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Andersson, Anders
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Aramrattana, M., Andersson, A., Reichenberg, F., Mellegård, N. & Burden, H. (2019). Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 65, 206-216
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators
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2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14084 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.07.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070355325 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A. & Kharrazi, S. (2018). Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example. International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, 13(2), 93-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2018
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Evaluation (assessment), Driver, Perception, Automatic
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13738 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2018.098330 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063100727 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Lidström, M., Peters, B., Rosberg, T. & Thorslund, B. (2017). Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Development of a freight train model for the VTI train simulator
Abstract [sv]

Genom höjda hastigheter för godståg finns möjligheter till en högre prioritering av trafikslaget hos tågtrafikledningen, vilket i sig är en kapacitetsvinst och bör ge upphov till bättre flöden och högre kapacitet på det svenska järnvägsnätet (framför allt på stambanorna). Simulatorer är ett effektivt och säkert sätt att undersöka effekter av förändringar på både förarbeteende och kapacitet.

Syftet med det här projektet var att skapa kapacitetshöjande möjligheter och åtgärder genom att ta fram en loktågssimulator och undersöka möjliga användningsområden för denna. Målet med projektet var att få fram en loktågssimulator, bestående av ett lok och ett antal vagnar, som kan användas i studier för att öka kapaciteten genom till exempel optimerad hastighet, och därmed förändrade bromsprofiler, för loktåg. Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet.

Projektet genomfördes i tre successiva etapper. I den första etappen genomfördes en förstudie med lokförare, operatörer och problemägare, som gav forskarna en förståelse för förarmiljön. Här samlades även in en del av det underlag som krävdes för utveckling av loktågsimulatorn. I den andra etappen utvecklades en simulator för loktåg (mjukvara och hårdvara). Etapp tre var en valideringsstudie tillsammans med lokförare.

Ett förarbord av modellen Traxx köptes in från en tysk tillverkare. Fordonsmodellen utvecklades från en enstaka enhet, Reginamodell (motorvagnståg), till en kombination av flera enheter. Loktåget i simulatorn består av ett eller flera draglok samt ett antal vagnar med en total längd på maximalt 750 meter. Som draglok används ett lok av modellen Traxx. För varje enhet, lok och vagn, krävs data över enheten: längd, vikt, last, broms-, rull- och luftmotstånd. För lok tillkommer dessutom information om ljud, drivning, broms (återmatande elbroms samt konventionell pneumatisk broms (P-broms)), hyttutrustning med mera. För närvarande finns bansträckningen mellan Falköping–Jönköping–Forserum färdigmodellerad och kommer användas för loktågskörning med ATC. Modellen är konfigurerbar utifrån ett lok (Traxx) och i nuläget fyra olika vagnar. Dessa kan kopplas samman i olika kombinationer.

Några användningsområden som diskuterades redan vid projektstart var dels de som naturligt kan kopplas till följder av längre och tyngre tåg, dels de idéer som uppkom som följd av den utrustning som köptes in. Vid Trafikverkets vintermöte genomfördes en workshop där ytterligare användningsområden diskuterades. Några av dessa handlar om utbildning,energieffektiv körning eller projektering. Utbildning och vissa typer av studier går att göra med den nu existerande loktågsmodellen, medan andra kräver antingen validering av parametrar eller viss vidareutveckling av modellen.

Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, denna forskningsrapport och en produkt i form av en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet. Projektet har även levererat en nationell resurs i form av simulatormjukvara. Mjukvaran har lagt grunden för en kostnadseffektiv testverksamhet inom loktågsdomänen. En loktågssimulering (simulering av loktåg) har tagits fram, vilken kommer att vara värdefull som ett demonstrationsverktyg samt för utbildning, träning och projektering.

Abstract [en]

Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2017
Series
VTI notat ; 26-2017
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Train, Simulation, Method, Mathematical model, Calculation, Technique, Braking, Freight train, Locomotive
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J02 Railway: Vehicles
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12483 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A. & Kharrazi, S. (2017). Freight train model for real-time simulation. In: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks Vol 2: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia. Paper presented at 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freight train model for real-time simulation
2017 (English)In: Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks Vol 2: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In an attempt to increse the freight transport capacity in Sweden, introduction of longer and heavier trains is investigated. To aid this investigation, a freight train simulator was designed and constructed. Here, the implemented freight train dynamics model is described, which includes slip control, a modular wagon model structrue and pneumatic brake system. Further, stable real-time performance of the implemented dynamics model is discussed.

Keywords
Longer and heavier vehicle, Simulation, Dynamics, Mathematical model
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13571 (URN)
Conference
25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14-18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Andersson Hultgren, J., Leandertz, R., Johansson, M., Betnér, S., Jakobson, O. & Rolff, F. (2017). SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture. Linköping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: , 2017. p. 59
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2016-2
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Simulation, Vehicle, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11684 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2017-10-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A. & Kharrazi, S. (2016). A Framework for Credibility Assessment of a Powertrain Model in Driving Simulator Studies. In: Proceedings of the 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress: . Paper presented at The 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Credibility Assessment of a Powertrain Model in Driving Simulator Studies
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When performing a driving simulator study, validity of the vehicle model for the intended driving task is of key importance; otherwise, the reliability of the study results might be jeopardized. In this paper a framework for real-time credibility assessment of the simulated longitudinal dynamics by a powertrain model in a moving base driving simulator is presented. The framework consists of the physical system model and a quality model which run in parallel in real time. The developed framework has been evaluated by offline simulations, as well as in real-time in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation results showed that the developed framework can accurately capture the validity of the powertrain model in different driving conditions and provide the credibility level of the simulation results to the simulator operator in real-time.

Keywords
Simulator (driving), Model (not math), Reliability, Longitudinal, Dynamics, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Information Systems
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10971 (URN)
Conference
The 36th FISITA World Automotive Congress
Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04 Last updated: 2018-01-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Kharrazi, S., Lind, S. & Myklebust, A. (2016). Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator. Advances in Transportation Studies, 1, 99-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator
2016 (English)In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

Keywords
Motor, Test, Characteristics, Simulation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10876 (URN)2-s2.0-84982994768 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A. & Buffoni, L. (2016). Powertrain Model Assesment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification. In: Proceedings of the 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation: . Paper presented at The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powertrain Model Assesment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behavior in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues.

Keywords
Simulation, Vehicle, Selection, Method, Simulator (driving)
National Category
Information Systems Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10970 (URN)
Conference
The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation
Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04 Last updated: 2018-01-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Andersson Hultgren, J., Leandertz, R., Johansson, M., Eriksson, S. & Jakobson, O. (2015). A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA. In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition. Paper presented at Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany. (pp. 123-130).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

Keywords
Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8281 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany.
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2016-08-26Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Kharrazi, S., Lind, S. & Myklebust, A. (2015). Parameterization Procedure of a Powertrain Model for a Driving Simulator. In: Proceedings  of the 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference: . Paper presented at 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference. 6-8 Oktober 2015, Orlando, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parameterization Procedure of a Powertrain Model for a Driving Simulator
2015 (English)In: Proceedings  of the 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulations.

In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors. Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non-invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

Keywords
Engine, Model (not math), Use, Simulator (driving), Test, Fuel consumption
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8284 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference. 6-8 Oktober 2015, Orlando, USA
Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2016-08-26Bibliographically approved
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