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Turbell, T
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Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Anund, A., Falkmer, T., Forsman, Å., Gustafsson, S., Matstoms, Y., Sörensen, G., . . . Wenäll, J. (2003). Child safety in cars: Literature review. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child safety in cars: Literature review
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2003 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

  • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
  • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
  • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
  • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
  • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2003
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 498A
Keywords
English, Sweden, Child, Child restraint system, Child safety seat, Car, Legislation, Campaign, Disabled person, Recommendations, Fatality, Injury, Air bag, Use, Australia, United Kingdom, USA
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6356 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Albertsson, P., Björnstig, U., Falkmer, T. & Turbell, T. (2003). Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd
2003 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this literature review was to describe the pattern of injuries and fatalities related to bus traffic. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible future measurements for improvement of passive safety in buses. Bus crashes were presented in international literature virtually in as many ways as there were articles on the topic. Hence, the authors used the term bus incidents, in order to cover all types of injuries related to bus traffic. In this review only M2 and M3 buses, i.e. buses over 3.5 tonnes were included. In the vast majority of OECD countries, less than 1 % of the vehicle fleet was constituted of buses. Bus passenger's average person kilometres represented 10 % of the total road vehicle person kilometres annually.

The number of fatalities and injured in bus incidents have been stable recent years in EU. The fatality risk is ten times lower for bus passengers compared with car occupants. Of all traffic fatalities, bus fatalities represented 0.3-0.5 %. The most frequent injury localisations from all types of bus crashes were lower limb (35 %), upper limb (33 %) and head/face (28 %). Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe crashes. Projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanism. Three major injury groups in severe bus crashes were thoracic injuries, massive injuries and pelvic fractures.

Heavy wind seemed to be capable of affecting the bus dynamics, particularly on highly built buses (e.g. as high as 4.3 meters). Unprotected road users were hit by buses in about 1/3 of all cases in Sweden. Side impact was most common for local buses (38 %). Boarding and alighting were contributing to injuries in about 1/3 of all cases. If the coach has more than one section it seems that the upper section is more exposed to risk for injuries than the lower section.

Safety belts can improve the passive safety in buses. The 2-point belt prevents passenger ejection but in frontal crashes the jack knife effect could cause head and thoracic injuries. However, the 3- point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes, as it keeps the passenger remained seated.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med litteraturanalysen har varit att beskriva ett mönster för skadehändelser och dödsfall relaterade till stads- och långfärdsbusstransporter och att identifiera möjliga framtida säkerhetsåtgärder speciellt med tanke på passiv säkerhet. Den internationella litteraturen var mycket disparat vilket föranledde författarna att använda sig av begreppet skadehändelser relaterade till buss med syfte att täcka alla typer av skadehändelser som förekommer hos busstransporter. I denna litteraturöversikt är endast kategorierna M2 och M3-bussar inkluderade, dvs. bussar som väger mer än 3,5 ton. Andelen bussar av det totala antalet fordon uppgår till 1 % i nästan samtliga OECD länder. Busspassagerarnas genomsnittliga antal personkilometer utgör 10 % av det totala antalet personkilometer räknat för alla fordon.

Antalet döda och skadade orsakade av stads- och långfärdsbusstrafik har legat på en stabil nivå de senaste åren i den Europeiska Unionen (EU). När det gäller risk att dödas, är buss tio gånger säkrare per km än att resa med bil. Dödsfall i busstrafik utgör mellan 0,3 och 0,5 % av alla dödsfall i trafiken. De kroppsdelar som skadats mest hos bussresenärer i alla typer av krascher var nedre extremiteter (35 %), övre extremiteter (33 %) samt huvud och ansikte (28 %). Vältningar och rullningar var orsaken till i stort samtliga svåra krascher. Tre huvudkategorier av skador kategoriserades vid svåra krascher; thoraxskador, massiva skador fördelade över hela kroppen och bäckenfrakturer.

Hårda sidvindar verkar påverka långfärdsbussarnas aerodynamiska och fordonsdynamiska egenskaper, speciellt högbyggda bussar. I Sverige kolliderade bussar med gående, cyklister eller mopedister i en tredjedel av alla fall. Sidokollisioner för stadsbussar var den vanligaste krockriktningen. Flera fynd indikerar att ca 1/3 av alla skadehändelser härrör från på- och avstigning. Om långfärdsbussen har mer än ett plan verkar passagerare i det övre planet vara mera utsatta för att skadas än dem i nedre planet.

Säkerhetsbälten i långfärdsbussar kan med stor sannolikhet förbättra den passiva säkerheten. Ett 2-punkts midjebälte förhindrar att man kastas ut ur bussen vid en krasch men kan vid en frontalkollision göra att överdelen av bålen samt huvudet slår emot det framförvarande sätet. Ett 3-punktsbälte ger dock det bästa skyddet, då det håller fast passagerarna i sin stol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2003. p. 40
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 488
Keywords
Bus, Accident, Injury, Fatality, Passive safety system, Collision, Overturning, Ejection, Fracture, Wind, Safety belt
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 811 Road: Accident statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6355 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved
Turbell, T. & Larsson, P. (1998). How to optimize seat belt usage in Europe. : Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut., VTI konferens
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to optimize seat belt usage in Europe
1998 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut., VTI konferens, 1998
Series
VTI konferens, ISSN 1104-7267
Keywords
English, Sweden, Conference, Portugal, Safety belt, Use, Increase, Europe, Interlock, Driver, Passenger, Warning, Flashing light, Aural signal, Maximum, Speed
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle interior safety; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-4595 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Turbell, T. e. (1997). Optimizing seat belt usage by interlock systems. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing seat belt usage by interlock systems
1997 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 270, 1997
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Interlock, Safety belt, Technology, Efficiency, Injury, Fatality, Reduction, Attitude, Sweden
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3850 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Turbell, T. (1994). Are air bags compatible with child restraint systems and roadside safety features?. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are air bags compatible with child restraint systems and roadside safety features?
1994 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 200, 1994
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Child, Seat, Air bag, Impact test, Dynamics, Verge, Safety fence, Safety drums, Sweden
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle interior safety; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Geometric design and traffic safety; Road: Highway design, Road: Safety devices
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3383 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Ross, H. E., Alberson, D. & Turbell, T. (1994). Comparison of occupant risk indices for crash tests of highway safety features. : Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI konferens
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of occupant risk indices for crash tests of highway safety features
1994 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI konferens, 1994
Series
VTI konferens, ISSN 1104-7267
Keywords
English, Safety fence, Impact attenuator, Correlation, Collision, Index, Risk, Simulation, Impact test, Passenger, Sweden, Netherlands, Conference
Research subject
Road: Highway design, Road: Safety devices
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3473 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Turbell, T. & Jeyes, J. A. (1994). ECE Regulation 44: An update on the current revision. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 206
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ECE Regulation 44: An update on the current revision
1994 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 206, 1994
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Child restraint, Specification, Improvement, Air bag, Strength, Impact sled, Seat, Location, Sideways collision, Sweden
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3394 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Turbell, T. e. (1994). ISOFIX: A new concept of installing child restraints in cars. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ISOFIX: A new concept of installing child restraints in cars
1994 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 202, 1994
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Passive safety system, Child, Vehicle occupant, Design, Installation, Method, Impact test, Instructions, Road user, Attitude, Sweden
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3392 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Lowne, R. W. & Turbell, T. (1994). The development of a unified child restraint-to-car attachment system: A contribution to the ISOFix discussion. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 216
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of a unified child restraint-to-car attachment system: A contribution to the ISOFix discussion
1994 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 216, 1994
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Passive safety system, Child restraint, Seat, Design, Coupling, Safety belt, Anchorage, Sweden, Conference, Germany
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3424 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Turbell, T. (1992). Hållfasthet hos begagnade bilbarnstolar tillverkade av EPS. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut. VTI notat, TF 56-05
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållfasthet hos begagnade bilbarnstolar tillverkade av EPS
1992 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut. VTI notat, TF 56-05, 1992
Series
vti notat TF
Keywords
Swedish, Passive safety system, Child, Seat, Use, Expansion, Polystyrene, Test, Impact test, Sweden
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3202 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
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