

  • 32.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Winter maintenance and the roadside environment2013In: Ekologija severnych territorij: materialy meždunarodnogo kongressa : 17-20 janvarja 2013 g., 2013, p. 171-175Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model: updated algorithms for the description of salt damage to roadside environment2010In: Sustainable winter service for road users: 13th international winter road congress, Paris: La Défense , 2010, , p. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the impact of the use of chemical anti-/deicing on the roadside environment requires knowledge of the roadside exposure to salt, the vulnerability or dose-response relationship of the modeled environmental subjects and, preferably, the “cost” of the following impacts. The results presented in this paper are the first tentative test runs of the environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter model. The environmental cost will in this case study be the cost for vegetation damage larger than a chosen accepted level of damage, and a cost for groundwater protection installations. The total environmental cost in this small case study will roughly be between 1.5 and 2.5 MSEK.

  • 34.
    Brännlund, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Linköping University.
    Nou, Andreas
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Banverket.
    Railway Timetabling Using Lagrangian Relaxation1998In: Transportation Science, ISSN 0041-1655, E-ISSN 1526-5447, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 358-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel optimization approach for the timetabling problem of a railway company, i.e., scheduling of a set of trains to obtain a profit maximizing timetable, while not violating track capacity constraints. The scheduling decisions are based on estimates of the value of running different types of service at specified times. We model the problem as a very large integer programming problem. The model is flexible in that if allows for general cost functions. We have used a Lagrangian relaxation solution approach, in which the track capacity constraints are relaxed and assigned prices, so that the problem separates into one dynamic program for each physical train. The number of dual variables is very large. However, it turns out that only a small fraction of these are nonzero, wh ich one may take advantage of in the dual updating schemes. The approach has been, tested on a realistic example suggested by the Swedish National Railway Administration. This example contains 18 passenger trains and 8 freight trains to be scheduled during a day on a stretch of single track, consisting of 17 stations. The computation times are rather modest and the obtained timetables are within a few percent of optimality.

  • 35.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Basic statistics for accidents and traffic and other background variables in Sweden: Version 2005-06-302005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By commission of the Swedish Road Traffic Inspectorate, VTI has produced these basic statistics which can be used by planners, researchers, the media etc in assessing and examining trends and the present state of traffic safety in Sweden.

  • 36.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Minibasstatistik över olyckor och trafik samt andra bakgrundsfaktorer: uppdaterad version 2008-12-152009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Vägtrafikinspektionen har VTI tidigare sammanställt "Basstatistik över olyckor och trafik samt andra bakgrundsvariabler", VTI notat 27-2005. Denna basstatistik kan användas av planerare, forskare, media m.fl. för att bedöma och granska utvecklingen och nuvarande tillstånd för trafiksäkerheten. Del av basstatistiken, den så kallade minibasstatistiken, har här uppdaterats med utfall och värden fram till och med år 2007. Dessutom redovisas här en uppdatering av listan över trafiksäkerhetsbeslut m.m. alltsedan 1960 och framåt.

  • 37.
    Brüde, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hur påverkas korrigeringar av observerat antal olyckor om man beaktar skillnader i rapporteringsgrad/skadeföljd mellan olika regioner?1987Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Saltpåverkan på vegetation, grundvatten och mark utmed E20 och Rv 48 i Skaraborgs län 19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The influence of de-icing salt on vegetation, groundwater and soil along Highways E20 and 48 in Skaraborg County during 19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The influence of de-icing salt on vegetation, groundwater and soil along two highways in the south-western part of Sweden during 19941997Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Cabrall, Christopher D. D.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lu, Zhenji
    Delft University of Technology.
    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Current insights in human factors of automated driving and future outlook towards tele-operated remote driving services2018In: International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018): Integrating People and Intelligent Systems, January 7-9, 2018, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Springer, 2018, p. 10-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the automotive industry, manufacturers have recently released various Partial Automation systems (SAE Level 2) which allow simultaneous/combined execution of both lateral and longitudinal vehicle control at the same time, yet still require active human supervision/engagement. Current reactive trends will be reviewed across major automotive players regarding differences in terminology, HMI input/outputs, and escalation intervals. Scholarly research is also reviewed pertaining to proactive strategies for driver engagement. Additionally, human factors research and findings will be presented regarding recommendations for situation awareness, human machine interfaces, TOR, as well as shared control concepts. The tutorial will conclude with discussion and brainstorming around outlook toward tele-operated remote driving services (Tele-Driving); what they have to offer beyond assisted/automated driving, autonomous vehicles, and ride-hailing/car-sharing paradigms; as well as the design/conduct of human factors research regarding Tele-Driving.

  • 42.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sustainabililty and Energy Efficient Management of Roads: Final Report2014Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Utvärdering PHEM-modellen: En förstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has stated that there is a need to develop the use of micro simulation models of fuel use and emissions of traffic that are used for transport planning. The aim of the project is to perform an evaluation of PHEM model to investigate conditions, opportunities and barriers to use it in transport planning. The following aspects have been assessed: License agreements, costs, rights, property issues; User friendliness; Content and calculation capabilities; Adjustment and development possibilities; Validation. Furthermore, simulation tests have been performed where fuel consumption and emissions of nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate mass and particle number has been calculated for roads with different road classes and for additional emissions and fuel use due to a vehicle stop. PHEM model is found to be relatively user-friendly, and with great opportunities to customize calculations. This makes the model complex, therefore it is recommended to start using PHEM with a short introductory course, even for used modellers. A conclusion of the evaluation is a recommendation to use PHEM for transport modelling. The database underlying the engine maps is constantly updated leading to more reliable emission calculations. The possibility to get a greater coherence in the calculations of the exhaust emissions of the different models that the Transport Administration advocate is also improved, which is a positive development. There are, also, some development possibilities that should be considered.

  • 44.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Life cycle assessment of a road investment: Estimating the effect on energy use when building a bypass road2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Översiktlig beräkning av antalet omkörningar längs E61987Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Metod för beräkning av fördröjningar på vägavsnitt utan omkörningsmöjlighet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This VTI report presents a method for calculating expected queue length and travel time delay on one lane road sections without overtaking possibilities. The method was developed 2001 and presented in a working paper. The background for the model development was that the Swedish Road Administration (now the Swedish Transport Administration) planned to build so called 1+1 roads, i.e. roads with longer sections without overtaking possibilities. The method developed has later on also shown to be valuable for level of service calculations of 2+1 roads with varying share of two lane sections and for developing speed-flow relationships for the Administration’s ”Effect calculations for road facilities”. The method uses section length, traffic flow, average speed and standard deviation as input. The method is divided with respect to calculation of effects due to single slowrunning vehicles and effects at “normal” speed distribution. Since no data were available when the model was developed, the model results were instead compared to traffic simulations with the microscopic traffic simulation model AIMSUN. The results show a good correlation but the analytical model gives in general approximately 1.2 per cent lower travel time delay. The differences can probably partly be explained by the stochastic parts of the simulation model. One should also remember that neither the analytical model nor the simulation model has been calibrated and validated with real data for this type of roads. Thus, the differences between the models do not necessary imply that the analytical model is the one deviating from reality.

  • 47.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    EU-kommissionens konsekvensanalys av EU:s Färdplan för transportsektorn: en granskning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This review of the EU Commission’s “The Impact Assessment to Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system” has been commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency. The result shows that the Commission’s assessment for the transport sector is defective. The background is that the EU has articulated an ambition to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions with 80 per cent to the year 2050, relative the level of 1990. The transport sector has hereby been given a target to reduce its emissions by 60 percent. The objective for the “Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area” is to propose a policy that attains this target. The review comprises a discussion about (a) the stated emission targets for the whole EU and for the transport sector from a cost-effectiveness perspective, (b) whether the Commission’s analyses are consistent and comprehensive, (c) the scope for designing more cost-effective policy packages, and (d) the need for additional assessments. The Commission’s assessment for the transport sector is defective. It is not sufficiently transparent for the reader to fully understand the results and their drivers. It is not possible to find a clear accounting for the carbon prices that are needed for attaining the 60 percent target level in the “price based” policy scenario. And, the reader is not given a clear presentation of the assumed dose-response relationships between R&D and emissions as well as physical planning and emissions. Furthermore, the assessment does not comprise all relevant cost components, resulting in that the analysis become examples with limited values. Perhaps most grave is the circumstance that the Commission proposes a policy package implying that the transport sector within the EU would meet a carbon price that lies substantially below the price level assumed for the rest of the world. In addition, the Roadmap defines a policy package that seems to contain several large investments/projects that not easily can be associated with the objective of reducing greenhouse-gases in cost-effective way. It is not difficult to construct more cost-effective policy packages. In some instances it is difficult to avoid the thought that the climate problem has been hijacked in order to motivate the implementation of projects or undertaking of investments that have only small effects on the emissions or even increase them. Thus, when it is time for the next evaluation of the EU’s transport policy the risk is substantial that we have to observe that the transport sector once again has developed along other lines than the one outlined in the White Paper for the transport sector.

  • 48.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    On particulate emissions from individual trains in tunnel environments2016In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Dun Eaglais, Kippen Stirlingshire, FK8 3DY, UK: Civil-Comp Press , 2016, 2016, Vol. 110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to detect the concentrations and size distributions of airborne particles that were generated by individual moving trains on an underground railway platform, a series of real-time measurements were undertaken. The measurement range covered the ultrafine (less than 100 nm) and partly the fine (100 nm to 2.5 μm), but not the coarse fraction (2.5 to 10 μm). The results show that the individual trains with stop and start at the platform elevate substantially the particulate number concentrations with a diameter size greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations are obtained. One mode peaks around 170 nm when a train stopped/started, while the other is around 30 nm when no train operated in the station. By using principal component analysis, four components are extracted from the thirty two-analyzed particulate sizes, indicating four different contributors in those detected particles. It is revealed from this study that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains (mainly through mechanical wear and turbulent resuspension) is a key contributing source of the fine particles on underground railway platforms, which can be separated from the background by their different size distributions.

  • 49.
    Cornelissen, Johannes H C
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Van Bodegom, Peter M
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Aerts, Rien
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Callaghan, Terry V
    University of Sheffield.
    Van Logtestijn, Richard S.P.
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Alatalo, Juha
    VINNOVA.
    Chapin, Stuart F.
    University of Alaska.
    Gerdol, Renato G
    Università degli Studi di Ferrara Dipartimento delle Risorse Naturali e Cultural.
    Gudmundsson, Jon
    Agricultural University of Iceland.
    Gwynn-Jones, Dylan
    University of Wales.
    Hartley, Anne E
    Florida International University.
    Hik, David S
    University of Alberta.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research.
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.
    Agricultural University of Iceland.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    Vetenskapsrådet.
    Klein, Julia A
    Colorado State University.
    Laundre, Jim
    Marine Biological Labratory.
    Magnusson, Borgthor
    Icelandic Institute of Natural History.
    Michelsen, Anders
    University of Copenhagen.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir G.
    Moscow State University.
    Quested, Helen M.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Sandvik, Sylvi M
    Agder University College.
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Denmark.
    Shaver, Gus R.
    Marine Biological Labratory.
    Solheim, Bjørn S
    University of Tromsø.
    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A
    Vrije Universiteit, Moscow State University.
    Stenström, Anna
    Länsstyrelsen Västra Götaland.
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Totland, Ørjan T
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Wada, Naoya W
    University of Toyama.
    Welker, Jeffrey M
    University of Alaska Anchorage.
    Zhao, Xinquan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Brancaleoni, Lisa
    Brancaleoni, Laura
    De Beus, Miranda A.H
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Dalen, Linda
    Harte, John
    Hobbie, Sarah E
    Hoefsloot, Gerlof
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Göteborg University.
    Jonasson, Sven
    Lee, John A
    Lindblad, Karin
    Melillo, Jerry M
    Neill, Christopher
    Press, Malcolm C
    Rozema, Jelte
    Zielke, Matthias
    Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes2007In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 619-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major climate-change-related drivers of litter decomposition rates in cold northern biomes worldwide.

    Leaf litters collected from the predominant species in 33 global change manipulation experiments in circum-arctic-alpine ecosystems were incubated simultaneously in two contrasting arctic life zones. We demonstrate that longer-term, large-scale changes to leaf litter decomposition will be driven primarily by both direct warming effects and concomitant shifts in plant growth form composition, with a much smaller role for changes in litter quality within species. Specifically, the ongoing warming-induced expansion of shrubs with recalcitrant leaf litter across cold biomes would constitute a negative feedback to global warming. Depending on the strength of other (previously reported) positive feedbacks of shrub expansion on soil carbon turnover, this may partly counteract direct warming enhancement of litter decomposition.

  • 50.
    da Conceicao, V. P.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mendes, J. B.
    Portuguese Naval School.
    Teodoro, M. F.
    Portuguese Naval School.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Validation of a Behavioral Marker System for Rating Cadet's Non-Technical Skills2019In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulator-based training assumes a very important role in the maritime domain, particularly in the education of Officers Of the Watch (OOW). In the Portuguese Navy, most of the cadet's skills as future OOW rely on the success of this training. Beyond theory and technical training, the development of nontechnical skills is a key factor for obtaining officers capable of identifying and solving problems. To optimize the training and development of non-technical skills, using the Portuguese Naval Academy Simulator, a previously designed Behavioral Marker System model was further assessed. The revised model, which comprises new parameters such as the effectiveness of the task, was validated through a set of simulated sessions, where 11 instructors and 48 students participated. After each session, data was collected with questionnaires and focus group discussion, focusing on the quality and usability of the model and on the design of the scenario. The results show that the revised model, positively addresses the limitations found on the previous version, and it has received encouraging feedback from both instructors and cadets. This new model is now under implementation in all the Naval Academy course programs, and future research aims to digitalize the behavior markers.

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