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Vieira, T., Sandberg, U. & Erlingsson, S. (2019). Acoustical performance of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces. Applied Acoustics, 153, 30-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical performance of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces
2019 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 153, p. 30-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to excessively high noise levels is a relevant health problem in Europe and road traffic noise is the most widespread noise source. When considering cold climate countries, the available scientific literature on noise emission properties of winter tyres is still very limited. In order to contribute into filling this knowledge gap, this paper investigates the acoustical performance of different types of tyres, with focus on winter tyres, on different road surfaces, at different speeds, and with different states of wear. The results indicate that studded winter tyres have, indeed, an increased noise level at frequencies between 315 Hz and 10 kHz, having a significantly different response especially at frequencies higher than 4 kHz. The acoustical response also depends on the tyre type when comparing different road surfaces, as a result of conflicting vibrational and aerodynamic noise generation mechanisms. Additionally, the relationship between labelled and measured values was explored, however, no statistically significant relationship was found between them (and labelling is not applied for studded tyres). A frequency spectrum correction was attempted based on previous measurements on an ISO track, which reduced the difference between measured and labelled values, however, further investigation is still required to properly understand differences between label and road measurements, where the label is determined on a test track with a special, smooth surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Studded tyre, Winter, Tyre, Noise, Measurement, Frequency, Spectrum, Acoustics
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 93 Road: Vehicles and the environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13718 (URN)10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.03.025 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064087138 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T., Sandberg, U. & Erlingsson, S. (2019). Negative texture, positive for the environment: effects of horizontal grinding of asphalt pavements. International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative texture, positive for the environment: effects of horizontal grinding of asphalt pavements
2019 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pavement surface having deflections from a plane mostly directed downwards in valleys is said to have a “negative texture”, in contrast to a “positive texture” dominated by peaks. Negative textures are typical of porous asphalt pavements, but another way to achieve this feature is to grind off the peaks of the surface. This paper explores the effects of grinding off texture peaks in the horizontal plane on a number of Swedish asphalt pavements in order to reduce noise and rolling resistance. Noise measurements were made to evaluate the ground-off surfaces versus the original surfaces, and, in most cases, also rolling resistance, texture and friction were also evaluated. It was found that grinding led to a more negative texture, tyre/road noise reductions up to 3 dB and tyre/road rolling resistance reductions up to 15%. It is concluded that horizontal grinding provides a maintenance operation with a significant potential for reduction of noise and rolling resistance, without sacrificing friction, though with limited longevity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13886 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2019.1610476 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065057324 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, U., Mioduszewski, P. & Vieira, T. (2018). Acoustic lifecycle study of the double-layer porous asphalt on E4 in Huskvarna, Sweden. In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering. Paper presented at 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018. Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic lifecycle study of the double-layer porous asphalt on E4 in Huskvarna, Sweden
2018 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In 2010 a double-layer porous asphalt concrete (DPAC) pavement was constructed on the E4 motorway through the Swedish city Huskvarna. Earlier experience in Sweden indicated that it was feasible to obtain a high initial noise reduction but due to the widespread use of studded tires in winter, clogging and ravelling created losses of around 2 dB per year, with an expected acoustical lifetime of only 3 years. However, the improved pavement in Huskvarna finally exceeded lifetime and durability expectations by at least 100 %. The first two years, noise reduction fell from the initial 7-8 dB just marginally, compared to an average-age SMA 16 pavement. Now after its 7th year, the pavement had reached its acoustical end of life, with an average noise reduction loss of 0.5 dB per year. This is considered as a break-through for low noise pavements exposed to the winter climate in Sweden and road traffic with most light vehicles equipped with studded tires. This paper presents results of annual noise measurements using the CPX method over the entire lifetime on the DPAC compared to the reference set of SMA 16 pavements. This includes the effects of grinding, cleaning and rejuvenation trials on certain test sections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2018
Keywords
Surfacing, Porous asphalt, Noise, Decrease, Motorway, Measurement, Life cycle, Experimental road
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
30 Road: Highway design, 33 Road: Surfacing; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13549 (URN)2-s2.0-85059362566 (Scopus ID)
Conference
47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-14Bibliographically approved
Carlson, A. & Vieira, T. (2018). Effekten på rullmotstånd av vatten och snö på vägytan. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekten på rullmotstånd av vatten och snö på vägytan
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
The effect on rolling resistance of water and snow on the road surface
Abstract [sv]

Rullmotstånd uppkommer vid interaktionen mellan vägyta och däck och utgör en del av det färdmotstånd som ett fordon behöver överkomma för att röra sig framåt. De av vägytans egenskaper som anses ha störst betydelse för rullmotstånd är makrotextur och ojämnhet längs med vägen. Men även vatten och snö på vägytan bidrar till att påverka rullmotståndet. Nederbörd som ligger kvar på vägen innebär att hjulen behöver drivas genom och flytta undan vatten eller snö, vilket ger ett ökat motstånd.

Syftet med rapporten är att göra en kunskapssammanställning om hur rullmotståndet påverkas av vatten och snö på vägbanan. Litteratur har sökts i databaser över vetenskapliga artiklar och rapporter och via kompletterande sökningar på internet för att hitta ytterligare material. En genomgång har gjorts av cirka 50 rapporter och artiklar som publicerats från 1970-talet fram till 2018.

Sammanställningen visar att vatten och snö på vägytan kan ha en betydande effekt på rullmotståndet. För vatten på vägytan används ofta hastighet, temperatur och vattendjup som förklarande variabler. För att beskriva snöns påverkan på rullmotståndet används snödjup, snöns densitet, däckens kontaktyta med vägbana som förklarande variabler. En osäkerhet i resultaten av de fältstudier som redovisats är att flera har genomförts under 70- och 80-talet. Sedan dess har såväl mätmetoder som mätutrustning utvecklats och förbättrats. Även däckens egenskaper har förbättrats, vilket i sig har haft en effekt på rullmotståndet. För att få mätdata för rullmotstånd i snö och vatten som är anpassat för däck och fordon som används på vanliga vägar idag, behöver därför nya mätningar genomföras som använder de senast utvecklade mätmetoderna och ny mätutrustning. Det skulle minska osäkerheten i mätresultat och ge aktuell information som kan användas för att uppdatera sambanden mellan bränsleförbrukning och vatten och snö på vägytan.

Abstract [en]

Rolling resistance depends on the interaction between road surface and tire and forms part of the driving resistance a vehicle needs to overcome to move forward. The road surface properties considered the most important for rolling resistance are macro textures and unevenness along the way. But water and snow on the road surface will also affect the rolling resistance. Precipitation remaining on the road surface means the wheels need to be driven through and move water or snow, which gives increased resistance.

The purpose of the report is to provide an overview of the state of knowledge about how the rolling resistance is affected by water and snow on the road surface. Literature has been sought in databases of scientific articles and reports, and also on the internet. A review has been made of about 50 reports and articles published from the 1970s to 2018.

The overview shows that water and snow on the road surface can have a significant effect on the rolling resistance. For water on the road surface, speed, temperature and water depth are often used as explanatory variables. To describe the snows impact on the rolling resistance, the explanation variables use snow depth, snow density, tire contact surface with the ground. An uncertainty in the results of the studies reported is that several have been implemented in the 70's and 80's. Since then, measuring methods as well as measuring equipment have been developed and improved. The tire properties have also improved, which has had an effect on the rolling resistance. Therefore, to obtain snow and water rolling resistance measurement data for tires and vehicles used on normal roads today, new measurements should be made using the most recent measurement methods and measurement equipment. This would reduce the uncertainty in measurement results and provide current information that can be used to update the relationship between fuel consumption and water and snow on the road surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 48
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 971
Keywords
Rolling resistance, Wet road, Water, Snow, Fuel consumption, Measurement, Mathematical model
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
30 Road: Highway design, 33 Road: Surfacing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13035 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T. & Sandberg, U. (2018). Spectral analysis of the acoustical performance of winter tires for different road textures, test speeds and tire state-of-wear. In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering. Paper presented at 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018. Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectral analysis of the acoustical performance of winter tires for different road textures, test speeds and tire state-of-wear
2018 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Under winter conditions, in which ice or snow may be present on the road, different tire designs may be used to provide suitable friction levels. One alternative is to have studs embedded in the tire tread to increase friction. Another alternative is to use a studless tire with materials and tread pattern optimized for winter conditions. There is also a hybrid alternative, which is the use of small hard particles instead of regular studs. When considering the acoustical performance, these three different alternatives have different properties; especially, the studded tires behave substantially different. Results from CPX measurements at different speeds and different road sections indicated that the studded tires spectral response is different in two major aspects: (i) a plateau instead of a decreasing trend is found for frequencies higher than 4 kHz, and (ii) overall increased noise levels, resulting in a spectrum that is shifted upwards. This paper analyses how the frequency spectra of winter tires are affected by different road surfaces, test speeds and tire wear. It also attempts to relate the observed behaviour to different contact and noise generation mechanisms to provide a better understanding of the acoustical performance of such tires.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2018
Keywords
Tyre, Winter, Noise, Measurement, Surface texture, Speed, Wear, Spectrum, Acoustics
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 93 Road: Vehicles and the environment; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13544 (URN)2-s2.0-85059369724 (Scopus ID)
Conference
47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T. & Sandberg, U. (2017). Acoustical performance of winter tyres on two in-service road surfaces: A frequency spectrum analysis and comparison. In: INTER-NOISE 2017 - 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet. Paper presented at 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, INTER-NOISE 2017, 27 August 2017 through 30 August 2017. Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical performance of winter tyres on two in-service road surfaces: A frequency spectrum analysis and comparison
2017 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2017 - 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to provide appropriate performance on potentially hazardous winter or icy road surfaces, it is common to employ specific tyres developed for such conditions. Such winter tyres may contain studs embedded in the tyre tread, or they may be studless. Additionally, it is possible to use so called all season tyres which are also fitted for winter conditions. In some northern countries, the usage of winter tyres is mandatory and it is commonly assumed that studded winter tyres are significantly noisier than non-studded tyres. This paper analyses noise measurements on various types of winter tyres, both studded and studless, and the results are compared to all season and summer tyres. The measurements were carried out with the CPX method to characterize the noise performance of different tyres on in-service road surfaces. A total of approximately 50 light vehicle tyres were tested on two different road surfaces, namely an SMA 8 and a DAC 16. The analysis is focused on comparing different frequency spectra for each tyre category, providing a better understanding on how the presence of studs changes the resulting tyre/road noise in different frequencies and how winter tyres compare to all season and summer tyres regarding their frequency spectra. The results indicate how substantially the studs increase the noise level and drastically change the tyre acoustical behaviour at higher frequencies. The frequency spectra for studded tyres presented in this paper have a substantially different shape when compared to the spectra for studless tyres. The most characteristic difference between studded and non-studded tyres appears at frequencies above 4 kHz and is a result of the studs interacting with the road surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2017
Keywords
Studded tyre, Winter, Tyre, Noise, Measurement, Frequency, Spectrum, Acoustics
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 93 Road: Vehicles and the environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12871 (URN)2-s2.0-85042014268 (Scopus ID)
Conference
46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, INTER-NOISE 2017, 27 August 2017 through 30 August 2017
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, U., Mioduszewski, P., Ejsmont, J. A. & Vieira, T. (2016). Noise and rolling resistance properties of various types of winter tyres compared to normal car tyres. In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future. Paper presented at 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, INTER-NOISE 2016, 21 August 2016 through 24 August 2016 (pp. 7005-7016).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise and rolling resistance properties of various types of winter tyres compared to normal car tyres
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 2016, p. 7005-7016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To cope with winter weather conditions, potentially including snow and ice, it is common to use winter tyres, or "all-seasons" tyres assumed to be safe both in summer and winter. In some northern countries, winter tyres are mandatory. It is commonly assumed that winter tyres are noisier than normal tyres (here called summer tyres) and winter tyres equipped with studs are assumed to be extra noisy.

This paper presents a study where noise and rolling resistance properties of tyres for winter conditions are compared to summer and all-season tyres. The winter tyres include types optimized for central European climate, tyres optimized for Nordic climate and tyres with studs. In total, approx. 50 car tyres have been tested. Noise properties have been measured with the CPX method and rolling resistance has been measured with a trailer method; all measurements made on two road surfaces; SMA 8 and DAC 16.

Results indicate that winter tyres are not noisier than summer tyres; except for studded tyres. Despite high differences among individual tyres, rolling resistance is approximately similar among the main types; surprisingly including also studded tyres. An alarming result was that there was no correlation between measured values and values on the tyre labels.

Keywords
Tyre, Winter, Studded tyre, Noise, Rolling resistance, Measurement
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11331 (URN)2-s2.0-84994571118 (Scopus ID)
Conference
45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, INTER-NOISE 2016, 21 August 2016 through 24 August 2016
Available from: 2016-11-25 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2016-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/000-0001-8057-6031

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