Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Subjective sleepiness is a sensitive indicator of insufficient sleep and impaired waking function
Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4790-7094
Karolinska Institutet.
Stockholms Universitet.
2014 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no 3, 240-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main consequence of insufficient sleep is sleepiness. While measures of sleep latency, continuous encephalographical/electro-oculographical (EEG/EOG) recording and performance tests are useful indicators of sleepiness in the laboratory and clinic, they are not easily implemented in large, real-life field studies. Subjective ratings of sleepiness, which are easily applied and unobtrusive, are an alternative, but whether they measure sleepiness sensitively, reliably and validly remains uncertain. This review brings together research relevant to these issues. It is focused on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), which is a nine-point Likert-type scale.

The diurnal pattern of sleepiness is U-shaped, with high KSS values in the morning and late evening, and with great stability across years. KSS values increase sensitively during acute total and repeated partial sleep deprivation and night work, including night driving. The effect sizes range between 1.5 and 3. The relation to driving performance or EEG/EOG indicators of sleepiness is highly significant, strongly curvilinear and consistent across individuals. High (>6) KSS values are associated particularly with impaired driving performance and sleep intrusions in the EEG. KSS values are also increased in many clinical conditions such as sleep apnea, depression and burnout. The context has a strong influence on KSS ratings. Thus, physical activity, social interaction and light exposure will reduce KSS values by 1–2 units. In contrast, time-on-task in a monotonous context will increase KSS values by 1–2 units. In summary, subjective ratings of sleepiness as described here is as sensitive and valid an indicator of sleepiness as objective measures, and particularly suitable for field studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 23, no 3, 240-252 p.
Keyword [en]
Sleep, Judgement (road user), Driving aptitude, Measurement
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7165DOI: 10.1111/jsr.12158ISI: 000336379700002ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84900420384ISBN: 0962-1105; 1365-2869 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-7165DiVA: diva2:750526
Available from: 2014-09-29 Created: 2014-09-29 Last updated: 2016-08-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Anund, Anna
By organisation
Human-vehicle-transport system interaction
In the same journal
Journal of Sleep Research
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Altmetric score

Total: 107 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf