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Traffic Simulation Modelling of Rural Roads and Driver Assistance Systems
Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9635-5233
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microscopic traffic simulation has proven to be a useful tool for analysis of varioustraffic systems. This thesis consider microscopic traffic simulation of rural roads andthe use of traffic simulation for evaluation of driver assistance systems.

A traffic simulation modelling framework for rural roads, the Rural Traffic Simulator(RuTSim), is developed. RuTSim is designed for simulation of traffic on singlecarriageway two-lane rural roads and on rural roads with separated oncoming trafficlanes. The simulated traffic may be interrupted by vehicles entering and leaving themodelled road at intersections or roundabouts.

The RuTSim model is applied for analysis of rural road design alternatives.Quality-of-service effects of three alternatives for oncoming lane separation of anexisting Swedish two-lane road are analysed. In another model application, RuTSimis used to simulate traffic on a Dutch two-lane rural road. This application illustratesthat the high level of model detail of traffic micro-simulation may call for use of differentmodelling assumptions regarding driver behaviour for different applications,e. g. for simulation of traffic in different cultural regions.

The use of traffic simulation for studies of driver assistance systems facilitateimpact analyses already at early stages of the system development. New and additionalrequirements are however then placed on the traffic simulation model. It isnecessary to model both the system functionality of the considered driver assistancesystem and the driver behaviour in system equipped vehicles. Such requirements canbe analysed using RuTSim.

In this thesis, requirements on a traffic simulation model to be used for analysisof road safety effects of driver assistance systems are formulated and investigatedusing RuTSim. RuTSim is also applied for analyses of centre line rumble stripson two-lane roads, of an overtaking assistant and of adaptive cruise control. Thesestudies establish that the assumptions made regarding driver behaviour are crucialfor traffic simulation based analyses of driver assistance systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008. , 33 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1211
Keyword [en]
Traffic, Micro, Simulation, Model, Car following, Rural road, Driver, Fatigue, Rumble strip, Adaptive cruise control, Active safety system, Safety, Evaluation, Overtaking, Traffic lane, Mathematical model, Thesis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6549ISBN: 978-91-7393-806-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-6549DiVA: diva2:676096
Public defence
2008-10-03, TP1, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-06-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
2005 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, no 1934, 169-178 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many countries the road mileage is dominated by rural highways.For that reason it is important to have access to efficienttools for evaluation of the performance of such roads. For otherroad types, e. g., freeways and urban street networks, a wealth ofmicro-simulation models is available. However, only a few modelsdedicated to rural roads have been developed. None of thesemodels handles traffic flows interrupted by intersections or roundabouts,nor are the models capable of describing the traffic flow onrural roads with a cable barrier between oncoming lanes. Theseare major drawbacks when Swedish roads, on which cable barriersand roundabouts are becoming increasingly important, aremodeled. Moreover, as new areas of application for rural roadsimulation arise, a flexible and detailed model is needed. Suchapplications include, among other things, simulation of driver assistancesystems and estimation of pollutant emissions. This paperintroduces a versatile traffic micro-simulation model for the ruralroads of today and of the future. The model system presented,the Rural Traffic Simulator (RuTSim), is capable of handling allcommon types of rural roads, including the effects of roundaboutsand intersections on the traffic on the main road. The purpose ofthe paper is to describe the simulation approach and the trafficmodeling used in RuTSim. A verification of the RuTSim model isalso included. RuTSim is found to produce outputs representativeof all common types of rural roads in Sweden.

Keyword
Rural road, Simulation, Micro, Roundabout, Junction, Safety fence, Median, Traffic flow, Electronic driving aid, Driver information, Emission, Estimation, Speed, Acceleration, Car following, Overtaking
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6557 (URN)10.3141/1934-18 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-06-18Bibliographically approved
2. Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Tokyo: JSTE , 2006, 249-258 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, rural roads with separated oncoming lanes are becomingincreasingly important due to their superior safety properties.The level-of-service of such roads may however be reduced since traffic is restricted by the barrier between the oncoming lanes.This level-of-service impact can be evaluated through traffic microsimulation.Such simulation based assessments of rural highways require simulation models capable of modeling rural road traffic.This paper presents a simulation study of different rural road designs with separated oncoming lanes using a rural road traffic simulationmodel. The presentation illustrates the use of simulationfor rural highways and the result of the study indicates that oncominglane separation is a competitive alternative despite slightlevel-of-service reductions compared to undivided two-lane highways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo: JSTE, 2006
Keyword
Level of service, Micro, Simulation, Rural road
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6552 (URN)4-905990-61-0 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-06-18Bibliographically approved
3. On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

New areas of application of traffic micro-simulation models are currently being explored. Examples include analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems, safety assessments and vehicle emissions studies. Many of these new applications depend on reliable and representative simulated vehicle trajectories. The traffic simulation models used for these applications must therefore model driver/vehicle behavior with greater detail than what is necessary for traditional traffic engineering applications. In this paper, we argue that this increased model complexity may reduce the applicability of the models to other situations with different driver/vehicle behavior. Such situations include simulation of traffici n different countries or regions as well as simulation of road environments with different properties. The objective of the paper is to bring focus to modeling considerations that are important for today’s increasingly detailed traffic micro-simulation applications. Model application to traffic in different regions is exemplified by a case study in which the Rural Traffic Simulator developed in Sweden is applied to simulation of traffic on a Dutch two-lane highway. Simulation of traffic in different regions and new model applications is to a certain extent facilitated by the model calibration and validation. The high level of detail of micro-simulation models may however require use of different modeling assumptions for different applications. Advances in vehicle trajectory measurement techniques will allow developments of more detailed traffic microsimulation models. It is therefore increasingly important that the models are estimated and cross-validated using data sets that are collected in the regions and traffic conditions that the models are developed for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2008
Keyword
Micro, Simulation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6551 (URN)
Conference
87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-08-28Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
2006 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, no 1953, 81-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Road safety is a major concern in all countries, and large effortsare constantly dedicated to create safer traffic environments. Todayincreasing attention is turned toward active safety improvingcountermeasures that improve road safety by reducing accidentrisks. Such active countermeasures include advanced driver assistancesystems (ADAS). To ensure that these new applicationsresult in real safety improvements, a priori estimations of safetyeffects are needed. This paper considers estimation of the safetyeffects of ADAS through traffic simulation. Requirements imposedon a traffic simulation model to be used for ADAS evaluation arepresented, and a car-following model to be used in simulations thatinclude ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed. ADAS have an impacton traffic through the functionalities of ADAS and throughchanges in driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles. Driverbehavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been consideredin previous simulation studies, including those for ADASequippedvehicles. Simulation runs of rural road traffic that usedthe proposed car-following model did, however, indicate that behavioralchanges caused by the ADAS were important factors forthe safety impact. Modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADASequippedvehicles is therefore essential for reliable conclusions onthe road safety effects of ADAS.

Keyword
Electronic driving aid, Simulation, Mathematical model, Traffic, Accident prevention, Evaluation, Impact study, Driver, Behaviour, Change
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: ITS och traffic; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6554 (URN)10.3141/1953-10 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-06-18Bibliographically approved
5. Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
2008 (English)In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 14, 69-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controls and Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced at a rapid pace. ADAS can both substitute and complement traditional infrastructure based safety improving counter measures. To exploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimate the systems future impact already at early development stages. This paper presents a traffic simulation framework for analysis of the aggregation of individual driver/vehicle behaviour due to ADAS to effects on the traffic system. Application of the simulation framework is exemplified by a study of centre line rumblestrips on rural roads. The effects of physical milled rumble strips are compared to the effects of “virtual” in-vehicle rumblestrips for both alert and sleep deprived drivers. The use of traffic simulation made it possible to study the combined impact of changes in drivers’ free driving speed, reaction time and overtaking behaviour. Indications that the different rumble strips have an impact on average journey speeds were found amongst the simulation results. Changes in safety indicators that can be related to changes in overtaking behaviour were also observed.

Keyword
Advanced driver assistance system, Simulation, Rumble strip, Attention, Speed, Reaction time, Overtaking
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6556 (URN)
Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2016-01-07Bibliographically approved
6. Overtaking assistant assessment using traffic simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overtaking assistant assessment using traffic simulation
2009 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, Vol. 17, no 6, 617-630 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This contribution presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study of the potential effects of an overtaking assistant for two-lane rural roads. The overtaking assistant is developed to support drivers in judging whether or not an overtaking opportunity can be accepted based on the distance to the next oncoming vehicle. Drivers have been found to consider this to be a difficult part of an overtaking manoeuvre. The assistants effects on traffic efficiency, driver comfort and road safety have been investigated using traffic simulation. The results indicate that this type of overtaking assistant can provide safety benefits in terms of increased average time-to-collision to the next oncoming vehicle during overtaking manoeuvres. This safety benefit can be achieved without negative consequences for traffic efficiency and driver comfort. A driver assistance system that supports the distance judging part of overtaking manoeuvres can therefore contribute to improved traffic conditions on the two-lane rural roads of the future.

Keyword
Driver assistance system, Overtaking, Evaluation (assessment), Micro, Simulation, Safety
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6578 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2009.04.010 (DOI)000270610700006 ()
Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-06-18Bibliographically approved
7. Vehicle Trajectory Effects of Adaptive Cruise Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Trajectory Effects of Adaptive Cruise Control
2012 (English)In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems / Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1547-2450, E-ISSN 1547-2442, Vol. 16, no 1, 36-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is assumed to have a potential to improve quality-of-service and safety and to reduce the environmental impact of the road traffic system. This paper use vehicle trajectories from traffic simulation to study impacts of ACC on vehicle acceleration and deceleration rates. The analysis is based on traffic simulations with car-following models including ACC functionality and driver behaviour in ACC-equipped as wellas standard non-equipped vehicles. The simulation results show that ACC can improve the traffic situation in terms of reduced acceleration and deceleration rates even though macroscopic traffic properties may remain uninfluenced. This supports the hypothesised positive road safety and environmental effects of ACC. It is also established that the results are largely dependent on the assumptions made regarding driver behaviour in ACC-equipped and standard vehicles. It is consequently crucial to include appropriate assumptions regarding driver behaviour in traffic simulation based analyses of ACC.

Keyword
Adaptive cruise control, Traffic, Simulation, Acceleration, Deceleration
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6564 (URN)10.1080/15472450.2012.639641 (DOI)000302055100004 ()
Note

Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-08-28Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
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