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Time to spare: Everyday activities among newly retired people in a middle-sized city
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2488-1685
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
Linköpings universitet.
Linköpings universitet.
2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Retirement has recently been studied as a complex process that affects people’s lives in many different ways (Teuscher 2010; Grenier 2011; Halleröd, Örestig and Stattin 2013). Retirement implies changes in time-space use, interruption in routines and changed social patterns. Leisure activities, shopping, errands and rest are no longer determined by the working life rhythm. New time-space constraints might at the same time occur that limit the individual’s actions, such as reduced income, new or increased commitments towards children and grandchildren, involvement in associations or part-time work (Kleiber and Nimrod, 2009; Szinovacz et al., 2001; Van den Bogaard et al., 2013).

A vast amount of research from different fields has focused on the implications of retirement for wellbeing (Bender 2012; Wang 2007), adjustment (Van Solinge and Henkens 2008), identity (Teucher 2010), volunteering (Van den Bogaard et.al., 2013) and physical activity (Lahti et al. 2011). So far, only a few studies have investigated everyday activities and timespace use among older people in general and the post-World War II generation in particular (Chatzitheochari and Arber 2011; Gauthier and Smeeding 2003). In many studies of  time-space use, the aim has been to illuminate the juggling of everyday activities that occurs and to deal with the balance between work, leisure and family (Schwanen and de Jong 2008; Kwan 2000; Scholten, Friberg and Sanden 2012). Naturally, retired people have not been included in those studies, although many older people play an important role in the lives of families with small children (Schwanen 2008) and seek supporting and leading roles as citizens (cf. Gagliardi, et al. 2007; Leinonen 2011; Liechty, Yarnal and Kerstetter 2012; McCormack et al. 2008; Nimrod and Adoni 2006; Sperazza and Banerjee 2010). Little is known about the expectations this generation has on retirement and its demands for activities. The aim of this study is therefore to explore newly retired peoples everyday activities. What activities do they take part in and where are these activities carried out? In what respect, and for what reasons, do activities change or stay the same upon retirement?

The remaining of this paper begins with a discussion of the implications of retirement on everyday activities in accordance to previous research. The time-geographical perspective and concepts used here for studying activities is then presented. That is followed by a description of methods, data and analysis, before the empirical analysis of travel diaries and qualitative interviews is given. The paper ends with a discussion of the results in relation to previous research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
Keyword [en]
Mobility, Old people, Change, Travel mode, Interview, Travel survey, Motivation
National Category
Sociology Other Social Sciences
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 11 Road: Personal transport
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10169OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-10169DiVA: diva2:913295
Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2016-04-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Everyday mobility and travel activities during the first years of retirement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Everyday mobility and travel activities during the first years of retirement
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Vardagsmobilitet och resande under de första åren som pensionär
Abstract [en]

Mobility is central to living an independent life, to participating in society, and to maintaining well-being in later life. The point of departure in this thesis is that retirement implies changes in time-space use and interruption in routines, which influence demands and preconditions for mobility in different ways.  The aim of this thesis is to explore mobility strategies and changes in mobility upon retirement and how mobility develops during the first years of retirement. A further aim is to provide knowledge of the extent to which newly retired people maintain a desired mobility based on their needs and preconditions. The thesis is empirically based on travel diaries kept by newly retired people, and qualitative interviews with the same persons, and follow-up interviews three and a half years later. The results show that mobility is a way of forming a structure in the new everyday life as retirees by getting out of the house, either just for a walk or to do errands. Many patterns of everyday life remain the same upon retirement, but the informants also merge new responsibilities and seek new social arenas and activities. As a result, the importance of the car have not changed, but it is used for other reasons than before. After leaving paid work, new space-time constraints are created which influences demands for mobility. The study further shows that “third places” become important, especially among those who live alone, as they give an opportunity to being part of a social context and a reason for getting out of the house. The follow-up interviews revealed that declining health changes the preconditions for mobility. Daily walks had to be made shorter, and the car had to be used for most errands to where they previously could walk or cycle. However, mobility can also be maintained despite a serious illness and a long period of rehabilitation.

Abstract [sv]

Mobilitet är en förutsättning för oberoende, delaktighet och välbefinnande när man åldras. Utgångspunkten i avhandlingen är att pensioneringen innebär tidsrumsliga förändringar och brott i rutiner som på olika sätt påverkar människors behov av att resa och deras förutsättningar för mobilitet. Syftet med avhandlingen är att utforska mobilitetsstrategier och förändringar i mobilitet i samband med pensioneringen samt hur mobiliteten utvecklas under de första åren som pensionär. Ambitionen är att öka kunskapen om i vilken utsträckning nya pensionärer upprätthåller en önskad mobilitet utifrån deras egna behov och förutsättningar. Avhandlingen baseras empiriskt på resedagböcker som nyblivna pensionärer har fört och kvalitativa intervjuer med samma personer, samt uppföljningsintervjuer tre och ett halvt år senare. Resultaten visar att mobiliteten är en strategi för att skapa en struktur i vardagen som pensionär genom att komma hemifrån, t.ex. för att ta en promenad eller för att uträtta ärenden. Många vardagsmönster behålls vid pensioneringen men informanterna finner också nya åtaganden och söker nya sociala arenor och aktiviteter. Betydelsen av bilen har inte förändrats men den används av andra anledningar än tidigare. Vid pensioneringen skapas andra tidsrumsliga begränsningar vilka inverkar på efterfrågan på mobilitet. Resultaten visa också att "tredje platser" blir viktiga, särskilt bland dem som lever ensamma, eftersom de ger en möjlighet att vara en del av ett socialt sammanhang och en anledning att komma hemifrån. Uppföljningsintervjuerna visade att förutsättningarna för mobilitet förändras när hälsan försämras. Promenaderna blir kortare och bilen används i högre utsträckning för de ärenden dit de tidigare kunde gå eller cykla. Men trots allvarliga sjukdomar och långa perioder av rehabilitering kan mobiliteten upprätthållas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping: Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL, 2016. 91 p.
Series
Linköping studies in arts and science. Dissertation, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 671
Keyword
Mobility (pers), Old people, Change, Travel survey, Interview, Transportation mode, Motivation, Health
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 11 Road: Personal transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10168 (URN)978-91-7685-829-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-11, Campus Norrköping Kåkenhus Sal K1, Norrköping, 13:50 (Swedish)
Opponent
Projects
ERA-NET 2007 "Keep moving: improving the mobility of older persons"Sentrip - Senior life transition points
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2016-03-31Bibliographically approved

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