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Evaluation of Adapted Passenger Cars for Drivers with Physical Disabilities
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2301-5793
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving can provide independent and efficient mobility. However, according to the driving license directive (91/439/EEC) are persons with locomotor impairments are only allowed drive if their disabilities can be compensated. Compensation can be realised by vehicle adaptations. The directive provides meagre guidance on how vehicles should be adapted or how to verify that the compensatory requirements are fulfilled. This is a gap in the current process for licensing drivers with physical disabilities. Furthermore, the Swedish process from driver assessment to driver licensing and adaptation approval is complex, fragmented, and suffer from lack of communication between involved authorities. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the development of a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for driver with physical disabilities. The focus was on the evaluation of adaptations for steering, accelerating and braking. Three driving simulator experiments and one manoeuvre test with adapted vehicles were conducted. A group of drivers with tetraplegia driving with hand controls were compared to able-bodied drivers in the first experiment. Even if the drivers with tetraplegia had a longer brake reaction time they performed comparable to the able-bodied drivers. However, they spent more effort and were more tired in order to perform as well as the able-bodied drivers. It was concluded that the adaptation was not sufficient. An Adaptive Cruise Controller (ACC) was tested in the second experiment in order to find out if it could alleviate the load on drivers using hand controls. It was found that the ACC decreased the workload on the drivers. However, ACC systems need to be adjustable and better integrated. The results from the first two experiments were used to provide some guidelines for ACCsystems to be used by drivers with disabilities. The third experiment was preceded by a manoeuvre test with joystick controlled cars. The test revealed some problems, which were attributed to time lags, control interference, and lack of feedback. Four joystick designs were tested with a group of drivers with tetraplegia in the third experiment. It was concluded that time lags should be made similar to what is found in standard cars. Lateral and longitudinal control should be separated. Active feedback can improve vehicle control but should be individually adjusted. The experiments revealed that drivers with the same diagnose can be functionally very diverse. Thus, an adaptation evaluation should be made individually. Furthermore, the evaluation should include a manoeuvre test. Finally, it was concluded that the evaluation approach applied in the experiments was relevant but needs to be further developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 864
Keyword [en]
Disabled person, Driver, Car, Adaptation, Equipment, Vehicle handling, Simulator, Adaptive cruise control, Driving aptitude, Thesis
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7838ISBN: 91-7373-911-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-7838DiVA: diva2:809521
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Driving performance and workload assessment of drivers with tetraplegia: an adaptation evaluation framework.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving performance and workload assessment of drivers with tetraplegia: an adaptation evaluation framework.
2001 (English)In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 38, no 2, 215-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline for further research on adaptation evaluation for drivers with disabilities. Driving performance and workload for 26 drivers with spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) was studied and compared to a matched group of able-bodied drivers in a driving simulator. Drivers with tetraplegia used two types of hand-operated controls for accelerating and braking. Able- bodied drivers drove with standard pedals. The drivers with tetraplegia performed the driving task equally as well as the control group but had a slightly longer reaction time (10%). Workload assessment revealed that drivers with tetraplegia experienced a significantly greater time pressure and spent more effort than did the able-bodied drivers. They were also more tired from braking and accelerating. The drivers with tetraplegia using separate levers had greater standard deviation in lateral lane position (7 cm), while those using a combined lever were more tired from braking and accelerating. Observed differences could be interpreted as indicators of insufficient adaptation.

Keyword
Disabled person, Driver, Spinal column, Illness, Behaviour, Reaction time, Simulator, Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7832 (URN)000168804300007 ()11392654 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
2. Adaptation Evaluation: An Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) System Used by Drivers with Lower Limb Disabilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptation Evaluation: An Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) System Used by Drivers with Lower Limb Disabilities
2001 (English)In: IATSS Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 25, no 1, 51-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved to be useful but needs to be further developed.

Keyword
Disabled person, Driver, Adaptive cruise control, Car, Adaptation, Driving controls, Mental load, Fatigue, Attitude, Simulator, Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7834 (URN)10.1016/S0386-1112(14)60006-6 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
3. Elderly and Disabled Travelers: Intelligent Transport Systems Designed for the 3rd Millennium
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elderly and Disabled Travelers: Intelligent Transport Systems Designed for the 3rd Millennium
1999 (English)In: Transportation Human Factors, ISSN 1093-9741, Vol. 1, no 2, 121-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The TELematic Standards and Coordination of Advanced Transport Telematics systems in relation to elderly and disabled travelers (TELSCAN) project in the Transport Sector of the Telematics Applications Programme of the European Union has developed a Handbook of Design Guidelines (Nicolle & Burnett, 1999) to support designers of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to include the needs of people who are elderly or disabled. This article describes the methods of the Handbook's development, including an overview of the methodology for capturing the requirements of elderly and disabled travelers, a survey of existing guidelines, and empirical results and lessons learned from simulator testing. The authors conclude that although general guidelines are necessary, the most specific and useful guidelines emerge only when carefully chosen research questions can be investigated. The development of such guidelines should help us come closer to achieving usability of ITS not only for elderly and disabled people, but for everybody as we enter the 3rd millennium.

Keyword
Old people, Disabled person, Intelligent transport system, Recommendations, Method, Data acquisition, Driving simulator
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7835 (URN)10.1207/sthf0102_1 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
4. Human factors aspects on joystick control of adapted vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human factors aspects on joystick control of adapted vehicles
2002 (English)In: Human factors in transportation, communication, health and the workplace / [ed] Dick de Waard, Karel Brookhuis, Jan Moraal, & Antonella Toffetti, Maastricht, 2002, 81-97 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An experiment was set-up to investigate different joystick designs based on steer-by-wire technology. The experiment was carried out in a driving simulator. Both driving behaviour and perceived control of the car was registered and analysed. All participants had a SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) at cervical level, i.e. drivers with tetraplegia. Two types of joysticks were tested, one conventional (similar to what is used with computer games) and one modified with which the driver could control speed and steering independently. Both joysticks were tested with and without active feedback. The driving task consisted of rural road driving and a manoeuvre test with a double lane-change. The results presented here should be considered as preliminary and the study as a pilot study, which will be completed with a lager set of participants. So far 8 subjects have completed the experiment. The preliminary results cannot be used to draw any definite conclusion on which system design should be preferred. There was some evidence that active feedback provided a better lateral control and the drivers drove with larger safety margins with the modified joystick. However, the drivers’ opinion seemed to be more in favour of the conventional passive joystick.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Maastricht: , 2002
Keyword
Electronic driving aid, Disabled person, Vehicle handling, Simulator, Steering, Braking, Speed, Performance, Attitude
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7836 (URN)
Conference
Human Factors in Transportation, Communication, Health, and the Workplace. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter Annual Meeting, Turin, Italy, November 2001.
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
5. Safety and mobility of people with disabilities driving adapted cars
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and mobility of people with disabilities driving adapted cars
2004 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, 54-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A study was carried out to increase knowledge about the safety of drivers with disabilities. A questionnaire that focused on the driver's disability, the adaptive equipment, the use of the car, safety, and accident involvement was sent to a random sample of persons with disabilities driving adapted cars. Spinal cord injuries was the most frequent diagnosis (30% of 793 answers) and lower limb disabilities was the most common functional restriction (over 75%). The drivers felt very safe and they had a high level of confidence in the adapted car. They used the car for almost the entire distance travelled (90%), which illustrates how dependent this group is on the car for their mobility. About 1 out of 10 drivers had been involved in an accident during the last 3.5 years, most of them with only material damage. The accident and injury risks of the target group did not differ significantly from the risks of drivers in general. A small number of accidents were attributed to problems with the special equipment in the car. The causes could be unfamiliarity with the controls, an adaptation that did not fully meet the needs of the individual or equipment that broke down. © 2004 Taylor & Francis.

Keyword
Car, Adaptation, Risk, Accident, Severity
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 81 Road: Accidents; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 811 Road: Accident statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7833 (URN)10.1080/11038120410020511 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2016-03-07Bibliographically approved
6. Joystick versus conventional driving controls
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joystick versus conventional driving controls
2002 (English)In: Human factors in transportation, communication, health, and the workplace. / [ed] Dick de Waard, Karel Brookhuis, Jan Moraal, & Antonella Toffetti, Maastricht, Maastricht, 2002, 77-80 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Joystick controlled vehicles for disabled drivers are not common. Since a joystick differs fundamentally from conventional primary controls, studying joystick control can reveal several critical issues concerning alternative primary controls and drive-by-wire technology. A joystick combines steering and speed control in one single lever. In a manoeuvre test with joystick-controlled cars, interference between steering and speed control and difficulties in performing fast and accurate steering were observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Maastricht: , 2002
Keyword
Electronic driving aid, Steering, Speed control, Disabled person, Design, Training ground, Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7837 (URN)
Conference
Human Factors in Transportation, Communication, Health, and the Workplace. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter Annual Meeting, Turin, Italy, November 2001.
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
7. Joystick controlled driving for drivers with disabilities: A driving simulator experiment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joystick controlled driving for drivers with disabilities: A driving simulator experiment
2005 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

A driving simulator experiment was conducted to investigate two design features of four-way joystick systems used for vehicle control (accelerator, brake and steering). Effects of active force feedback and decoupled speed and steering control were investigated. These were features expected to

facilitate driving with joystick systems. Time lags were made similar to what is found in conventional primary car controls, as those found in existing joystick systems seems to complicate usage and prolong learning. The joystick was designed for drivers with severe locomotor disabilities. Sixteen drivers with spinal cord injuries at a cervical level participated, all inexperienced with joystick driving. All participants drove on a rural road and performed a double lane change manoeuvre task. It was found that the decoupling provided better control and less workload, especially for those eight drivers with better hand and arm function. Active force feedback together with decoupled control was found positive for the same subgroup and provided better control in the lane change manoeuvre. However, drivers with less arm and hand function preferred passive feedback, and active feedback was even found disturbing. In general, the tested joystick was found to be very easy to learn which was attributed to the short in time lags.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2005
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 506A
Keyword
English, Sweden, Disabled person, Driver, Adaptation, Car, Equipment, Steering, Simulator, Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6374 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved

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