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Nåbo, A., Börjesson, C., Källgren, L., Nyman, J. & Stave, C. (2018). Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Electric road in Lund : A study of a bus line using a driving simulator
Abstract [sv]

År 2018 träder klimatlagen i kraft. Till år 2030 ska klimatpåverkan i transportsektorn ha minskat med 70 procent jämfört med år 2010 och år 2045 ska Sveriges klimatpåverkan vara netto noll. Det innebär en fundamental omställning av energiförsörjningen av vägtransporter och fordonsflottan. För bussar i stadstrafik ser man gärna en elektrifiering då elbussar både är avgasfria och tysta, vilket ger en mindre miljöpåverkan på gaturummet och det då finns möjlighet att även skapa attraktiva busslinjer.

För att exemplifiera hur en elektrifiering av buss kan göras gjordes en studie i körsimulator där en möjlig elbusslinje i Lund som använder elväg studerades. Elektrifieringens mål var att nå en hög användarvänlighet och uppfylla framtidens krav på miljö- och energianpassning. Med hjälp av olika informationskällor om elbussar, elvägsteknik och Lunds stadsmiljö skapades virtuella modeller av dessa som sedan installerades i körsimulatorn.

För att utvärdera om bussen och elektrifieringen uppfyllde kraven på användarvänlighet genomfördes försök med bussförare i en dynamisk körsimulator, SIM II på VTI i Linköping. Resultaten visade att förarna inte hade några större svårigheter att framföra bussen så att elektrifieringen fungerade. Tyvärr drabbades några av förarna av illamående under körningen (”simulatorsjuka”) och fick avbryta.

En utvärdering av körsimulatorn som ett verktyg för opinionsbildning gjordes genom att tillhandahålla ett informationsblad om elväg för bussar samt att demonstrera elektrifieringen för anställda i Lunds kommun med hjälp av en mindre, flyttbar körsimulator. Intervjuer om elbussar och elektrifiering gjordes före och efter demonstrationen för att se effekter på inställningen till och förståelsen av elbuss och elväg. Resultaten visade att simulatorkörningen gav ett mervärde utöver informationsbladet, 2/3 av deltagarna svarade att förståelsen blev större och 1/3 att den inte förändrades. Inställningen till elbuss och elväg förändrades inte. Majoriteten av deltagarna ansåg att simulatorn kan vara en hjälp i beslutsfattande.

En analys av energiåtgången för bussen visade att batterinivån var lägre i slutet av körningen än i början, det vill säga batterinivån sjönk. Detta hade kunnat undvikas om elektrifieringen lagts ut på ett mer fördelaktigt sätt, och behöver således inte vara en begränsande faktor vid en framtida implementering.

Vidare gjordes en jämförelse med några andra energiförsörjningsalternativ såsom depåladdning och ändhållplatsladdning. För- och nackdelar för dessa alternativ diskuterades utifrån ekonomiska och bussoperativa perspektiv.

Abstract [en]

By the year 2018, the Climate Act will come into force. By 2030, climate impact in the transport sector should have fallen by 70 percent compared with 2010 and by 2045 Sweden’s climate impact will be net zero. This means a fundamental transformation of the energy supply of vehicles in road transport. For buses in city traffic, electrification is favorable because electric buses are both exhaustfree and quiet, giving a lesser environmental impact in the street environment, and by that the possibility of creating attractive bus lines.

To exemplify how a bus electrification can be done, a driving simulator study was conducted on a possible electric bus line in the city of Lund using an electric road system. The goal of electrification was to achieve a high user acceptance and to meet the targets for the future environment and energy use.

With the help of various sources of information about electric buses, electric road systems and the urban environment of Lund, virtual models were created, which were then installed in the driving simulator.

To evaluate whether the bus and electrification complied with the user acceptance requirements, bus drivers participated in a test in a dynamic driving simulator, SIM II at VTI in Linköping. The results showed that the drivers had no major difficulties in driving the bus so that the electrification worked. Unfortunately, some of the drivers suffered from sickness while driving (“simulator sickness”) and had to stop driving.

An evaluation of the driving simulator used as a tool for public relation purposes was made by providing an information sheet and demonstrating the electrification to employees in Lund municipality by using a small, moveable driving simulator. Interviews about electric buses and electrification were made before and after the demonstration to see effects on the opinion and understanding of electric buses and electric road systems. The results showed that the simulator drive gave added value in addition to the information sheet only, 2/3 of the participants answered that their understanding was increased by the simulator drive and 1/3 answered that it was not changed. The attitude to the electric bus and the electric road system did not change. Most people considered that the simulator could be a helpful tool in decision making.

An analysis of the energy consumption of the bus showed that the battery level was lower at the end of the test drive than in the beginning, i.e. the battery level dropped. This would not have been the case if the electrification had been made more advantageously, and thus would not need to be a limiting factor in future implementation.

In addition, the studied electric road system was compared with some other power supply options such as charging at bus depot and at bus end stop. The pros and cons of these alternatives were discussed based on economic and bus operational perspectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 52
Series
VTI notat ; 8-2018
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13146 (URN)
Available from: 2018-07-05 Created: 2018-07-05 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2017). A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework-consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators-for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Automation, Driving, Simulation, Traffic, Transport network, Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12428 (URN)2-s2.0-85028624553 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-27 Created: 2017-09-27 Last updated: 2017-09-29Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2017). A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework—consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators—for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kidlington: Pergamon Press, 2017
Keywords
Intelligent transport system, Platooning (electronic), Evaluation (assessment), Simulator (driving), Simulation, Traffic, Network (traffic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12687 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2017.08.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85028624553 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Vehicle ICT Innovation Methodology (VICTIg)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Englund, C., Jansson, J., Larsson, T. & Nåbo, A. (2017). Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations. In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero): . Paper presented at 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-Zero’17), Nara, Japan, 18-22 September, 2017. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Article ID 20174621.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero), Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan , 2017, article id 20174621Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function, which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road space utilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are not desired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especially from non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining the safety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performs the cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers using time to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks are always high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6 seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, 2017
Keywords
Cooperative ITS, Autonomous driving, Lane changing, Safety, Traffic mixture, Simulation, Adaptive cruise control, Platooning (electronic)
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12684 (URN)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-Zero’17), Nara, Japan, 18-22 September, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Englund, C., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2017). Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios. In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC): . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Kanagawa, Japan, 16-19 October, 2017 (pp. 315-320).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2017, p. 315-320Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

Keywords
Cooperative ITS, Autonomous driving, Traffic mixture, Simulation, Adaptive cruise control, Platooning (electronic)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12685 (URN)10.1109/ITSC.2017.8317806 (DOI)978-1-5386-1525-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Kanagawa, Japan, 16-19 October, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-07-24Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2016). Cooperative Driving Simulation. In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016: . Paper presented at DSC 2016 Europe, Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, 7-9 sept, 2016, Paris, France (pp. 123-132).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Driving Simulation
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

Keywords
Intelligent transport system, Platooning (electronic), Simulator (driving), Simulation, Traffic, Network (traffic)
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12688 (URN)
Conference
DSC 2016 Europe, Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, 7-9 sept, 2016, Paris, France
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2016). Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems. In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16): . Paper presented at 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16) (pp. 255-258). New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Cooperative intelligent transport system, Technology, Development, Network (traffic)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10736 (URN)10.1145/2901378.2901397 (DOI)978-1-4503-3742-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16)
Projects
VICTIgSAFER-VICTIg
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Nåbo, A., Andhill, C. J., Blissing, B., Hjort, M. & Källgren, L. (2016). Known Roads: real roads in simulated environments for the virtual testing of new vehicle systems. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Known Roads: real roads in simulated environments for the virtual testing of new vehicle systems
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This publication presents a project aiming to develop virtual representations of real roads for use in driving simulators. The development was done in order to enable assessments of new systems on existing and well known roads in a driving simulator, and will increase the external validity of virtual testing. Furthermore, the usage of the virtual model of such roads makes the simulator results better comparable to earlier performed or later following road tests. The roads connecting Göteborg-Borås-Alingsås-Göteborg were selected. The purpose for this is due to their proximity to the vehicle industry in west Sweden and to the test tracks “Hällered” and “AstaZero”. However, the tools and methods developed can be used to build a virtual representation of any other road through a surrounding landscape and/or more urban environment. The project was carried out in steps, starting with data collection (investigation and assessment of available data from different sources as well as measurement of road properties) followed by data treatment (remove irrelevant data and errors, filtering, etc.), modelling (mathematical description of road properties) and simulation (selection of data formats for real time simulation).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 40
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2015-2
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Simulation, Road, Geometric design, Landscape, Method, Software
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11556 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
Nåbo, A., Börjesson, C., Eriksson, G., Genell, A., Hjälmdahl, M., Holmén, L., . . . Thorslund, B. (2015). Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Electric road systems in driving simulator : design, test, evaluation and demonstration of electric road systems and electric vehicles by using virtual methods
Abstract [sv]

Elvägar, där el överförs kontinuerligt till fordon på vägen, kan vara ett sätt att nå målet om en fossiloberoende transportsektor. För att testa och utvärdera elvägar och elfordon på elvägar i ett tidigt stadium utvecklades en demonstrationsmiljö i körsimulator. En studie genomfördes med 25 förare där varje förare fick köra en 40 kilometer lång vägsträcka, dels med en hybridlastbil på elväg, dels med en konventionell lastbil utan elväg. Körning på elväg uppvisade inga anmärkningsvärda skillnader på förarens upplevelser vad gäller säkerhet och estetik eller körbeteende jämfört med körning utan elväg. Undantaget var medelhastigheten vilken var cirka 2 kilometer/timme högre på elväg. Energianvändningen var cirka 35 procent lägre på elväg. För att sprida projektresultatet till aktörer och intressenter av elvägar har ett stort antal demonstrationer genomförts, samt kommunikation via pressreleaser och tidningsartiklar. Det har även tagits fram en mindre, mobil körsimulator för elvägar som ett led i att nå ut till en större målgrupp.

Abstract [en]

Electric road systems, ERS, where vehicles receive electricity continuously while driving, could be a way to reach the target of a fossil-free transport sector. A demonstration environment in a driving simulator was developed in order to test and evaluate ERS concepts and electric vehicles driving on ERS. A user study was conducted, where 25 drivers drove a 40 kilometre long route, both with a hybrid truck on ERS and with a conventional truck with no ERS. Driving on ERS showed no remarkable difference on driver’s experience of safety and aestethics or the driving behaviour compared to no ERS. The exception was average speed which was 2 kilometres/hour higher when driving on ERS. The energy consumption decreased 35 per cent on ERS. In order to disseminate project results to actors and potential users of ERS, a large number of simulator demonstrations have been conducted. There has also been a press release and a number of magazine articles. In addition, a portable ERS driving simulator was constructed and used in order to reach a broader public.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2015. p. 82
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 854
Keywords
Road, Electricity, Energy, Driving (veh), Lorry, Driver, Behaviour, Energy consumption, Simulator (driving), Test
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
30 Road: Highway design, 32 Road: Pavement design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8031 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-13 Created: 2015-10-13 Last updated: 2016-02-02Bibliographically approved
Kircher, K., Ahlström, C., Rydström, A., Ljung Aust, M., Ricknäs, D., Almgren, S. & Nåbo, A. (2014). Secondary Task Workload Test Bench – 2TB: final report. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary Task Workload Test Bench – 2TB: final report
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main aim of this study was to investigate a selection of commonly used performance indicators (PIs) that have been reported to be sensitive to distraction and workload. More specifically, the PIs were tested for their ability to differentiate between task modalities (visual, cognitive and haptic) and task difficulty (easy, medium and hard). It was investigated whether possible differences were constant across two traffic situations (with/without lead vehicle) and two driving simulators. The experiment was conducted in the VTI Driving Simulator III, an advanced moving-base simulator, and in the Volvo Car Corporation driving simulator, an advanced fixed-base simulator. Both simulators were equipped with Smart Eye Pro eye tracking systems. A visual, a cognitive and a haptic secondary task were chosen to test the ability of the PIs to distinguish between the tasks’ loading on different modalities. Some of the main results from the study were:

  • There were only minor differences between the two simulators for driving behaviour as described by longitudinal PIs. There was no overall offset, and the main difference was that the visual task led to stronger speed reductions in the moving-base simulator, which influenced both the mean speed and the speeding index.
  • Regarding lateral PIs, major differences between the two simulators were found, both as a general offset and for those factor combinations that include modality and task difficulty level.
  • With the visual or the haptic task active, the drivers positioned themselves further to the left and the variation in lateral position was higher in the fixed-base simulator.
  • The number of lane crossings did not differ considerably between the simulators, but the lane departure area was larger on average in the fixed-base simulator, again influenced by modality, with the largest lane departure areas for the visual task, and in the case of the fixed-base simulator for the haptic task as well.
  • Most of the eye movement related PIs had a general offset between the simulators. The drivers in the fixed-base simulator accumulated more time with their eyes off the road, especially during the visual and the cognitive tasks, while the drivers in the moving-base simulator cast longer single glances at the display.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2014. p. 59
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2014-1
Keywords
Driver assistance system, Driver, Behaviour, Test method, Simulator (driving), Cognition, Visual, Tactile, Driving (veh), Eye movement, Speed
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6861 (URN)
Available from: 2014-04-25 Created: 2014-04-25 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0936-1561

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