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Externa kostnader i transportscenarier med utökad användning av sjöfart
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)Alternative title
External costs in the transport scenarios with increased use of sea transports (English)
Abstract [sv]

Studien i denna rapport ger faktamaterial som belyser hur godstrafikens externa kostnader skulle påverkas om dagens transportlösningar ersätts av lösningar med utökad användning av sjöfart. Två fall har studerats:

  • Containerfallet avser en transport från Ostkusten/Stockholm till Hamburg. I Alternativ 1 antas transporten gå på järnväg till Göteborgs hamn och därifrån med ett containerfartyg till Hamburg och i Alternativ 2 med ett containerfartyg direkt till Hamburg.
  • Trailerfallet avser en transport från Ostkusten/Stockholm till Travemünde. I Alternativ 1 antas transporten gå på väg till Trelleborgs hamn och därifrån med ropax-färjan till Travemünde och i Alternativ 2 med ett roro-fartyg direkt till Travemünde.

Både i containerfallet och i trailerfallet beräknas de externa kostnaderna vara ungefär lika stora eller lägre för de direkta sjötransportalternativen än för de kombinerade land/sjö-alternativen. I containerfallet med ASEK-värderingar är jämförelsen ofullständig eftersom ASEK inte värderar knapphet på järnvägen. Det är möjligt att de externa kostnaderna för land/sjö-alternativet ökar signifikant om knappheten på järnväg värderas. Sjöfartens relativt låga internaliserande avgifter leder till högre externa kostnader för de direkta sjötransportalternativen än de kombinerade land/sjö-alternativen när skatter och avgifter räknas bort. Resultaten är robusta i trailerfallet (oberoende av värdering) och containerfallet (med EU:s värdering Ricardo dock inte med den svenska värderingen ASEK). I containerfallet med ASEK-värdering saknas de externa kostnaderna kopplade till knappheten på järnväg.

Abstract [en]

The goal of this study is to provide material that illustrates how the external costs caused by freight transports are affected when today’s transport solutions are replaced by alternatives that use sea transports to a larger extent. This is demonstrated for two cases:

  • In the container case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Hamburg is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 by rail to the port of Gothenburg and from there by container vessel to Hamburg and in alternative 2 directly by container vessel to Hamburg.
  • In the trailer case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Travemünde in Northern Germany is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 on the road to the port of Trelleborg and from there by ropax-ferry to Travemünde and in alternative 2 directly by roro vessel to Travemünde.

Both in the container case and in the trailer case the external costs are calculated to be about equal or lower for the direct sea alternatives than for the combined land/sea alternatives (depending on if ASEK or Ricardo is used for valuation). The costs are much lower in the sensitivity analysis in the trailer case where lower NOx for the roro vessel are assumed. The comparison is incomplete in the container case with ASEK-valuation as ASEK does not value scarcity for rail. It is possible that the external costs for the land/sea alternative increase significantly when the external costs for scarcity are included. The relatively low internalizing infrastructure charges for sea transports imply that the direct sea transport alternatives have higher external costs than the combined land/sea alternatives when taxes and charges are deducted. The results are robust in the trailer case (regardless of valuation) and the container case (with Ricardo valuation). In the container case with ASEK-valuation the comparison is incomplete as ASEK does not valuate scarcity for rail.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2015. , 41 p.
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 848
Keyword [en]
Cost, External effect, Noise, Wear, Emission, Accident, Calculation, Case study, Freight transport, Maritime transport
National Category
Economics
Research subject
SAB, Prz Ships and shipping
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8264OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-8264DiVA: diva2:877994
Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2016-02-04Bibliographically approved

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