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Joystick controlled driving for drivers with disabilities: A driving simulator experiment
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2301-5793
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
2005 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

A driving simulator experiment was conducted to investigate two design features of four-way joystick systems used for vehicle control (accelerator, brake and steering). Effects of active force feedback and decoupled speed and steering control were investigated. These were features expected to

facilitate driving with joystick systems. Time lags were made similar to what is found in conventional primary car controls, as those found in existing joystick systems seems to complicate usage and prolong learning. The joystick was designed for drivers with severe locomotor disabilities. Sixteen drivers with spinal cord injuries at a cervical level participated, all inexperienced with joystick driving. All participants drove on a rural road and performed a double lane change manoeuvre task. It was found that the decoupling provided better control and less workload, especially for those eight drivers with better hand and arm function. Active force feedback together with decoupled control was found positive for the same subgroup and provided better control in the lane change manoeuvre. However, drivers with less arm and hand function preferred passive feedback, and active feedback was even found disturbing. In general, the tested joystick was found to be very easy to learn which was attributed to the short in time lags.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2005.
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 506A
Keyword [en]
English, Sweden, Disabled person, Driver, Adaptation, Car, Equipment, Steering, Simulator, Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6374OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-6374DiVA: diva2:675251
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation of Adapted Passenger Cars for Drivers with Physical Disabilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Adapted Passenger Cars for Drivers with Physical Disabilities
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving can provide independent and efficient mobility. However, according to the driving license directive (91/439/EEC) are persons with locomotor impairments are only allowed drive if their disabilities can be compensated. Compensation can be realised by vehicle adaptations. The directive provides meagre guidance on how vehicles should be adapted or how to verify that the compensatory requirements are fulfilled. This is a gap in the current process for licensing drivers with physical disabilities. Furthermore, the Swedish process from driver assessment to driver licensing and adaptation approval is complex, fragmented, and suffer from lack of communication between involved authorities. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the development of a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for driver with physical disabilities. The focus was on the evaluation of adaptations for steering, accelerating and braking. Three driving simulator experiments and one manoeuvre test with adapted vehicles were conducted. A group of drivers with tetraplegia driving with hand controls were compared to able-bodied drivers in the first experiment. Even if the drivers with tetraplegia had a longer brake reaction time they performed comparable to the able-bodied drivers. However, they spent more effort and were more tired in order to perform as well as the able-bodied drivers. It was concluded that the adaptation was not sufficient. An Adaptive Cruise Controller (ACC) was tested in the second experiment in order to find out if it could alleviate the load on drivers using hand controls. It was found that the ACC decreased the workload on the drivers. However, ACC systems need to be adjustable and better integrated. The results from the first two experiments were used to provide some guidelines for ACCsystems to be used by drivers with disabilities. The third experiment was preceded by a manoeuvre test with joystick controlled cars. The test revealed some problems, which were attributed to time lags, control interference, and lack of feedback. Four joystick designs were tested with a group of drivers with tetraplegia in the third experiment. It was concluded that time lags should be made similar to what is found in standard cars. Lateral and longitudinal control should be separated. Active feedback can improve vehicle control but should be individually adjusted. The experiments revealed that drivers with the same diagnose can be functionally very diverse. Thus, an adaptation evaluation should be made individually. Furthermore, the evaluation should include a manoeuvre test. Finally, it was concluded that the evaluation approach applied in the experiments was relevant but needs to be further developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 864
Keyword
Disabled person, Driver, Car, Adaptation, Equipment, Vehicle handling, Simulator, Adaptive cruise control, Driving aptitude, Thesis
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7838 (URN)91-7373-911-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved

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