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Emission of inhalable particles from studded tyre wear of road pavements: a comparative study
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6600-3122
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5306-2753
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)Alternative title
Emissioner av inandningsbara partiklar från dubbdäcksslitage av vägbana : en jämförande studie (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

New restrictions on the number of studs on studded tyres were introduced in Sweden and Finland in 2013. Regulations now allows 50 studs per meter rolling circumference. Alternatively, the tyres can be tested in a special wear test, the so-called over-run test, to be approved. This has resulted in studded tyres that follows the rule of the number of studs per rolling circumference meters, but also studded tyres that pass the over-run test, even though they have considerably more spikes are present on the market. The over-run test shall ensure that the tested tyre will not cause more road wear than a tyre with a maximum of 50 studs per meter rolling circumference. Since studded tyres are a major source of inhalable particles (PM10) in road and street environments, it is of interest to investigate the difference between the various studded tyre types also from particle emission point of view. In the present study, the particle generation from seven studded tyres was tested in the VTI road simulator. The tyres have been tested at 50 km/h in a statistically optimal sequence during the four test days where various order of tyres used each day of testing. Concentrations (mass and number) and size distributions were measured during the experiments, as well as environmental parameters (temperature and humidity). In the statistical analysis of particle data was partly analysed as constants and partly as depending on ambient and tyre-specific parameters. The results show that the tyre with the most studs (190) generates significantly higher PM10 levels than other tyres while one of the tyres following the stud number regulations and have 96 studs results in significantly lower formation of inhalable particles than all other tyres tested. Increased number of studs increases PM10, PM2.5 and number concentration significantly, while increasing stud force significantly increases the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5. Temperatures in the tyre, pavement and air as well as relative humidity also have an effect on the particle levels. A calculation example was performed where the relationship between the tested highest and lowest emitting tyres was applied in a process based emissions model in which studded tyre wear is included (NORTRIP model). This demonstrated that the effect of variations in the studded tyre wear on both PM10-levels and the number of limit value exceedances for the current data set used was significant.

Abstract [sv]

Nya begränsningar för antal dubbar i dubbade däck infördes i Sverige och Finland 2013. Regelverket tillåter numera 50 dubbar per rullomkretsmeter. Alternativt kan däcken testas i en speciell slitagetest, så kallad over-run test, för att bli godkända. Detta har resulterat i att dubbdäck som följer regeln om antal dubbar per rullomkretsmeter, men också dubbdäck som klarar over-run testet, trots att de har betydligt fler dubbar, förekommer på marknaden. Over-run testet ska säkerställa att det testade däcket inte orsakar mer vägslitage än ett däck med max 50 dubbar per rullomkretsmeter. Då dubbdäck är en betydande källa till inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) i väg och gatumiljöer, är det av intresse att utreda skillnaden mellan de olika dubbdäcksvarianterna även ur partikelemissionssynpunkt. I föreliggande studie har partikelgenereringen från sju dubbdäck provats i VTI:s provvägsmaskin. Däcken har provats i 50 km/h i en statistiskt optimal sekvens under fyra testdagar där olika ordningar på däcken använts varje testdag. Halter (massa och antal) och storleksfördelningar har mätts under försöken, liksom omgivningsparametrar (temperaturer och luftfuktighet). I den statistiska analysen har partikeldata dels analyserats som konstanter och dels som beroende av såväl omgivnings- som däckspecifika parametrar. Resultaten visar att däcket med flest dubbar (190) genererar signifikant högre PM10-halter än övriga däck medan ett av däcken som följer dubbantalsbegränsningen och har 96 dubbar resulterar i signifikant lägre bildning av inandningsbara partiklar än övriga däck. Ökat antal dubbar ökar PM10, PM2.5 och antalskoncentrationen signifikant, medan ökad dubbkraft signifikant ökar koncentrationen av PM10 och PM2.5. Temperaturer i däck, beläggning och luft liksom luftfuktigheten har också en inverkan på partikelhalterna. Ett beräkningsexempel där relationerna mellan de testade dubbdäckens emissioner applicerades i en processbaserad emissionsmodell, i vilken dubbdäcksslitage ingår, (NORTRIP-modellen) visade att effekten av variationer i dubbdäcksslitage på såväl PM10-halter som på antalet överskridanden för det aktuella data-setet var betydande.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2015. , 66 p.
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 867A
Keyword [en]
Studded tyre, Wear, Particulate matter, Emission, Pollution concentration, Test, Laboratory (not an organization), Measurement, Statistics, Analysis (math)
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7929OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-7929DiVA: diva2:822404
Available from: 2015-06-16 Created: 2015-06-16 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved

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