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Port call optimization and CO2-emissions savings: Estimating feasible potential in tramp shipping
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6347-8827
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8024-3154
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8221-3493
2022 (English)In: Maritime Transport Research, ISSN 2666-822X, Vol. 3, article id 100054Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The promise of Port Call Optimization (PCO) measures such as Virtual Arrival (VA) for increased fuel efficiency in shipping is emphasized in the literature and professional ranks alike. Despite their envisioned benefits and feasibility, the implementation of such measures has largely remained lacking. Recent studies indicate that the potential of VA on fuel efficiency might be overestimated. In this paper we propose a new approach to estimate the fuel efficiency potential of VA based on traffic data from the Swedish tramp shipping sector. Our results indicate that the feasible fuel efficiency potential of VA is significantly smaller than what has previously been reported with no discernible benefit to large cohorts of voyages. We conclude that further empirical analyses are required for increased accuracy of the estimation of the potential of PCO for increased fuel efficiency in shipping and that more measured approaches in implementation and evaluation of PCO are called for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022. Vol. 3, article id 100054
National Category
Marine Engineering
Research subject
SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18664DOI: 10.1016/j.martra.2022.100054ISI: 001026450600007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85132009072OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-18664DiVA, id: diva2:1660175
Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Just-in-Time Arrival in Port Calls: Potential and Implementation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Just-in-Time Arrival in Port Calls: Potential and Implementation
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is an urgent need to reduce emissions from maritime transportation to meet environmental targets set by international organizations and governments. To reduce emissions from maritime transportation, technical, market-based, and operational measures can be used. In this thesis, the focus is on operational measures, and in particular Just-in-Time arrival in the port call process. Just-in-Time arrival in the context of port calls refers to maintaining an optimal vessel sailing speed to arrive to the port when the availability of berth and other services are ensured. In earlier studies, the estimated fuel and emission savings potential of Just-in-Time arrival, is promising. Despite the promising potential of Just-in-Time, its implementation remains limited, with few real-world examples. The purpose of this thesis is to explore how to implement Just-in-Time arrival by studying coordination in the port call process.

Two research questions were formulated to address the purpose. The first aims to capture the potential benefits of implementing Just-in-Time arrival in port calls and the second aims to address what is required to implement Just-in-Time arrival in port calls. This thesis is based on two studies in the Swedish context. First, a quantitative study, in which Automatic Identification System data in combination with port call statistics and vessel-specific data were used to estimate the fuel and emission savings potential of Just-in-Time arrival. Second, a qualitative single case-study exploring the coordination mechanisms necessary for implementing Just-in-Time arrival in port calls was conducted.

The studies show that fuel and emission savings potential of Just-in-Time in previous studies is overestimated due to the assumptions used. Though, the implementation of Just-in-Time has potential to improve port call actors’ resource planning and utilization and increase the competitiveness of ports. This is because Just-in-Time arrival has the potential to aid actors in reaching mandatory emission reduction targets. To implement Just-in-Time arrival, it is necessary to coordinate the plans of actors. The required mechanisms to coordinate planning are pre-booking berth allocation policy and port community systems. The pre-booking policy implies booking time-slots for berths, facilitated by using the port community system. The port community system and the pre-booking policy enable the effective coordination of the planning processes of individual actors enabling Just-in-Time arrival in port calls.   

Abstract [sv]

Det är nödvändigt att minska utsläppen från sjöfartssektorn för att uppnå de klimatpolitiskamålen som har fastställts av internationella och nationella organisationer. För att minska utsläpp från sjöfarten och uppnå de klimatpolitiskamålen kan tekniska, policy, och operativa åtgärder användas. Fokus i denna avhandling är på operativa åtgärder, mer specifikt Just-in-Time ankomst vid hamnanlöp. Just-in-Time ankomst innebär att hålla en seglingshastighet som möjliggör ankomst till hamn vid den tidpunkt kajplatser och andra tjänster (exempelvis lotsning) är tillgängliga utan fördröjning. Tidigare studier visar att det finns en potential att spara bränsle och minska utsläpp genom att införa Just-in-Time ankomst. Trots potentialen är införandet av Just-in-Time ankomst begränsat i praktiken. Syftet med avhandlingen är att utforska hur Just-in-Time ankomst kan implementeras genom att studera koordineringen av aktörers aktiviteter under anlöpsprocessen.   

Syftet uppnås genom att besvara två forskningsfrågor. Den första forskningsfrågan berör potentialen av införandet av Just-in-Time ankomst vid hamnanlöp. I den andra frågan undersöks hur olika koordineringsmekanismer kan användas för att koordinera hamnaktörerna för att realisera potentialen av Just-in-Time ankomst. Två studier har genomförts. Först gjordes en kvantitativ modellering för att uppskatta bränsle- och utsläppsbesparingar för Just-in-Time anlöp i Sverige, baserad på Automatic Identification System data, hamnanlöpstatistik samt fartygsdata. Därefter har en kvalitativ fallstudie genomförts som har utforskat hur olika koordineringsmekanismer kan användas för att koordinera enskilda aktörers planeringsprocesser under anlöpsprocessen samt undersöka potentialen av införandet av Just-in-Time ankomst.   

Resultat visar att bränsle- och utsläppsbesparingspotentialen med Just-in-Time ankomst i tidigare studier ofta har överskattats på grund av antaganden som använts. Vidare framkom att implementering av Just-in-Time ankomst ha ett positivt inflyttande på aktörernas resursplanering- och utnyttjade och att hamnar kan öka sin konkurrenskraft tack vare sambandet mellan Just-in-Time ankomst och obligatoriska åtgärder för att minska utsläpp. För att kunna implementera Just-in-Time ankomst krävs förbättrad koordinering mellan aktörerna genom införandet av en förbokningspolicy av kajplatser. För att kunna förboka krävs förbättrad planerings och informationsdelning, det senare kan nås genom införandet av digitala informationsplattformar (port community system).    

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. p. 94
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1974
Keywords
Maritime transportation, Port call process, Just-in-Time arrival, Coordination and information sharing, Port community system
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19958 (URN)10.3384/9789180753203 (DOI)9789180753197 (ISBN)9789180753203 (ISBN)
Presentation
2023-09-15, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved

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