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A new model for analyzing differentiated fares and frequencies for urban bus services in small cities: Case study for the city of Uppsala
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4209-1997
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7976-5628
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for welfare evaluation of fare and frequency policies for bus services in smaller or medium-sized cities handling both congestion and crowding in public transport. The model with data for the city of Uppsala. Two scenarios with marginal increases in frequencies and fares are evaluated. Then four main optimal policies are evaluated: fares with unchanged base line frequencies, frequencies with unchanged base line fares, simultaneous optimization of fares and frequencies and finally a scenario called the Pareto scenario where frequencies and fares are optimized subject to the condition that no consumer group (defined by zone, time period, origin-destination pair) should be worse of in terms of generalized cost of trip.

The results indicate that there are large, seemingly robust welfare gains from reducing public transport supply in Uppsala, especially in the outer zone of the city where reductions compared to the current situation are rather drastic. In comparison, welfare gains from adjusting fares are smaller. As there are large distributional effects in the welfare optimum, introduction of such a policy it is likely to be controversial. However, in an additionally examined scenario, almost all of the potential social welfare gains from the welfare optimal scenario is achieved while no consumer in any zone or time period is worse off compared to present policy. In this scenario, the total number of public transport passengers are increased and emissions are reduced compared to the current situation.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med detta projekt är att utveckla en modell för välfärdsutvärdering av pris- och frekvenspolitik för kollektivtrafik med buss i en mindre eller medelstora städer som hanterar både vägträngsel och trängsel i kollektivtrafiken. Modellen har anpassats till data från Uppsala. Två scenarier med marginella ökningar i frekvenser och biljettpriser utvärderas. Därefter utvärderas fyra huvudscenarier för optimala policys: priser med oförändrad turtäthet, turtätheter med oförändrade priser, priser och frekvenser samtidigt optimerade och slutligen ett scenario kallat Paretoscenariet, där frekvenser och biljettpriser optimeras förutsatt att ingen konsumentgrupp (definierad av zon, tidsperiod, ursprungsdestination par) får det sämre i termer av generaliserad reskostnad. Resultaten tyder på att det finns stora, till synes robusta välfärdseffekter av att minska turtätheten i Uppsala, särskilt stadens yttre zon, där minskningar jämfört med nuvarande situation är ganska drastiska. Jämförelsevis är välfärdsvinsterna av att justera priserna mindre. Eftersom det blir stora fördelningseffekter i optimum scenariot är införandet av en sådan politik sannolikt kontroversiell. I Paretoscenariet uppnås emellertid nästan alla välfärdsvinster som uppnås i det optimala scenariot, medan ingen konsument i någon zon eller tidsperiod är sämre än jämfört med nuvarande policy. I detta scenario ökar det totala antalet kollektivtrafikpassagerare och utsläppen minskas jämfört med nuvarande situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , 34 p.
Series
K2 Working Papers, 2017:8
Keyword [en]
Public transport, Bus, Tariff, Timetable, Frequency, Congestion (traffic), Social cost
National Category
Economics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12472OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-12472DiVA: diva2:1151378
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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