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Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2301-5793
University of Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies.
Lunds Universitet.
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 6, no 5, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording the point of gaze within the scene. Analysis was performed on predefined regions. A questionnaire examined participant's experience of the navigation systems. Hearing loss was associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support led to less time spent viewing the navigation display. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 6, no 5, 1-9 p.
Keyword [en]
Eye movement, Hearing, Behaviour, Driver
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6649OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-6649DiVA: diva2:687634
Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2015-05-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Effekter av hörselnedsättning på trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet
Abstract [en]

The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with hearing loss (HL). Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal. The effects of HL discovered in this thesis add to the knowledge and understanding of the influence of HL on traffic safety and mobility. Differences found consistently point to a generally more cautious behavior. Compensatory and coping strategies associated with HL are bound to driving complexity and appear when complexity increases. These strategies include driving at lower speeds, using a more comprehensive visual search behavior and being less engaged in distracting activities. Evaluation of a tactile signal showed that by adding a tactile modality, some driver assistance systems can also be made accessible to drivers with HL. At the same time, the systems might be more effective for all users, since the driver can be more focused on the road. Based on the results in this thesis, drivers with HL cannot be considered an increased traffic safety risk, and there should be no need for adjustments of the requirements of hearing for a license to drive a car.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här doktorsavhandlingen var att undersöka trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet för individer med hörselnedsättning (HN). Tre studier har genomförts: 1. en enkätstudie för att undersöka skillnader i transportvanor relaterade till HN, 2. en körsimulatorstudie for att titta på kompensatoriska strategier och utvärdera effektiviteten i en taktil signal för att påkalla förarens uppmärksamhet och 3. en fältstudie för att undersöka effekterna i riktig trafik samt utvärdera ett navigationssystem med en taktil signal som stöd för navigering. Effekterna av HN som kom fram i denna avhandling bidrar till kunskapen och förståelsen för hur HN påverkar trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet. De funna skillnaderna pekar konsistent mot ett generelltmera försiktigt beteende. Kompensatoriska - och copingstrategier förknippade med HN beror på körkomplexitet och observeras när komplexiteten ökar. Dessa strategier innebär körning med lägre hastighet, mera heltäckande visuell avsökning och mindre engagemang i distraherande uppgifter. Utvärdering av en taktil signal visade att genom att lägga till en taktil modalitet kan vissa förarstödsystem bli tillgängliga även för förare med HN. Samtidigt kan systemen bli mera effektiva för alla användare eftersom föraren då kan fokusera mera på vägen. Baserat på resultaten i den här avhandlingen kan inte förare med HN betraktas som någon förhöjd risk och det bör därmed inte finnas något behov av att justera hörselkraven när det gäller körkortsinnehav.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 81 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 636Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 69
Keyword
Hearing, Driver, Driving (veh), Behaviour, Cognition, Mental load, Eye movement, Tactile, Warning, Signal, Driver assistance system, Navigation (route), Simulator (driving), Test, Safety
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7842 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-111933 (DOI)978-91-7519-178-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-05, I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-05 Created: 2015-05-05 Last updated: 2016-08-19Bibliographically approved

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