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Börjesson, M., Fung, C. M., Proost, S. & Yan, Z. (2018). Do buses hinder cyclists or is it the other way around?: Optimal bus fares, bus stops and cycling tolls. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 111, 326-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do buses hinder cyclists or is it the other way around?: Optimal bus fares, bus stops and cycling tolls
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 111, p. 326-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper optimises the number of bus stops, and prices for car, bus and cycling in the busiest inner city corridor in Stockholm. We adopt the representative consumer approach and calibrate the current equilibrium using the quasi-linear utility function. We find that the number of bus stops is already close to optimal. Welfare would increase if the peak frequency was increased, if the bus fares were lowered and differentiated between long trips and short trips and, and that the toll for longer car trips was increased. The optimal toll for cyclists, and the welfare benefit from it, is small and does not compensate the transaction costs. The distributional effects of bus fare changes and higher car tolls are small because on one hand, high income groups place more value on travel time gains, but on the other hand, low income groups travel less frequently by car. Surprisingly, we find that in the welfare optimum, the bus service only requires a small subsidy due to congestion in the bus lane, crowding in the buses, and extra boarding and alighting time per passenger. The Mohring effect is limited because the demand, and thereby the baseline frequency, is already high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Bus stop, Cycling, Car, Bus, Economics of transport, Optimisation, Road pricing, Tariff, Journey time, Social cost, Subsidy
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 113 Road: Cycling, walking and moped transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13111 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2018.03.023 (DOI)000433265100025 ()
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Lorenzo Varela, J. M., Börjesson, M. & Daly, A. (2018). Public transport: One mode or several?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 113, 137-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public transport: One mode or several?
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 113, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper develops a methodology for testing and implementing differences in preferences for a set of public transport modes, relating to observed and unobserved attributes, in state-of-practice large-scale travel demand models. Results of a case study for commuters in the Stockholm public transport system suggest that there are preference differences among public transport modes. We found that the value of time for train is lower than for bus and metro, and that it is higher for auxiliary modes than for the main mode. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differences proportional to the in-vehicle time between bus and metro, suggesting that characteristics of in-vehicle time in these two modes are valued equally by the travellers. Nevertheless, unobserved preference for metro is higher than the preference for bus. Regarding the existence of a rail factor, we find evidence to support the hypothesis that rail-based modes have in fact a smaller time parameter (train) or higher alternative specific constant (metro), indicating that rail modes are preferable to bus, ceteris paribus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Public transport, Transport mode, Time, Cost, Passenger train, Underground railway, Bus
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13090 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2018.03.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045651681 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Varela, J. M., Börjesson, M. & Daly, A. (2018). Quantifying errors in travel time and cost by latent variables. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 117, 520-541
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying errors in travel time and cost by latent variables
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 117, p. 520-541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Travel time and travel cost are key variables for explaining travel behaviour and deriving the value of time. However, a general problem in transport modelling is that these variables are subject to measurement errors in transport network models. In this paper we show how to assess the magnitude of the measurement errors in travel time and travel cost by latent variables, in a large-scale travel demand model. The case study for Stockholm commuters shows that assuming multiplicative measurement errors for travel time and cost result in a better fit than additive ones, and that parameter estimates of the choice model are impacted by some of the key modelling assumptions. Moreover, our results suggest that measurement errors in our dataset are larger for the travel cost than for the travel time, and that measurement errors are larger in self-reported travel time than software-calculated travel time for car-driver and car-passenger, and of similar magnitude for public transport. Among self-reported travel times, car-passenger has the largest errors, followed by car-driver and public transport, and for the software-calculated times, public transport exhibits larger errors than car. These errors, if not corrected, lead to biases in measures derived from the models, such as elasticities and values of travel time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Error quantification, Hybrid choice models, Latent variables, Measurement error models, RP value of time, Self-reported indicators, Cost benefit analysis, Measurement errors, Transportation routes, Choice model, Latent variable, Value of time, Travel time
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13334 (URN)10.1016/j.trb.2018.09.010 (DOI)2-s2.0-85054168076 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-05 Created: 2018-11-05 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M. & Eliasson, J. (2018). Should values of time be differentiated?. Transport reviews, 1-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Should values of time be differentiated?
2018 (English)In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

We explore the issue of differentiating the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) in transport cost-benefit analysis, summarising and discussing theories forming the basis for arguments for and against VTTS differentiation. We stress some important implications, insights and consequences of different assumptions relating to these theories, many of which we feel have been underappreciated in much of the CBA literature and practice. We derive a welfare rule including a social cost for monetary redistributions and show the implications for how the VTTS can be defined in different choice situations. Crucially, the applicable VTTS definition depends on whether travel costs (fares) are under public control and to whom benefits accrue in the long run. In some choice situations, the VTTS should be controlled for differences in income, but it is important to always take into account differences in marginal utilities of time (e.g. across travel time components, modes and trip purposes). Using Swedish data, we show that controlling the VTTS for income differences changes the VTTS only slightly; the variation in VTTS across modes, trip lengths, trip purposes apparently stems primarily from differences in marginal utilities of time rather than income.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Cost benefit analysis, Journey time, Cost, Social cost, Income, Fare, Transport mode
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13129 (URN)10.1080/01441647.2018.1480543 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048373508 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-11 Created: 2018-07-11 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Peer, S. & Börjesson, M. (2018). Temporal framing of stated preference experiments: does it affect valuations?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 117, 319-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal framing of stated preference experiments: does it affect valuations?
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 117, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we explore how valuations of trip attributes by train commuters differ between a short-run (departure time choice) and a long-run (travel routine choice) context using a unique SP experiment explicitly designed for this purpose. In the short-run version of the SP experiment, the respondents receive information about available travel options shortly before they had planned to travel. In the long-run version, the respondents receive information about available travel options one month ahead of the planned travel. The short-run context concerns temporary changes in available travel options, while the long-run context concerns permanent changes. We find significantly higher valuations of trip attributes in the long-run context. Moreover, our results indicate that the usual arrival time at work as well as the intrinsically preferred arrival time at work serve as reference points in the short-run as well as the long-run choice context, with the former dominating in the short-run context and the latter in the long-run context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Public transport, Stated preference, Rail bound transport, Journey to work, Change
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J04 Railway: Passenger transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13297 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2018.08.027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052873081 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Susilo, Y. O., Liu, C. & Börjesson, M. (2018). The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30 years. Transportation, 1-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30 years
2018 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study utilised the Swedish national travel survey covering a period of over 30 years. We investigated the long-term trends in activity-travel patterns of individuals in different life-cycle stages and generations using cohort analysis and a path model. The main findings are summarised as follows. The women, including mothers, in younger generations have become more active in out-of-home non-work activities and their trip chaining has become more complex, compared to their male counterparts. While men are still driving more than women, the gap is decreasing in the younger generations. The gender difference among teenagers in terms of out-of-home time use diminishes in younger generations. Teenagers of younger generations spend more of their leisure time inside their homes, possibly due to the rise of online activities and gaming and more time-consuming school trips, the latter attributed to changes in school choice policy. Older adults travel more, possibly due to better paratransit transport service, supported by better health services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2018
Keywords
Travel survey, Long term, Behaviour, Man, Woman, Adolescent, Old people
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 11 Road: Personal transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12862 (URN)10.1007/s11116-018-9868-5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85044018623 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Bastian, A. & Börjesson, M. (2018). The city as a driver of new mobility patterns, cycling and gender equality: Travel behaviour trends in Stockholm 1985–2015. Travel Behaviour & Society, 13, 71-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The city as a driver of new mobility patterns, cycling and gender equality: Travel behaviour trends in Stockholm 1985–2015
2018 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 13, p. 71-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses changes in individual travel behaviour in Stockholm County over 30 years, using three large cross-sectional travel survey data sets. It shows that travel patterns have diverged over time between city, suburban and rural residents. The trends in travel behaviour that we find are consistent with changes in the labour market, ICT use, land-use and transport policy, gender equality, and population composition trends. The inner city has become increasingly attractive: the share of trips is to the inner city is increasing for all purposes, socio-economic groups, and residential locations. The reduction of car traffic in response to the introduction of the congestion charges in 2006 is more than compensated by an increase in bicycle and transit trips to the inner city. Travel times by car are increasing in the city, although the car traffic volumes have decreased. The travel behaviour gender gap has closed completely in the inner city, but not further out in the region or in the rest of the country. Understanding long term trends in travel behaviour in different population segments, and the context under which they occur, helps to understand how the conditions, opportunities and constraints for different population segments are changing, which is key for transport policy and land-use planning. Since the societal trends driving travel behaviour in Stockholm and Sweden are much the same in many cities and countries, the findings are of general relevance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Mobility (pers), Town, Cycling, Travel survey, Occupation, Land use, Population, Long term, Man, Woman, Residential area, Policy
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 11 Road: Personal transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13167 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2018.06.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049527980 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
West, J. & Börjesson, M. (2018). The Gothenburg congestion charges: cost–benefit analysis and distribution effects. Transportation, 1-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Gothenburg congestion charges: cost–benefit analysis and distribution effects
2018 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

This paper performs an ex-post cost–benefit and distribution analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013, based on observed effects and an ex-post evaluated transport model. Although Gothenburg is a small city with congestion limited to the highway junctions, the congestion charge scheme is socially beneficial, generating a net surplus of €20 million per year. From a financial perspective, the investment cost was repaid in slightly more than a year and, from a social surplus perspective, is repaid in < 4 years. Still, the sums that are redistributed in Gothenburg are substantially larger than the net benefit. In the distribution analysis we develop an alternative welfare rule, where the utility is translated to money by dividing the utility by the average marginal utility of money, thereby avoiding putting a higher weight on high-income people. The alternative welfare rule shows larger re-distribution effects, because paying charges is more painful for low-income classes due to the higher marginal utility of money. Low-income citizens pay a larger share of their income because all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg and workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars for private trips. No correlation was found between voting pattern and gains, losses or net gain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2018
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13536 (URN)10.1007/s11116-017-9853-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040777121 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Kristoffersson, I. & Börjesson, M. (2018). The Swedish Congestion Charges: Lessons Learnt. In: John Walker (Ed.), Road Pricing: Technologies, economics and acceptability. IET
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish Congestion Charges: Lessons Learnt
2018 (English)In: Road Pricing: Technologies, economics and acceptability / [ed] John Walker, IET , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The charging systems in Sweden show that congestion charges can be an efficient (socio-economically beneficial) and effective policy measure for combating urban congestion. Furthermore, the technology of the Swedish charging systems has proven to work well, with high accuracy of correctly identified vehicles using the video technique with ANPR. The case of Gothenburg demonstrates this measure is not only less efficient if initial congestion levels are low, but also less efficient in the long run: the effects are declining in the long run. In Stockholm, the effects have increased over the years. The difference between the cities in this respect could be a result of the lower density city structure and high car dependence in Gothenburg. From this perspective, congestion charges are likely most successful in cities where congestion levels are high and where there exist good alternatives to driving.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IET, 2018
Keywords
Congestion charging, Congestion relief, Impact study, Long term, Technology, Efficiency, Peak hour, Price, Elasticity
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; 20 Road: Traffic engineering, 22 Road: Traffic control and traffic information
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12553 (URN)10.1049/PBTR008E_ch14 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M. & Kristoffersson, I. (2018). The Swedish congestion charges: Ten years on. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 107, 35-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish congestion charges: Ten years on
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 107, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Time-of-day dependent cordon-based congestion charging systems were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, and in Gothenburg in 2013. The Stockholm system was significantly extended in 2016, and the peak charge has been increased in the two cities. This paper analyses the effects of the first decade with the Swedish congestion charges, specifically effects of the system updates, and draws policy lessons for the years to come. Should we introduce congestion charges in more cities? Should we extend the systems that we have? We synthesize previous research findings and focus on the long-term effects that have varied over time including the recent years: the price elasticities on the traffic volume across the cordon, the revenue and system operating cost, the public and political support, and consequences for the transport planning process. We also explore the effects on peak and off-peak, and different types of traffic (trucks, company cars and private passenger cars), because of access to novel data that make this analysis possible. We find that the price elasticities have increased over time in Stockholm, but decreased in Gothenburg. We find that the public support increased in the two cities after their introduction until the systems were revised; since then, the public support has declined in both cities. We find that the price elasticity was substantially lower when the charging levels were increased, and when the Stockholm system was extended, than when the charges were first introduced, a likely reason being that the most price-sensitive traffic was already priced off-the road at the introduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Congestion charging, Congestion relief, Impact study, Long term, Cost, Policy, Road user, Attitude (psychol), Peak hour, Price, Elasticity
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; 20 Road: Traffic engineering, 22 Road: Traffic control and traffic information
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12610 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2017.11.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034234435 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9235-0232

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