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Nåbo, A., Abrahamsson, M., Bhatti, H. J., Björklund, M., Daniels, D., Danilovic, M., . . . Sallnäs, U. (2024). Battery-Swapping for Heavy Duty Vehicles: A Feasibility Study on Up-Scaling in Sweden. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery-Swapping for Heavy Duty Vehicles: A Feasibility Study on Up-Scaling in Sweden
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2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Batteribytessystem för tunga fordon : En genomförbarhetstudie för uppskalning i Sverige
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten fokuserar på den kommersiella genomförbarheten av ett batteribytessystem för tunga lastbilar i Sverige. Genom att studera affärsmodeller, kompatibilitet med svenska regelverk och integration i transportverksamheten har vi utforskat hur disruptiva teknologier, ekosystemeffekter och cirkularitet skulle kunna möjliggöra en snabb introduktion och uppskalning av ett batteribytessystem. Ett särskilt fokus har legat på Kina för att analysera statusen för batteribyten och de processer som har lett till den snabba utvecklingen och uppskalningen där. I Kina krävde batteribyte en ny affärsmodell där aktörer såsom energiproducenter, batteritillverkare och maskinindustri går i spetsen för utvecklingen och spridningen av batteribyten. Batteribyte är nu den dominerande tekniken för eldrivna lastbilar i Kina.

Exempel på fördelar med batteribyte som förespråkas är att det bara tar några minuter att byta batteri, minskad investering för lastbilsägare, låg påverkan på det lokala elnätet och att fordons- och batterilivscykler separeras. En simuleringsstudie om batteribyte för tunga lastbilar i hamnverksamhet visar i denna rapport på tydliga fördelar jämfört med kabelladdning. Det finns dock ett par utmaningar med att införa batteribyte i Sverige. För det första finns det inga tydliga förespråkare för batteribyte inom industrin. Till exempel är de svenska och europeiska fordonstillverkarna tveksamma eftersom det utmanar deras nuvarande affärsmodell och att de kan ta rollen som grindvakter. För det andra omfattar inte de nuvarande standarderna och regelverken för fordon och energisystem i Sverige och i EU batteribyte. Rapporten tar också upp behovet av kunskap och utbildning av personer vid batteribytesstationer, samt vikten av social hållbarhet vid elektrifiering av tunga transporter.

Abstract [en]

The report focuses on the commercial feasibility of a battery-swapping system for heavy trucks in Sweden. By studying business models, the compatibility with Swedish regulations, and integration into transport operations, we explore how disruptive technologies, ecosystem effects, and circularity could enable a rapid introduction and diffusion of a battery-swapping system. A special focus is on China, covering the status of battery-swapping there and analysing the processes that have led to its rapid development and deployment. In China, battery-swapping creates a new business model where actors from energy production, battery manufacturing, and the mechanical industry spearhead the development and diffusion of the technology. Battery-swapping is now the dominant technology for electric trucks in China.

Advantages of battery-swapping include: only a few minutes battery swap time, reduced investment for truck owners, low impact on the local power grid, and separation of vehicle and battery life cycles. A simulation study in this report shows that battery-swapping for heavy trucks in harbour operations could offer clear advantages compared to cable charging. However, there are several challenges to introducing battery-swapping in Sweden. First, it has no clear promoters in the industry. Swedish and European vehicle manufacturers are hesitant because it challenges their current business model, and that they may instead take the role of gatekeeper. Second, current standards and regulatory frameworks for vehicles and energy systems in Sweden and in the European Union do not include battery-swapping. The report also addresses the need for knowledge and training of people at battery-swapping stations, and the importance of social sustainability in the electrification of heavy vehicle transport operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2024. p. 252
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1199A
Keywords
Battery swapping, electrification, electric trucks, charging infrastructure, transport system, logistics, business models, eco systems, Batteribyte, elfordon, ellastbilar, laddinfrastruktur, transportsystem, logistik, affärsmodeller, ekosystem
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Energy Systems Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20134 (URN)
Projects
Batteribytessystem för tunga fordon. En genomförbarhetstudie för uppskalning i Sverige / Battery-Swapping for Heavy Duty Vehicles. A Feasibility Study on Up-Scaling in Sweden
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2024-01-12 Created: 2024-01-12 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Bhatti, H. J., Danilovic, M. & Nåbo, A. (2023). A Multidimensional Readiness Index for the Electrification of the Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden. Future Transportation, 3(4), 1360-1384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multidimensional Readiness Index for the Electrification of the Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden
2023 (English)In: Future Transportation, E-ISSN 2673-7590, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1360-1384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of the electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden towards transportation electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries adopting electric transportation system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions: technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming their transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a “multidimensional readiness index”. Our main conclusions are that political processes and decisiveness are the most important factors, followed by societal needs and economic ability, with the current technology as the fourth. Without the participation of dedicated and determined political decision makers, the other three factors are challenging to obtain. Political decision makers need to facilitate economic means to support the transformation in society and affected industries to balance the economic disadvantages of the electrically powered vehicle systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. The development of relevant technology is no longer the significant barrier it was at the beginning of this transformation about 20 years ago. The technology for electrically powered transportation systems and devices is widely available now, although it is continuously evolving and being improved. Associated industries cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take risks, and take the lead in this global societal transformation without clear and strong political support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
electric transportation, technology readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, economic readiness
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20379 (URN)10.3390/futuretransp3040075 (DOI)2-s2.0-85185512907 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sweden-China Bridge
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

Research funding also provided by The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).

Available from: 2024-03-04 Created: 2024-03-04 Last updated: 2024-03-04Bibliographically approved
Nåbo, A., Nordin, L., Andersson, J., Berglund, M., Bhatti, H. J., Brunner, S., . . . Wehner, J. (2023). Regeringsuppdrag om elektrifieringen av transporter: rekommendationer för att underlätta datadelning och nyttiggörande av data för planering, utveckling och drift av laddinfrastruktur och affärsmodeller. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regeringsuppdrag om elektrifieringen av transporter: rekommendationer för att underlätta datadelning och nyttiggörande av data för planering, utveckling och drift av laddinfrastruktur och affärsmodeller
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Government assignment on the electrification of transport : recommendations to facilitate data sharing and utilization of data for planning, development and operation of charging infrastructure and business models
Abstract [sv]

Regeringen har uppdragit åt Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) att ”bidra till kunskapsuppbyggnaden kring en snabb, smart och samhällsekonomiskt effektiv elektrifiering av transportsektorn”. Den här rapporten redovisar den del av uppdraget som handlar om att genomföra pilotprojekt och ta fram modeller för hur data i praktiken på bästa sätt kan tillgängliggöras, delas och nyttiggöras för att optimera planering, utveckling, drift samt affärsmodeller för laddinfrastruktur. 

I rapporten ges en beskrivning av förekommande tekniker för laddning av elfordon, viktiga användarperspektiv, och hur affärsmodeller och system för laddinfrastruktur kan modelleras. 

Rapporten fokuserar på datadelning och beskriver hur aktörer idag delar data samt vilka svårigheter de ser med datadelning. Detta omfattar bland annat datatillgänglighet, delning och nyttiggörande, samt hur aktörerna vill att det ska fungera framåt. En stor utmaning handlar om datatillgänglighet, där aktörer dels ser problem med att få tillgång till data och dels är avvaktande till att vilja dela med sig av egna data. Ofta handlar det om integritetsfrågor och reglering enligt GDPR. 

Betydelsen av en väl fungerande samverkan mellan energi- och transportsektorn har lyfts i tidigare rapporteringar från det här uppdraget. Vikten av en digitalisering och digital infrastruktur som kopplar samman dessa sektorer betonas speciellt i detta arbete. Digitalisering behövs för att effektivisera planering, utveckling och drift av den infrastruktur som ett elektrifierat transportsystem kräver. De modelleringar som gjorts i den här delen av uppdraget handlar om transportmodellering och energimodellering samt utveckling för att få modellerna att samspela.

Abstract [en]

The government has commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to “contribute to the building of knowledge around a fast, smart and economically efficient electrification of the transport sector”. This report focusses on the part of the mission that deals with conducting pilot projects and developing models for how data, in practice, can be made available, shared and utilized in the best way to optimize planning, development, operation for charging infrastructure and business models. 

The report provides a description of existing technologies for charging electric vehicles, important user perspectives, and how business models and systems for charging infrastructure can be modelled. 

The report focuses on data sharing and describes how actors today share data and what difficulties they see with data sharing. This includes, among other things, data availability, sharing and utilization, as well as how the actors want it to work going forward. A major challenge concerns data availability, where actors partly see problems with getting access to data and partly are hesitant to want to share their own data. Often, it is about privacy issues and regulation according to the GDPR. 

The importance of a well-functioning collaboration between the energy and transport sectors has been highlighted in previous reports from this assignment. 

The importance of digitalization and digital infrastructure that connects these sectors is particularly emphasized in this work. Digitalization is needed to streamline planning, development and operation of the infrastructure that an electrified transport system requires. The modeling done in this part of the assignment deals with transport modeling and energy modeling as well as development to make the models interact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2023
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1158
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19335 (URN)
Available from: 2023-01-13 Created: 2023-01-11 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
Bhatti, H. J., Danilovic, M. & Nåbo, A. (2022). A System Approach to Electrification of Transportation: An International Comparison. Sweden-China Bridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A System Approach to Electrification of Transportation: An International Comparison
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Globally, the transportation system is transforming from a fossil-based to an electrification system. Some countries are leading in the transformation process. Some countries are rapidly catching up to become market leaders in developing and introducing new techniques and equipment that support the transformation process in their countries. In contrast, others are still relying on their old fossil-based system or could not have enough understanding of how to deal with this complex transformation of the transportation system.

The electrification of the transportation system is not an isolated system that can be handled as a single technological element. It is a group of multiple technologies, political, societal, and economic sub-systems each of these sub-systems is embedded in each other, forming the whole system. Therefore, it is important to see and manage the system from a holistic perspective to transform the transportation electrification system efficiently. We have selected eight countries from three different continents – Asia (China, India), Australia, which is a country and continent, and Europe (Germany, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, and the UK) to explore the transformational process of transportation electrification based on each countries’ conditions. We have chosen these continents as they are diversified in adopting transportation electrification system solutions.

Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness are the most important, followed by the societal and economic, with technology as the fourth. The other three are difficult to obtain without dedicated and determined political decision-makers. Political decision-makers need to use economic means to support the transformation in society and industry to balance the economic disadvantage of electric systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. Technology is no longer a significant barrier as it was about 20 years ago. Now, technology is available, although it can be improved. The important part is to understand how to utilize the existing technology efficiently to transform the old fossil-based transportation system into new electrification of the transportation system. Without clear and strong political support, the industry cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take risks, and take the lead in this global societal transformation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden-China Bridge, 2022. p. 107
Series
Sweden-China Bridge. Report ; 2022-7
Keywords
Electric transport, technology readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, economic readiness, System approach.
National Category
Public Administration Studies Vehicle Engineering Energy Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19019 (URN)978-91-987011-6-6 (ISBN)
Projects
Collaborative Academic Platform for the Electrification of Transportation Systems
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2022-09-29 Created: 2022-09-29 Last updated: 2023-10-04Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Blissing, B., Carlsson, H., Erlingsson, S., Hellman, F., Hjort, M., . . . Thorslund, B. (2022). Designguide för Smarta gator. KTH, Chalmers, VTI, Spacescape, Sweco & White Arkitekter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designguide för Smarta gator
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2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattningsvis definierar vi i denna guide ’smarta gator’ kort sagt som mångfunktionella, levande, långsamma, ekologiska och flexibla gator. Det övergripande målet med denna guide är följaktligen ”Smarta gator för en hållbar stadsutveckling”.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH, Chalmers, VTI, Spacescape, Sweco & White Arkitekter, 2022. p. 245
Series
TRITA-ABE-RPT ; 2211
National Category
Architectural Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19080 (URN)978-91-8040-257-6 (ISBN)
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2022-10-14 Created: 2022-10-14 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Bhatti, H. J., Danilovic, M. & Nåbo, A. (2022). Multidimensional Readiness Index for Electrification of Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden. Sweden-China Bridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multidimensional Readiness Index for Electrification of Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden towards transport electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries that are in the process of adopting electrified transport system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions, technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming the transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a “multidimensional readiness index.”

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden-China Bridge, 2022. p. 39
Series
Sweden-China Bridge. Report ; 2022-6
National Category
Energy Systems Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18517 (URN)9789198701159 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-08 Created: 2022-04-08 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Lihua Liu, J., Dong, R. & Danilovic, M. (2021). Electrification of the transportation system in China: exploring battery technology for electrical vehicles in China 1.0. Sweden-China Bridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrification of the transportation system in China: exploring battery technology for electrical vehicles in China 1.0
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Batteries is one of the main systems of electric vehicle. Batteries determine the total performance and define the capabilities of the electric vehicle regardless it is a passenger vehicle or heavy truck. Batteries are also determining the total price of the electric vehicle to large extend. In this report we are focusing on the technology development in historic perspective of the last 15 years in China. We see that the lithium-ion technology is the dominant technology, but we also see new emerging battery technologies that might be the game changer for the performance of electric vehicles. We demonstrate the dynamics of main battery technologies, LFP (lithium iron manganese, LiFeO4, battery cell) battery and NMC (lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide battery cell) battery, the distribution of installed volumes between LFP and NMC in the Chinese market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden-China Bridge, 2021. p. 39
Series
Sweden-China Bridge. Report ; 2021-3
National Category
Energy Systems Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18518 (URN)9789198701128 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-08 Created: 2022-04-08 Last updated: 2022-04-08Bibliographically approved
Lihua Liu, J., Zu, S. & Danilovic, M. (2021). Electrification of the transportation system in China: exploring inductive charging technology for electric vehicles in China 1.0. Sweden-China Bridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrification of the transportation system in China: exploring inductive charging technology for electric vehicles in China 1.0
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In 2020, there were about 360 million vehicles in China, of which 270 million were passenger vehicles, accounting for 75% of the total number of motor vehicles, while the new energy vehicle population was 4.17 million, a year-on-year increase of 9.45%. According to the forecast of the State Grid Electric Vehicle Company, the number of electric vehicles in China will reach 300 million in 2040. This paper mainly conducts research in the field of wireless power transmission for static and dynamic charging of electric vehicles in China.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden-China Bridge, 2021. p. 27
Series
Sweden-China Bridge. Report ; 21-5
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18519 (URN)9789198701142 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-08 Created: 2022-04-08 Last updated: 2022-04-08Bibliographically approved
Liu, J. L., Danilovic, M., Müllern, T., Nåbo, A. & Almestrand Linné, P. (2021). Exploring battery swapping for heavy trucks in China 1.0.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring battery swapping for heavy trucks in China 1.0
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 To achieve successful transportation electrification, we need to understand the role of different vehicle charging solutions. This report focuses on conductive technology that involves the physical exchange of empty batteries with fully charged ones, an approach called battery swapping. The battery swapping alternative has garnered great interest in China and many other developing economies in recent years, particularly for two- and three-wheeled vehicles. This battery swapping approach is now tackling the heavy vehicle sector, such as trucks and buses. As a result, this approach to “refueling” electric vehicles is important to explore, and we need to understand the conditions needed for battery swapping to succeed. In this report we focus on the use of battery-swapping technology to develop and market Electric Heavy Trucks (EHT) in China.

Publisher
p. 102
Series
Sweden-China Bridge Project ; 2021-2
Keywords
Electric vehicle, Lorry, Bus, Battery, Charging (electric vehicle), Service station, Development, China
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-17989 (URN)9789198701111 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-01-14 Created: 2022-01-14 Last updated: 2022-01-14Bibliographically approved
Danilovic, M., Liu, J. L., Müllern, T., Nåbo, A. & Almestrand Linné, P. (2021). Exploring battery-swapping for electric vehicles in China 1.0. Sweden-China Bridge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring battery-swapping for electric vehicles in China 1.0
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this report we explore the situation in China vis-à-vis battery-swapping technology, its history, the current level of achievements, direction of the technology and its implications for society. We have chosen to explore battery-swapping solutions because they are complementary to stationary charging piles, and because their introduction in China has been ongoing since 2010. We want to understand the motivation, drives and barriers to this development and explore the underlying technical as well as the business aspects of establishing and expanding these new solutions. As researchers, it is our ambition to explore and understand the underling aspects, motives and drivers as well as conditions, challenges and consequences, in this case, the introduction of battery-swapping systems. Battery-swapping is not new. It was explored in Europe, Israel and the USA before China took the initiative to develop large scale swapping systems. This is explored in the Appendix to provide a historical and context-based understanding of its origin and global status in order to better understand the Chinese situation. Our focus is initially on new energy vehicles (NEV), more specific the segment of small electric cars. We are aware that there are also buses, trucks, heavy duty vehicles, small sized two- and three wheelers etc. that use battery-swapping technology, however, they are not focused upon in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden-China Bridge, 2021
Series
Sweden-China Bridge ; 2010-1
Keywords
Electric vehicle, Car, Battery, Charging (electric vehicle), Service station, Development
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-17988 (URN)9789198701104 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-01-14 Created: 2022-01-14 Last updated: 2022-01-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0936-1561

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