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Aramrattana, MaytheewatORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4951-5315
Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Zhao, L., Nybacka, M., Aramrattana, M., Rothhämel, M., Habibovic, A., Drugge, L. & Jiang, F. (2024). Remote Driving of Road Vehicles: A Survey of Driving Feedback, Latency, Support Control, and Real Applications. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Driving of Road Vehicles: A Survey of Driving Feedback, Latency, Support Control, and Real Applications
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2024 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, ISSN 2379-8858, E-ISSN 2379-8904Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This literature survey explores the domain of remote driving of road vehicles within autonomous vehicles, focusing on challenges and state-of-the-art solutions related to driving feedback, latency, support control, as well as remote driving platform and real applications. The advancement towards Level-5 autonomy faces challenges, including sensor reliability and diverse scenario feasibility. Currently, remote driving is identified as vital for commercialization, however, it comes with challenges like low situational awareness, latency, and a lack of comprehensive feedback mechanisms. Solutions proposed include enhancing visual feedback, developing haptic feedback, employing prediction techniques, and use control methods to support driver. This paper reviews the existing literature on remote driving in these fields, revealing research gaps and areas for future studies. Additionally, this paper reviews the industry applications of remote driving and shows the state-of-art use cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2024
Keywords
Remote driving, teleoperation, autonomous vehicles, situational awareness, latency, driving feedback, support control
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20356 (URN)10.1109/tiv.2024.3362597 (DOI)2-s2.0-85184824344 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-26 Created: 2024-02-26 Last updated: 2024-03-01Bibliographically approved
Skogsmo, I., Andersson, J., Jernberg, C. & Aramrattana, M. (2023). One2Many: remote operation of multiple vehicles. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>One2Many: remote operation of multiple vehicles
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
One2Many : fjärrstyrning av flera fordon
Abstract [en]

One2Many, the title of this report, refers to remote operation of vehicles where an operator handles several vehicles simultaneously. This may increase efficiency and opportunities for profitability. The objective of this report is to identify essential and relevant developments of the regulatory framework, as well as business models and working conditions for support of safe and sustainable introduction of a single person’s remote operation of multiple vehicles. 

As a starting point, this report describes the taxonomy used and a state-of-the-art study. Most literature deals with technical challenges around remote operation while non-technical challenges, as well operation of multiple vehicles, are poorly covered. This report aims at addressing this gap by considering non-technical aspects for remote operation. 

Legal aspects are described and analysed, resulting in recommendations for next steps for legislation and regulation. Furthermore, business models and working environment are discussed, taking advantage of two real world use cases: goods transport (Einride trucks), and public transportation (Ride the Future automated shuttles). 

One2Many summarises regulatory considerations in a Memorandum, and additionally concludes that: 

• Research is needed regarding legal challenges for the three different modes of remote operation (remote driving, remote assistance, remote supervision) and how to address them in future regulation to best deal with safety concerns and to support remote operation. Liability issues and concerns also need to be handled. 

• The main advantage of introducing remote operating for several vehicles per operator will most likely be uptime. The employee cost is foreseen to decrease, but potential surrounding functions need to be studied in order to determine if the cost of personnel actually would go down. 

• Several working environment considerations should be further discussed, e.g. regarding what type of controls would be most effective and safe to use, and whether it matters if an operator has a background as driver of conventional vehicles.

Abstract [sv]

Föreliggande rapports titel, One2Many, syftar på fjärrstyrning av fordon där en operatör hanterar flera fordon samtidigt. Detta kan öka effektiviteten och möjligheterna till lönsamhet. Projektets syfte är att identifiera väsentliga och relevanta utvecklingar av regelverket, såväl som affärsmodeller och arbetsförhållanden för att stödja säker och hållbar introduktion av en enda persons fjärrstyrning av flera fordon. 

I avsaknad av etablerad taxonomi för styrning identifieras begreppet ”Remote operation” (fjärrstyrning) och dess tre moder: remote driving, assistance och supervision (fjärrkörning, fjärrassistans, fjärrövervakning). En nulägesbekrivning (state of the art) visar att den mesta litteraturen och de flesta initiativ inom industri och forskning behandlar tekniska utmaningar kring fjärrstyrning. Icke tekniska utmaningar, liksom samtidig styrning av flera fordon, täcks i betydligt mindre grad. Rapporten adresserar denna lucka genom att beakta icke-tekniska aspekter för fjärrstyrning. 

Juridiska frågeställningar beskrivs och analyseras, och leder fram till rekommendationer för hur lagstiftning och reglering behöver utvecklas. Vidare diskuteras affärsmodeller och arbetsmiljö utifrån två fall med automatiserade fordon i verkliga miljöer: godstransport (Einride-lastbilar) och kollektivtrafik (Ride the Future automatiserade skyttlar). 

One2Many sammanfattar regulatoriska överväganden i ett memorandum och drar dessutom slutsatserna att: 

• Det är nödvändigt med forskning som behandlar de juridiska utmaningarna för de tre olika fjärrstyrningsmoderna och deras framtida reglering för att på bästa sätt hantera säkerhetsproblem och för att stödja fjärrstyrning. Ansvarsfrågor och problem måste också behandlas. 

• Den största fördelen med att införa fjärrstyrning för flera fordon per operatör kommer med största sannolikhet att vara ”up-time”. Personalkostnaden förväntas minska, men operationernas kringaktiviteter och -funktioner måste studeras för att avgöra om personalkostnaderna faktiskt skulle minska. 

• Flera arbetsmiljöaspekter bör diskuteras vidare, till exempel om vilken typ av kontroller som skulle vara mest effektiva och säkra att använda, och om det spelar någon roll om en operatör har en bakgrund som förare av konventionella fordon, eller inte.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2023
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1164A
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19710 (URN)
Available from: 2023-05-16 Created: 2023-05-16 Last updated: 2023-05-16Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Andersson, J., Jernberg, C., Larsson, P., Nybacka, M., Nylander, T. & Persson, M. (2023). Remote Driving Operation (REDO) project: final report. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Driving Operation (REDO) project: final report
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Remote Driving Operation (REDO) projekt : slutrapport
Abstract [en]

This report presents experimental setups and findings from the REDO project, which had been conducted between December 2019 and February 2023. Five main topics are covered in this report: 1) Effects of latency and field-of-view on driving performance; 2) Remote driving feedback and control; 3) Connectivity and mobile network support for remote driving; 4) Video transmission for remote driving; and 5) Laws and regulations concerning remote driving. Contents of this report dives into technical details and findings within each topic. Nevertheless, this report does not intend to repeat all detail and results published in scientific publications, and thus this report should be seen as complementary material to the published results.

Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport presenterar studier och experiment inom REDO-projektet samt resultat ifrån dessa. Studierna är utförda mellan december 2019 och februari 2023 och rapporten täcker fem huvudämnen: 1) den effektlatens och siktvinkel har på körprestanda; 2) feedback och kontroll vid fjärrkörning; 3) uppkoppling samt mobilnätsstöd för fjärrstyrning; 4) videoöverföring för fjärrkörning; och 5) lagar och föreskrifter gällande fjärrstyrning. Innehållet i denna rapport avser att täcka tekniska detaljer och fynd inom samtliga av dessa ämnen, den är dock inte avsedd för att innehålla samtliga detaljer och resultat som redan har publicerats som vetenskapliga artiklar. Denna rapport bör ses som ett komplement till tidigare publicerade resultat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2023. p. 42
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1180A
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19868 (URN)
Available from: 2023-09-05 Created: 2023-09-05 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Maleki, M., Aramrattana, M., Maleki, M., Folkesson, P., Sangchoolie, B. & Karlsson, J. (2023). Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks. In: Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing: . Paper presented at 28th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC), Singapore, 24-27 October, 2023 (pp. 23-29). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, IEEE Computer Society, 2023, p. 23-29Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A remotely operated road vehicle (RORV) refers to a vehicle operated wirelessly from a remote location. In this paper, we report results from an evaluation of two safety mechanisms: safe braking and disconnection. These safety mechanisms are included in the control software for RORV developed by Roboauto, an intelligent mobility solutions provider. The safety mechanisms monitor the communication system to detect packet transmission delays, lost messages, and outages caused by naturally occurring interference as well as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. When the delay in the communication channel exceeds certain threshold values, the safety mechanisms are to initiate control actions to reduce the vehicle speed or stop the affected vehicle safely as soon as possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms, we exposed the vehicle control software to various communication failures using a software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing environment developed specifically for this study. Our results show that the safety mechanisms behaved correctly for a vast majority of the simulated communication failures. However, in a few cases, we noted that the safety mechanisms were triggered incorrectly, either too early or too late, according to the system specification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2023
Series
Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, ISSN 1541-0110, E-ISSN 1555-094X
Keywords
communication failures, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, remotely operated road vehicle (RORV), safety mechanisms, software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20190 (URN)10.1109/PRDC59308.2023.00012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182390657 (Scopus ID)979-8-3503-5876-6 (ISBN)979-8-3503-5877-3 (ISBN)
Conference
28th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC), Singapore, 24-27 October, 2023
Available from: 2024-02-02 Created: 2024-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-02Bibliographically approved
Amador, O., Aramrattana, M. & Vinel, A. (2022). A Survey on Remote Operation of Road Vehicles. IEEE Access, 10, 130135-130154
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Survey on Remote Operation of Road Vehicles
2022 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 130135-130154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of remote operation has been proposed as a bridge towards driverless mobility by providing human assistance remotely when an automated driving system finds a situation that is ambiguous and requires input from a remote operator. The remote operation of road vehicles has also been proposed as a way to enable drivers to operate vehicles from safer and more comfortable locations. While commercial solutions for remote operation exist, remaining challenges are being tackled by the research community, who is continuously testing and validating the feasibility of deploying remote operation of road vehicles on public roads. These tests range from the technological scope to social aspects such as acceptability and usability that affect human performance. This survey presents a compilation of works that approach the remote operation of road vehicles. We start by describing the basic architecture of remote operation systems and classify their modes of operation depending on the level of human intervention. We use this classification to organize and present recent and relevant work on the field from industry and academia. Finally, we identify the challenges in the deployment of remote operation systems in the technological, regulatory, and commercial scopes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022
Keywords
5G, automated mobility, connected vehicle, remote driving, teleoperation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19363 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3229168 (DOI)000902004300001 ()2-s2.0-85144797263 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-01-24Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Fu, J. & Selpi, S. (2022). Behavioral adaptation of drivers when driving among automated vehicles. Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavioral adaptation of drivers when driving among automated vehicles
2022 (English)In: Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, ISSN 2399-9802Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This paper aims to explore whether drivers would adapt their behavior when they drive among automated vehicles (AVs) compared to driving among manually driven vehicles (MVs).Understanding behavioral adaptation of drivers when they encounter AVs is crucial for assessing impacts of AVs in mixed-traffic situations. Here, mixed-traffic situations refer to situations where AVs share the roads with existing nonautomated vehicles such as conventional MVs.

Design/methodology/approach: A driving simulator study is designed to explore whether such behavioral adaptations exist. Two different driving scenarios were explored on a three-lane highway: driving on the main highway and merging from an on-ramp. For this study, 18 research participants were recruited.

Findings: Behavioral adaptation can be observed in terms of car-following speed, car-following time gap, number of lane change and overall driving speed. The adaptations are dependent on the driving scenario and whether the surrounding traffic was AVs or MVs. Although significant differences in behavior were found in more than 90% of the research participants, they adapted their behavior differently, and thus, magnitude of the behavioral adaptation remains unclear.

Originality/value: The observed behavioral adaptations in this paper were dependent on the driving scenario rather than the time gap between surrounding vehicles. This finding differs from previous studies, which have shown that drivers tend to adapt their behaviors with respect to the surrounding vehicles. Furthermore, the surrounding vehicles in this study are more “free flow'” compared to previous studies with a fixed formation such as platoons. Nevertheless, long-term observations are required to further support this claim.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Publishing, 2022
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18983 (URN)10.1108/JICV-07-2022-0031 (DOI)2-s2.0-85137430127 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-26 Created: 2022-09-26 Last updated: 2022-10-24Bibliographically approved
Andreotti, E., Selpi, M. & Aramrattana, M. (2022). Cooperative Merging Strategy Between Connected Autonomous Vehicles in Mixed Traffic. IEEE OPEN JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, 3, 825-837
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Merging Strategy Between Connected Autonomous Vehicles in Mixed Traffic
2022 (English)In: IEEE OPEN JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, ISSN 2687-7813, Vol. 3, p. 825-837Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work we propose a new cooperation strategy between connected autonomous vehicles in on-ramps merging scenarios and we implement the cut-in risk indicator (CRI) to investigate the safety effect of the proposed strategy. The new cooperation strategy considers a pair of vehicles approaching an on-ramp. The strategy then makes decisions on the target speeds/accelerations of both vehicles, possible lane changing, and a dynamic decision-making approach in order to reduce the risk during the cut-in manoeuvre. In this work, the CRI was first used to assess the risk during the merging manoeuvre. For this purpose, scenarios with penetration rates of autonomous vehicles from 20% to 100%, with step of 10%, both connected and non-connected autonomous vehicles were evaluated. As a result, on average a 35% reduction of the cut-in risk manoeuvres in connected autonomous vehicles compared to non-connected autonomous vehicles is obtained. It is shown through the analysis of probability density functions characterising the CRI distribution that the reduction is not homogeneous across all indicator values, but depends on the penetration rate and the severity of the manoeuvre.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2022
Keywords
Cooperative merging strategy, cut-in risk indicator, mixed-traffic, on-ramp merging, traffic simulations
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19362 (URN)10.1109/OJITS.2022.3179125 (DOI)000903546100001 ()
Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-01-24Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Habibovic, A. & Englund, C. (2021). Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 10, Article ID 100381.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons
2021 (English)In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 10, article id 100381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is currently unknown how automated vehicle platoons will be perceived by other road users in their vicinity. This study explores how drivers of manually operated passenger cars interact with automated passenger car platoons while merging onto a highway, and how different inter-vehicular gaps between the platooning vehicles affect their experience and safety. The study was conducted in a driving simulator and involved 16 drivers of manually operated cars. Our results show that the drivers found the interactions mentally demanding, unsafe, and uncomfortable. They commonly expected that the platoon would adapt its behavior to accommodate a smooth merge. They also expressed a need for additional information about the platoon to easier anticipate its behavior and avoid cutting-in. This was, however, affected by the gap size; larger gaps (30 and 42.5 m) yielded better experience, more frequent cut-ins, and less crashes than the shorter gaps (15 and 22.5 m). A conclusion is that a short gap as well as external human–machine interfaces (eHMI) might be used to communicate the platoon's intent to “stay together”, which in turn might prevent drivers from cutting-in. On the contrary, if the goal is to facilitate frequent, safe, and pleasant cut-ins, gaps larger than 22.5 m may be suitable. To thoroughly inform such design trade-offs, we urge for more research on this topic. © 2021 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-16842 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2021.100381 (DOI)2-s2.0-85110769602 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-23 Created: 2021-08-23 Last updated: 2022-10-21Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Englund, C., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2020). A Novel Risk Indicator for Cut-In Situations. In: 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020: . Paper presented at 23rd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020, 20 September 2020 through 23 September 2020. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Risk Indicator for Cut-In Situations
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2020 (English)In: 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cut-in situations occurs when a vehicle intentionally changes lane and ends up in front of another vehicle or in-between two vehicles. In such situations, having a method to indicate the collision risk prior to making the cut-in maneuver could potentially reduce the number of sideswipe and rear end collisions caused by the cut-in maneuvers. This paper propose a new risk indicator, namely cut-in risk indicator (CRI), as a way to indicate and potentially foresee collision risks in cut-in situations. As an example use case, we applied CRI on data from a driving simulation experiment involving a manually driven vehicle and an automated platoon in a highway merging situation. We then compared the results with time-to-collision (TTC), and suggest that CRI could correctly indicate collision risks in a more effective way. CRI can be computed on all vehicles involved in the cut-in situations, not only for the vehicle that is cutting in. Making it possible for other vehicles to estimate the collision risk, for example if a cut-in from another vehicle occurs, the surrounding vehicles could be warned and have the possibility to react in order to potentially avoid or mitigate accidents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-15933 (URN)10.1109/ITSC45102.2020.9294315 (DOI)2-s2.0-85099646310 (Scopus ID)9781728141497 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020, 20 September 2020 through 23 September 2020
Available from: 2021-03-03 Created: 2021-03-03 Last updated: 2022-10-21Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Englund, C., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2020). A Simulation Study on Effects of Platooning Gaps on Drivers of Conventional Vehicles in Highway Merging Situations. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Simulation Study on Effects of Platooning Gaps on Drivers of Conventional Vehicles in Highway Merging Situations
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2020 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Platooning refers to a group of vehicles that--enabled by wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication and vehicle automation--drives with short inter-vehicular distances. Before its deployment on public roads, several challenging traffic situations need to be handled. Among the challenges are cut-in situations, where a conventional vehicle--a vehicle that has no automation or V2V communication--changes lane and ends up between vehicles in a platoon. This paper presents results from a simulation study of a scenario, where a conventional vehicle, approaching from an on-ramp, merges into a platoon of five cars on a highway. We created the scenario with four platooning gaps: 15, 22.5, 30, and 42.5 meters. During the study, the conventional vehicle was driven by 37 test persons, who experienced all the platooning gaps using a driving simulator. The participants' opinions towards safety, comfort, and ease of driving between the platoon in each gap setting were also collected through a questionnaire. The results suggest that a 15-meter gap prevents most participants from cutting in, while causing potentially dangerous maneuvers and collisions when cut-in occurs. A platooning gap of at least 30 meters yield positive opinions from the participants, and facilitating more smooth cut-in maneuvers while less collisions were observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-15936 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2020.3040085 (DOI)2-s2.0-85098774184 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-03 Created: 2021-03-03 Last updated: 2022-10-21Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4951-5315

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