Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Erlingsson, SigurdurORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4256-3034
Publications (10 of 105) Show all publications
Rahman, M. S., Kharrazi, S. & Erlingsson, S. (2024). High-capacity transport in cities and the impact on the roads. In: Technology Convergence 2023: Setting the Wheels In Motion: Reimagining the future of heavy vehicles, roads and freight. Paper presented at Technology Convergence 2023, Brisbane, Australia, November 6-10, 2023.. International Forum for Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology; The International Society for Weigh-In-Motion, Article ID 8555.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-capacity transport in cities and the impact on the roads
2024 (English)In: Technology Convergence 2023: Setting the Wheels In Motion: Reimagining the future of heavy vehicles, roads and freight, International Forum for Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology; The International Society for Weigh-In-Motion , 2024, article id 8555Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the evaluation of the relative pavement damage caused by a high-capacity transport (HCT) 5 axle truck with respect to three other reference trucks consisting of 4, 3 and 2 axles. The analysis was conducted by simulating the responses of three pavement structures using the pavement analysis tool ERAPave. Two damage criteria of the pavement structures were evaluated: fatigue cracking of the asphalt concrete (AC) layer and permanent deformation of the subgrade. The relative damage caused by the different vehicles were estimated by calculating a damage factor (Dr) following the Asphalt Institute Method. Three loading scenarios of the trucks were analyzed: (a) one way trip with fully loaded trucks, (b) round trip where the return trip consisted of the empty vehicles with lifted axles and (c) round trip where the return trip consisted of the empty vehicles without lifting any axles. The damage factors were calculated for per ton of carried load and were normalized with respect to the 2-axle truck. Results indicate that the relative impacts of the vehicles depend on the structure type and seasons. Generally, the 4-axle truck appeared to be the least damaging one. The HCT 5-axle truck is more damaging than the 4-axle truck, but less damaging than the other two.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Forum for Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology; The International Society for Weigh-In-Motion, 2024
Keywords
High-capacity transport, pavement damage, damage factor, fatigue cracking, subgrade rutting, axle load, payload, fuel consumption, emissions
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20376 (URN)
Conference
Technology Convergence 2023, Brisbane, Australia, November 6-10, 2023.
Funder
Vinnova, 2020-05149
Note

Technology Convergence 2023, joint conference of The 17th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology (HVTT17) and the 9th International Conference on Weigh-In-Motion (ICWIM9).

Available from: 2024-02-29 Created: 2024-02-29 Last updated: 2024-03-01Bibliographically approved
Afridi, A., Erlingsson, S. & Sjögren, L. (2024). Management of municipal street network in Sweden: results from a national survey. In: Fredrik Hellman; Mattias Haraldsson (Ed.), Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 2024: . Paper presented at Transportforum, Linköping, Sverige, 17-18 januari, 2024. (pp. 395-396). Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management of municipal street network in Sweden: results from a national survey
2024 (English)In: Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 2024 / [ed] Fredrik Hellman; Mattias Haraldsson, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut , 2024, p. 395-396Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Management of street networks is different from state roads due to its multifunctional role in society. This requires timely maintenance of the street network to improve socioeconomic development. Municipalities in Sweden are responsible for the management of about 42000 km of street network in their jurisdiction. Maintenance budget and resources vary from municipality to municipality depending on their network size, geographical location, and population density. 

A questionnaire was sent to all 290 municipalities across the country to investigate the street network and pavement management practices at the municipal level. An in-depth interview of 14 municipalities took place afterwards. A total of 51% of responses were officially received to highlight the frequently and infrequently occurring pavement distresses and their causes. Furthermore, the study highlights the maintenance approaches and allocation of budget to manage the street network. Lastly, the study highlights the factors which need to be addressed to improve street network management.   

Visual assessment of pavements is common and the use of pavement management system (PMS) is not only limited but also lacks pavement performance prediction models. Common pavement distresses are excessive formation of potholes, surface unevenness and alligator distress among the municipalities. Frequent causes of distress include the ageing of the street network, heavy vehicles, patching and high traffic flow. Furthermore, cold climate and population density are important factors in the degradation process. Allocation of maintenance and reconstruction budget is relatively high in municipalities located in the north. Densely populated municipalities have higher taxpayers’ contributions to maintenance and reconstruction. Other major issues are limited resources and maintenance of budget, which adversely affect the maintenance backlog and the choice of maintenance alternatives, ultimately the decision-making. This restricts the use of preventive maintenance among the municipalities. 

Municipalities are required to improve the frequency and quality of pavement data collection, enhance the sophistication of PMS by using pavement deterioration models, and increase the maintenance budget and resources. An insight into the capabilities of municipalities would help in long-term strategic planning and effective utilisation of the maintenance budget to improve the street network across the country.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2024
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20721 (URN)
Conference
Transportforum, Linköping, Sverige, 17-18 januari, 2024.
Available from: 2024-04-04 Created: 2024-04-18Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Niska, A., Erlingsson, S., Thunholm, M. & Andrén, P. (2023). Condition assessment of cycle path texture and evenness using a bicycle measurement trailer. The international journal of pavement engineering, 24(1), Article ID 2262085.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Condition assessment of cycle path texture and evenness using a bicycle measurement trailer
Show others...
2023 (English)In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 2262085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cyclists’ riding comfort, related to pavement texture and unevenness, has not been thourougly investigated, partly due to the lack of condition assessment methods specifically adapted to the speed and space limits on cycle paths. Metrics that better describe the perceived comfort of cyclists, rather than that of car users, are needed. In this paper a novel method, the Bicycle Measurement Trailer (BMT), is proposed to bridge this gap. Eight different cycle path surface types have been assessed with regards to pavement texture and for four of these surfaces the longitudinal evenness was assessed. The accuracy and repeatability of the BMT were evaluated. Finally, five different metrics (Dynamic Comfort Index, Evenness Coefficient, 0.5 m Straight Edge, International Roughness Index and Root Mean Square), were calculated from the collected data and assessed. The main findings suggest that the BMT has a high accuracy at normal and high cycling speeds and a high level of repeatability at normal cycling speed. The surfaces could be ranked according to texture, and the evenness was successfully analysed. In conclusion, the BMT could be a valuable tool to assess the cycle path surface condition in relation to bicycle riding comfort.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20006 (URN)10.1080/10298436.2023.2262085 (DOI)001080147500001 ()2-s2.0-85173615478 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 021/79526Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, DIA 2016/28Swedish Transport Administration, 021/23527
Available from: 2023-11-16 Created: 2023-11-16 Last updated: 2023-11-16Bibliographically approved
Saliko, D., Ahmed, A. W. & Erlingsson, S. (2023). Development and validation of a pavement temperature profile prediction model in a mechanistic-empirical design framework. Transportation Geotechnics, 40, Article ID 100976.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and validation of a pavement temperature profile prediction model in a mechanistic-empirical design framework
2023 (English)In: Transportation Geotechnics, ISSN 2214-3912, Vol. 40, article id 100976Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

An accurate temperature prediction tool is an important part of any mechanistic-empirical (M-E) pavement design and performance prediction method. In this paper, a one-dimensional finite control volume (FCV) model is introduced that predicts the temperature within a pavement structure as a function of time and depth. The main input data required for the model are continuous time series of air temperature for conductive heat transfer, solar radiation for radiative heat transfer, and wind speed for convective heat transfer. The heat balance equation for each control volume of the FCV model is solved using an implicit scheme. To validate the numerical model, comparisons were made to measured temperature data from four test sections in Sweden located in regions with different climatic conditions. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured temperature values within the asphalt layer, and temperature in the granular layers with the values of the coefficient of determination R2 ranging from 0.866 to 0.979. The model is therefore suitable to be implemented as a pavement temperature prediction tool in M-E design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19329 (URN)10.1016/j.trgeo.2023.100976 (DOI)000952007600001 ()2-s2.0-85150075068 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-23 Created: 2022-12-16 Last updated: 2023-05-24Bibliographically approved
Dinegdae, Y., Ahmed, A. W., Rahman, M. S. & Erlingsson, S. (2023). Evaluation of ERAPave PP permanent deformation models using APT. International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of ERAPave PP permanent deformation models using APT
2023 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Permanent deformation is one of the failure modes considered in the analysis and design of flexible pavements. ERAPave performance prediction (PP) which is a mechanistic empirical (ME) pavement design tool utilises two distinct models for the prediction of permanent deformation in the bound and unbound granular layers including subgrade. This paper aims to calibrate these models using pavement response and performance data from accelerated pavement testing (APT) structures. Material properties such as layer modulus were established through an optimisation that involves both falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and pavement response measurements. Based on the predicted performance results, a separate set of calibration was performed for permanent deformation development in moist and wet moisture conditions. The calibrated models have resulted in predictions that are in good agreement with observed performances. Furthermore, the model parameters successfully captured the initial densification behaviour and the associated sensitivity with axle load level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19634 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2023.2191733 (DOI)000956338300001 ()2-s2.0-85150970867 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-03 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-05-24Bibliographically approved
Olafsdottir, E. A., Erlingsson, S. & Bessason, B. (2023). Hybrid non-invasive characterization of soil strata at sites with and without embedded lava rock layers in the South Iceland Seismic Zone. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 82(4), Article ID 146.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid non-invasive characterization of soil strata at sites with and without embedded lava rock layers in the South Iceland Seismic Zone
2023 (English)In: Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, ISSN 1435-9529, E-ISSN 1435-9537, Vol. 82, no 4, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The geological setting of Iceland is unusual, with highly jointed rock mass, loose sediments created in glacial outburst floods and eruptions, and layers of lava rock embedded in or overlying soft sediments. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a composite analysis of dispersion and ellipticity curves for characterization of two of the primary classes of soil sites in the South Iceland Seismic Zone. Specifically, it seeks to develop a cost-effective workflow to identify and characterize sites where a layer of lava rock is embedded in the sedimentary stratum at shallow depth, along with deep soil site characterization. Microtremor HVSR (horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) is found to be efficient to distinguish between sedimentary sites with and without an embedded lava rock layer. The results further demonstrate the effectiveness of hybrid ellipticity and dispersion curve inversion to characterize soil sites with an embedded layer of lava rock, which results in a strong velocity reversal with depth. Consistent with previous studies, the hybrid dispersion-ellipticity inversion is also found efficient for characterization of sites with a simpler structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Shear wave velocity, Surface wave analysis, Rayleigh wave ellipticity, Velocity reversal, Embedded lava rock layers, SHEAR-WAVE VELOCITY, MULTICHANNEL ANALYSIS, DISPERSION CURVE, DATA UNCERTAINTY, SURFACE-WAVES, ELLIPTICITY, INVERSION, EARTHQUAKES, HAZARD, ALGORITHM
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19679 (URN)10.1007/s10064-023-03136-0 (DOI)000961925100001 ()2-s2.0-85151344150 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-02 Created: 2023-05-02 Last updated: 2023-05-24Bibliographically approved
Afridi, M. A., Erlingsson, S. & Sjögren, L. (2023). Municipal street maintenance challenges and management practices in Sweden. Frontiers in Built Environment, 9, Article ID 1205235.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal street maintenance challenges and management practices in Sweden
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 9, article id 1205235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The municipal street network acts as a multifunctional asset by providing people, vehicles and public services with a well-functioning infrastructure. To keep it in good condition, optimal maintenance measures are required which would result in an efficient use of taxpayers' money. This paper investigates the street network deterioration processes and the management practices that the municipal administrations have applied in Sweden. The study is based on a survey with Swedish municipalities using questionnaires and complementary interviews. The answers provide insight into a wide range of common pavement distresses and deterioration factors, along with pavement management practices. The study identifies that potholes, surface unevenness and alligator cracking are the most cited challenges, while pavement ageing, heavy traffic and patches are the most noted causes. Similarly, the cold climate and population density are influential factors in pavement deterioration. Allocation of the maintenance and rehabilitation and reconstruction budget is higher in the northern part of the country as well as in densely populated municipalities. Condition data collection and use of commercial Pavement Management Systems (PMS) are limited. Addressing the challenges effectively may be possible through the enhancement of the budget, feasible/clear guidelines from municipal councils/politicians, and reducing the gap between street network administrations and utility service providers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
pavement management systems, road maintenance, municipalities, budget allocation, questionnaire, pavement deterioration, cold climate, HOT-MIX ASPHALT, PAVEMENT, BEHAVIOR, MODEL
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19795 (URN)10.3389/fbuil.2023.1205235 (DOI)001020099900001 ()2-s2.0-85163600171 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2016/28
Available from: 2023-07-31 Created: 2023-07-31 Last updated: 2023-07-31Bibliographically approved
Andersson-Sköld, Y., Mirzanamadi, R., Nyberg, E., Erlingsson, S., Torstensson, P., Göransson, G. & Nordin, L. (2023). Ramverk för att prioritera och bedöma nyttan av klimatanpassningsåtgärder. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ramverk för att prioritera och bedöma nyttan av klimatanpassningsåtgärder
Show others...
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Framework for prioritising and assessing the benefits of climate change adaptation measures
Abstract [sv]

Klimatförändringarna är idag påtagliga och även om vi snabbt får ner utsläppen av växthusgaser kommer fler, mer omfattande och mer kostsamma klimatrelaterade händelser att inträffa alltmer ofta. Kostnaderna inom den svenska transportsektorn för klimatrelaterade händelser som skadar gator, vägar, spår-/järnväg, med flera sårbara delar av infrastrukturen är stora redan idag och förväntas öka. Översvämningar, bränder och skador till följd av väderrelaterade händelser på anläggningar resulterar bland annat i minskad framkomlighet och en ökad risk för olyckor. För att upprätthålla transportsystemets funktion är det därför viktigt att vi vidtar riskreducerande åtgärder för att minska sannolikheten och omfattningen av negativa konsekvenser av både dagens klimat- och väderrelaterade händelser men framför allt för att hantera framtida klimatrelaterade händelser. Det är nödvändigt att säkerställa transportsystemets funktion vid extrema väderhändelser, och under perioder av långvarig nederbörd, långvariga värmeböljor och förändrade nederbördsmönster. Det gäller också att redan idag möjliggöra anpassningsåtgärder för att hantera långsiktiga förändringar som höjd havsvattennivå och grundvattennivåer, som påverkar infrastrukturens framkomlighet och livslängd.

I denna rapport presenteras sammanfattande resultat och en sammanfattning av hur ett ramverk för att utvärdera klimatrelaterade effektsamband har använts. Med effektsamband avses att identifiera, bedöma och värdera klimatrelaterade risker och riskreducerande åtgärder. I denna rapport är fokus på att identifiera, bedöma och utvärdera effektiviteten av klimatrelaterade åtgärder. Resultatet av det framtagna ramverket kan användas för att analysera riskreducerande åtgärders effekter, det vill säga för att bedöma om det är relevant att genomföra en åtgärd, när i tiden den bör genomföras samt för att bedöma vilken åtgärd som är mest relevant att genomföra. De risker som beaktas genom fallstudier innefattar brandrisk, olycksrisk på gator och vägar på grund av nollgenomgångar eller värme, översvämning, erosion och skred och påverkan på vägkonstruktionen (spårbildning, bärighet och utmattning), solkurvor och risker vid kraftiga vindar. Testerna har innefattat faro- och riskidentifiering, riskanalys, identifiering och utvärdering av möjliga åtgärder. Exempel på fallstudier är Gävleregnet 2021, ett skyfall i Kungsbacka kommun 2019, erosionsrelaterade förändringar under lång tid vid Österdalälven och beräkningar av påverkan av temperatur, fuktighet och förändringar i tjälförändringsmönster på vägkonstruktionen vid E10 vid Svappavaara. I en av de fallstudier som sammanfattas i rapporten redovisas även en monetär värdering och känslighetsanalys. Ramverket har också legat till grund för en diskussion avseende klimatrelaterade risker kopplade till elförsörjning.

Abstract [en]

Even if the greenhouse gas emissions are rapidly reduced, the ongoing climate change will result in extensive and costly climate-related events that will occur more frequently. The costs in the Swedish transport sector for such events damaging streets, roads, rail/railways, and other vulnerable parts of the infrastructure are high today and are expected to increase. The consequences of weather-related events are, among other things, reduced accessibility, and increased risk of accidents. To maintain the functioning of the transport system, it is important to undertake risk-reducing measures related both to today's climate, but above all, to manage future climate-related events. It is necessary to ensure the functioning of the transport system during extreme weather events, and during periods of prolonged precipitation, prolonged heatwaves and changing precipitation patterns. It is also important to enable adaptation measures to deal with long-term changes such as rising sea levels which affect the accessibility and lifespan of the infrastructure.

This report presents a summary of results and a summary of how a framework for evaluating climaterelated impact relationships has been used. Effect relationships refer to identifying, assessing, and evaluating climate-related risks and risk reduction measures. In this report, the focus is on identifying, assessing, and evaluating the effectiveness of climate-related measures. The results is a framework for assessing the effect of risk-reducing measures, i.e., to assess whether it is relevant to implement a measure, when in time it should be implemented and to assess which measure is most relevant to implement. The risks have considered in case studies and include fire risk, risk of accidents on streets and roads due to zero crossings or heat, flooding, erosion and landslides and impact on road construction (rutting, bearing capacity and fatigue), track buckling and risks related to high winds. The tests have included hazard and risk identification, risk analysis, identification, and evaluation of possible measures. Examples of case studies are a torrential rain in Kungsbacka municipality in 2019, erosion-related changes over a long period of time at Österdalälven and calculations of climate impact on the road construction at the E10 at Svappavaara. A case study has also included monetary valuation and sensitivity analysis. The framework has also formed the basis for a discussion regarding climaterelated risks linked to electricity supply.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2023. p. 185
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1186
Keywords
Climate-related risks and adaptation measures, impact relationships, fire risk, risk of accidents caused by slipperiness/heat, flooding, erosion, landslides, rutting, bearing capacity, track buckling curves, risks from strong winds, Klimatrelaterade risker och anpassningsåtgärder, effektsamband, brandrisk, olycksrisk halka/värme, översvämning, erosion, skred, spårbildning, bärighet, solkurvor, risker vid kraftiga vindar
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20061 (URN)
Projects
Metod för att prioritera och bedöma nyttan av klimatanpassningsåtgärder – rätt åtgärd på rätt plats och i rätt ordning
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Dinegdae, Y., Ahmed, A. W. & Erlingsson, S. (2023). Toward a Comprehensive Pavement Reliability Analysis Approach. Transportation Research Record, 2677(7), 680-692
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward a Comprehensive Pavement Reliability Analysis Approach
2023 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2677, no 7, p. 680-692Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reliability has been incorporated in pavement design tools to account for input variability influence on predicted performance. As they are not based on a probabilistic method of uncertainty propagation, the reliability analysis methodologies that are currently implemented in pavement performance tools lack rigor and robustness. This paper investigates the potential of three reliability analysis methodologies for pavement application: the Pavement ME reliability analysis methodology, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), and the first-order reliability method (FORM). The MCS and FORM involve a response surface method for the generation of a second-order surrogate model. The investigation was performed using inputs and performance data from accelerated pavement testing structures. Inputs that were identified as significant were characterized as random variables and their associated variability was established using measured structural and material properties. Pavement performance with respect to rutting was predicted using the ERAPave performance prediction tool, while MCS was used to generate the actual variability of the distress. The reliability analysis results have shown that a comprehensive reliability analysis methodology is required that effectively captures input variabilities and the error associated with surrogate models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
variability, MCS, pavement ME, RSM, reliability, ERAPave PP, FORM
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19613 (URN)10.1177/03611981231155179 (DOI)000936031300001 ()2-s2.0-85164694179 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2023-04-03 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-08-01Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Niska, A. & Erlingsson, S. (2022). Degradation of Cycle Paths: a Survey in Swedish Municipalities. CivilEng, 3(2), 184-210
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation of Cycle Paths: a Survey in Swedish Municipalities
2022 (English)In: CivilEng, ISSN 2673-4109, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 184-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need to move society in a sustainable direction. One way to contribute to this move is to change to more sustainable transport modes, such as cycling. To increase cycling, the infrastructure is important, and good quality cycle paths are needed. However, little is known about the degradation of cycle paths. This paper aims to investigate what modes of pavement distress are found on municipal cycle paths in Sweden, and what probable mechanisms lie behind such distress; these are determined based on questions from a state-of-practice survey, interviews, and a literature review. The main findings are that the most commonly stated distress modes are surface unevenness followed by longitudinal cracks, and the most commonly stated causes of distress are ageing, followed by structural interventions, and roots and vegetation. The results also show that for several distress modes, there are probable connections with climatic factors such as temperature and moisture, as well as with the population size of the urban areas. Objective data are needed regarding traffic load and the climatic factors that affect cycle paths, along with information on their structural design, to better understand their degradation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19428 (URN)10.3390/civileng3020012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85145274873 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-23 Created: 2023-01-23 Last updated: 2023-03-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4256-3034

Search in DiVA

Show all publications