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Elderly and Disabled Travelers: Intelligent Transport Systems Designed for the 3rd Millennium
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Linköpings Universitet.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2301-5793
1999 (English)In: Transportation Human Factors, ISSN 1093-9741, Vol. 1, no 2, 121-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The TELematic Standards and Coordination of Advanced Transport Telematics systems in relation to elderly and disabled travelers (TELSCAN) project in the Transport Sector of the Telematics Applications Programme of the European Union has developed a Handbook of Design Guidelines (Nicolle & Burnett, 1999) to support designers of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to include the needs of people who are elderly or disabled. This article describes the methods of the Handbook's development, including an overview of the methodology for capturing the requirements of elderly and disabled travelers, a survey of existing guidelines, and empirical results and lessons learned from simulator testing. The authors conclude that although general guidelines are necessary, the most specific and useful guidelines emerge only when carefully chosen research questions can be investigated. The development of such guidelines should help us come closer to achieving usability of ITS not only for elderly and disabled people, but for everybody as we enter the 3rd millennium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1999. Vol. 1, no 2, 121-134 p.
Keyword [en]
Old people, Disabled person, Intelligent transport system, Recommendations, Method, Data acquisition, Driving simulator
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7835DOI: 10.1207/sthf0102_1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-7835DiVA: diva2:809453
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation of Adapted Passenger Cars for Drivers with Physical Disabilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Adapted Passenger Cars for Drivers with Physical Disabilities
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving can provide independent and efficient mobility. However, according to the driving license directive (91/439/EEC) are persons with locomotor impairments are only allowed drive if their disabilities can be compensated. Compensation can be realised by vehicle adaptations. The directive provides meagre guidance on how vehicles should be adapted or how to verify that the compensatory requirements are fulfilled. This is a gap in the current process for licensing drivers with physical disabilities. Furthermore, the Swedish process from driver assessment to driver licensing and adaptation approval is complex, fragmented, and suffer from lack of communication between involved authorities. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the development of a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for driver with physical disabilities. The focus was on the evaluation of adaptations for steering, accelerating and braking. Three driving simulator experiments and one manoeuvre test with adapted vehicles were conducted. A group of drivers with tetraplegia driving with hand controls were compared to able-bodied drivers in the first experiment. Even if the drivers with tetraplegia had a longer brake reaction time they performed comparable to the able-bodied drivers. However, they spent more effort and were more tired in order to perform as well as the able-bodied drivers. It was concluded that the adaptation was not sufficient. An Adaptive Cruise Controller (ACC) was tested in the second experiment in order to find out if it could alleviate the load on drivers using hand controls. It was found that the ACC decreased the workload on the drivers. However, ACC systems need to be adjustable and better integrated. The results from the first two experiments were used to provide some guidelines for ACCsystems to be used by drivers with disabilities. The third experiment was preceded by a manoeuvre test with joystick controlled cars. The test revealed some problems, which were attributed to time lags, control interference, and lack of feedback. Four joystick designs were tested with a group of drivers with tetraplegia in the third experiment. It was concluded that time lags should be made similar to what is found in standard cars. Lateral and longitudinal control should be separated. Active feedback can improve vehicle control but should be individually adjusted. The experiments revealed that drivers with the same diagnose can be functionally very diverse. Thus, an adaptation evaluation should be made individually. Furthermore, the evaluation should include a manoeuvre test. Finally, it was concluded that the evaluation approach applied in the experiments was relevant but needs to be further developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 864
Keyword
Disabled person, Driver, Car, Adaptation, Equipment, Vehicle handling, Simulator, Adaptive cruise control, Driving aptitude, Thesis
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7838 (URN)91-7373-911-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved

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