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Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers’ sleepiness level: Eye movements improve the sleep/wake predictor
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4134-0303
Lunds Universitet.
Lunds Universitet.
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2061-5817
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2013 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, Vol. 26, 20-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a driver’s sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye movement measurements and on the sleep/wake predictor model (SWP, which predicts the sleepiness level) and evaluate the ability to predict severe sleepiness during real road driving. Twenty-four drivers participated in an experimental study which took place partly in the laboratory, where the fit-for-duty data were acquired, and partly on the road, where the drivers sleepiness was assessed. A series of four measurements were conducted over a 24-h period during different stages of sleepiness. Two separate analyses were performed; a variance analysis and a feature selection followed by classification analysis. In the first analysis it was found that the SWP and several eye movement features involving anti-saccades, pro-saccades, smooth pursuit, pupillometry and fixation stability varied significantly with different stages of sleep deprivation. In the second analysis, a feature set was determined based on floating forward selection. The correlation coefficient between a linear combination of the acquired features and subjective sleepiness (Karolinska sleepiness scale, KSS) was found to be R=. 0.73 and the correct classification rate of drivers who reached high levels of sleepiness (KSS ≥ 8) in the subsequent driving session was 82.4% (sensitivity = 80.0%, specificity = 84.2% and AUC = 0.86). Future improvements of a fit-for-duty test should focus on how to account for individual differences and situational/contextual factors in the test, and whether it is possible to maintain high sensitive/specificity with a shorter test that can be used in a real-life environment, e.g. on professional drivers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 26, 20-32 p.
Keyword [en]
Driver, Fatigue (Human), Measurement, Detection, Eye movement
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-271DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2012.07.008ISI: 000315421300002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84865833172OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-271DiVA: diva2:662675
Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-11-08 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved

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Ahlström, ChristerFors, CarinaAnund, Anna
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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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