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Falkmer, Torbjörn
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Falkmer, T. & Paulsson, K. (2010). Ba etminan ranandegi kardan: amniyatdar terafik baraye koodakan ba natavani jesmi. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ba etminan ranandegi kardan: amniyatdar terafik baraye koodakan ba natavani jesmi
2010 (Persian)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2010. p. 60
Keywords
Child, Disabled person, Passive safety system, Safety belt, Air bag (restraint system), Equipment, Seat (veh), Specifications
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11833 (URN)
Note

Persisk översättning av: "Åka säkert: om trafiksäkerhet för barn med funktionshinder"

Översättare: Mina Asghary

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Falkmer, T. & Paulsson, K. (2010). Sigurnost putovanja: o prometnoj sigurnosti za djecu s funkcijskim preprekama. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sigurnost putovanja: o prometnoj sigurnosti za djecu s funkcijskim preprekama
2010 (Croatian)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [hr]

Prometna sigurnost djece i omladine s funkcijskim preprekama je kompleksno pitanje. Radi se o medicinskim, tehničkim, ergonomskim, pravnim, organizacijskim i psihološkim pogledima. Mnoga tijela vlasti i instance trebaju surađivati. Podjela odgovornosti između tih raznih instanca je komplicirana. Tijekom mnogo godina su roditelji tražili jednostavan i lako shvatljiv priručnik koji opisuje ta pitanja u perspektivi djece i obitelji. To je razlog zbog kojeg smo sastavili ovaj priručnik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2010. p. 62
Keywords
Child, Disabled person, Passive safety system, Safety belt, Air bag (restraint system), Equipment, Seat (veh), Specifications
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11831 (URN)
Note

Serbokroatisk översättning av: "Åka säkert: om trafiksäkerhet för barn med funktionshinder"

Översättare: Isabella Habijan

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Falkmer, T. & Paulsson, K. (2010). Äl-safarbi aman: An Salamat Harakat Al-muroor lil Atfal Al-mouaquin. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Äl-safarbi aman: An Salamat Harakat Al-muroor lil Atfal Al-mouaquin
2010 (Arabic)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2010. p. 86
Keywords
Child, Disabled person, Passive safety system, Safety belt, Air bag (restraint system), Equipment, Seat (veh), Specifications
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11834 (URN)
Note

Arabisk översättning av: "Åka säkert: om trafiksäkerhet för barn med funktionshinder"

Översättare: Michael Mammo

Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Kircher, K., Thorslund, B., Kircher, A., Falkmer, T. & Anund, A. (2007). Passering av buss i 30 km/h: utvärdering av säkerhetseffekter i samband med hastighetsgräns 30 km/h vid passering av buss - en simulatorstudie. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passering av buss i 30 km/h: utvärdering av säkerhetseffekter i samband med hastighetsgräns 30 km/h vid passering av buss - en simulatorstudie
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2007 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Passing a bus with 30 km/h. Assessment of safety effects of a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing a bus - a simulator study
Abstract [sv]

A simulator study was conducted to investigate the implementation of a new law which prescribes a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing buses equipped with a 30-sign and flashing lights. It was shown that the drivers follow the rule better when they pass a bus on their own side than when the bus was standing on the opposite side of the road. The slowest mean speeds were found when passing a bus on a road with a speed limit of 70 km/h. The highest speed reduction, however, was found when the posted speed limit was 90 km/h. A bus without signage did not induce the same speed reduction as a bus with signage, which means that the drivers were aware of the meaning of the signage. Driving behaviour showed that the flashing lights are of importance, because the drivers in the study started braking before the 30-sign was readable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2007. p. 88
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 573
Keywords
Bus, Flashing light, Bus stop, Speed limit, Overtaking, Driver, Behaviour, Deceleration, Speed, Average speed, Simulator, Test, Safety
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 20 Road: Traffic engineering, 22 Road: Traffic control and traffic information
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6429 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
Falkmer, T., Lövgren, A., Anund, A., Nyberg, J., Elkehag, K., Elm, C., . . . Åkerberg, P. (2006). Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts: ur barnens perspektiv. Linköping: VTI., VTI rapport 548
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts: ur barnens perspektiv
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2006 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Children's perspective on safety and security in school transportation
Abstract [sv]

School transportation should be safe, secure and accessible for all children entitled to such transportation, regardless of any disability. On a daily basis, 440,000 children utilise school transportation, several thousands of them having some sort of disability. Laws, rules and regulations concerning school transportation do not take the children's perspective into account. Moreover, they do not explicitly define where and when a school transport actually starts and ends. For these reasons, more knowledge was needed in order to fully understand why school transportation incidents take place. The aim of the project was thus to describe and understand children's (with and without disabilities) thoughts and experiences concerning safety and security in school transportation, from a "door-to-door" perspective. The number of individuals affected by school transportation incidents is, luckily, limited in relative terms, and quantitative methods do not fully catch the reasons behind children's involvement in these incidents. Instead, qualitative approaches have been applied, gaining a rich and deeper insight into the problems studied. In order to get as broad and full picture as possible, the project was divided into four subprojects: 1. Focus groups with children, drivers, staff and parents. 2. Interviews with children suffering from neuropsychiatric disabilities. 3. Interviews with children involved in school transportation incidents. 4. Field observations and interviews with children who are in extensive need for technical aids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: VTI., VTI rapport 548, 2006. p. 171
Keywords
School transport, Bus, Safety, Child, Attitude, Behaviour, Interview, Accident, Analysis, Bus stop, Disabled person, Wheelchair, Anchorage
Research subject
Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Accidents; Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Taxi, paratransit and school transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6408 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-22
Gustafsson, S. & Falkmer, T. (2006). The traffic safety situation among foreign born in Sweden: based on eight road user population zones. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The traffic safety situation among foreign born in Sweden: based on eight road user population zones
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Road traffic crashes are identified as a world wide public health problem. Prognoses by WHO suggest these crashes to constitute the third most common reason for fatalities and disabilities in 2020. However, the crash risk varies from country to country. Previous research concerning foreign born within the Swedish road transport system shows an overrepresentation of crash involvement for this group. In order to identify the nature of the problem and to be able to compare crash involvement among foreign born with native born, the aim of the study was to cluster countries world wide into road user population zones, depending on Gross National Income (GNI), motorization, the traffic safety situation and geographical position for each country. Based on the eight identified clustered zones, comparisons of the zones and possible correlations between the different parameters were made, using Sweden (native born) as reference country. Data from several registers showed that an increase in GNI correlated with more cars and fewer traffic fatalities. For a number of zones, nearly all of them less wealthy, an increase in GNI correlated with more cars, and the more cars, the lower the number of killed road users per car. Furthermore, among foreign born, the average relative crash risk was 50% higher for males and about 10 % for females compared to native born in the Swedish road transport system. If the subgroup of crash involved car drivers 18 years and older was selected for analyses, data revealed that male foreign born ran double the risk of being involved in a crash, while for female foreign born the relative risk was increased by 70%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2006. p. 63
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 547A
Keywords
Accident rate, Accident proneness, Man, Woman, Statistics, Olyckstal, Olycksbenägenhet, Män, Kvinnor, Statistik
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 811 Road: Accident statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6416 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Anund, A., Kronqvist, L. & Falkmer, T. (2005). Är kraven på utmärkning av skolskjutsfordon utmärkta?. Linköping: VTI., VTI rapport 516
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Är kraven på utmärkning av skolskjutsfordon utmärkta?
2005 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
An evaluation of the school transportation vehicle's icon - an experimental study
Abstract [sv]

This study aimed to test whether the present law about school transportation traffic sign leads to enhanced traffic safety, measured as adjustment of traffic behaviour from fellow road users. The fellow road users' behaviour on roads with 50 km/h and 70 km/h was compared in meetings with school buses at stand still in real traffic. Three different types of signing were tested: - without any sign, - with the school transportation traffic sign only, - with the school transportation traffic sign equipped with blinking lights. The fellow road users' behaviour was measured by their speed, lateral position and fixation patterns on the buses. In order to further explore the observed driver behaviour, self reported behaviour data and experiences from the study were gathered. The study was semi experimental and involved data from 24 randomly selected drivers. The study showed that the present school transportation traffic sign does not affect road user behaviour. Only when it is combined with blinking lights it affected the drivers' behaviour. On 70 km/h roads, the average speed decreased by approximately 9 km/h as an effect of the blinking lights. On 50 km/h roads the corresponding decrease was significantly lower and only found in the nearby areas of the busses. Lateral position was not affected by any of the school transportation traffic sign conditions. The blinking lights made the drivers visually, foveally aware and at the same time these fixations on the blinking lights did not prevent fixations on other important objects, such as the bus driver. The study recommended that future school transportation signs should have blinking lights, a finding also confirmed by the drivers' self reported acceptance for such a system. The sign should be in another format and with another type of icon than the present, which in turn requires more research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: VTI., VTI rapport 516, 2005. p. 97
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030
Keywords
School transport, Traffic sign, Road user, Behaviour, Flashing light, Speed, Lateral, Position
Research subject
Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Taxi, paratransit and school transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6381 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-22
Anund, A., Falkmer, T., Forsman, Å., Gustafsson, S., Matstoms, Y., Sörensen, G., . . . Wenäll, J. (2003). Child safety in cars: Literature review. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child safety in cars: Literature review
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2003 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

  • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
  • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
  • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
  • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
  • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2003
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 498A
Keywords
English, Sweden, Child, Child restraint system, Child safety seat, Car, Legislation, Campaign, Disabled person, Recommendations, Fatality, Injury, Air bag, Use, Australia, United Kingdom, USA
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6356 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Forsman, Å., Hellsten, H. & Falkmer, T. (2003). Krockkuddar i bilen: konflikt mellan barns och vuxnas säkerhet?. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Krockkuddar i bilen: konflikt mellan barns och vuxnas säkerhet?
2003 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Föräldrar som ska transportera sina barn i bil ställs inför en rad olika frågor om barnets placering och fastsättning. Det är svårt att ge entydiga svar på dessa frågor eftersom det finns många faktorer att ta hänsyn till. Det som är den bästa placeringen för barnet om man råkar ut för en kollision kanske inte är lämpligt av andra skäl. Om man som förare är ensam vuxen i bilen med ett litet barn kan man vilja ha barnet bredvid sig i passagerarsätet för att ha så bra uppsikt över det som möjligt. Bilens säkerhetsutrustning är också viktig. Mittplatsen bak i bilen kan vara en bra plats för lite större barn på bälteskudde men det förutsätter att den är utrustad med trepunktsbälte och huvudstöd. På senare år har bilden ytterligare komplicerats i och med införandet av krockkudde på passagerarplatsen fram. Införandet skapar problem eftersom barn inte ska sitta intill en krockkudde som är avsedd att skydda vuxna. Vill man ändå kunna placera barnet bredvid sig i framsätet måste man på något sätt koppla ur kudden.

I den här rapporten presenteras en studie om hur den beskrivna konflikten mellan barn och krockkuddar behandlas av olika aktörer. Frågan har studerats dels via litteratur från forskare, myndigheter och trafiksäkerhetsfrämjande organisationer, dels genom kartläggning av generalagenters rekommendationer. Totalt har 62 bilmodeller ingått i kartläggningen och 53 av dessa har krockkudde på passagerarsidan som standard. Man kan dessutom få en sådan krockkudde som tillval i 8 av de resterande 9 modellerna.

Abstract [en]

Parents who transport their children in passenger vehicles have to face several questions of how to restrain the child properly and where to place the child. It is difficult to give unambiguous answers to these questions since a number of factors must be considered. The safest place for a child, given that a crash occurs, may not be suitable for other reasons. If you as a driver are alone in the car with a small child, you may want to place the child in the front passenger seat so you will be able to watch over it. The safety equipment of the vehicle is another important factor. The centre rear seat position can be a good place for a somewhat older child on a booster, but this requires that the position is equipped with a lap/shoulder belt and a head restraint. Since children should not be placed in front of an airbag that aims at protecting adults, the issue of transporting children have become even more complicated with the recent introduction of passenger side airbags. If you, nevertheless, want to place the child in the front passenger seat, the airbag must somehow be deactivated. A study of how the conflict between children and airbags are treated by different participants is presented in this report

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2003
Series
VTI notat ; 16-2003
Keywords
Swedish, Sweden, Air bag, Child, Adult, Child restraint system, Passive safety system, Use, Installation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1439 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-03-17Bibliographically approved
Albertsson, P., Björnstig, U., Falkmer, T. & Turbell, T. (2003). Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd
2003 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this literature review was to describe the pattern of injuries and fatalities related to bus traffic. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible future measurements for improvement of passive safety in buses. Bus crashes were presented in international literature virtually in as many ways as there were articles on the topic. Hence, the authors used the term bus incidents, in order to cover all types of injuries related to bus traffic. In this review only M2 and M3 buses, i.e. buses over 3.5 tonnes were included. In the vast majority of OECD countries, less than 1 % of the vehicle fleet was constituted of buses. Bus passenger's average person kilometres represented 10 % of the total road vehicle person kilometres annually.

The number of fatalities and injured in bus incidents have been stable recent years in EU. The fatality risk is ten times lower for bus passengers compared with car occupants. Of all traffic fatalities, bus fatalities represented 0.3-0.5 %. The most frequent injury localisations from all types of bus crashes were lower limb (35 %), upper limb (33 %) and head/face (28 %). Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe crashes. Projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanism. Three major injury groups in severe bus crashes were thoracic injuries, massive injuries and pelvic fractures.

Heavy wind seemed to be capable of affecting the bus dynamics, particularly on highly built buses (e.g. as high as 4.3 meters). Unprotected road users were hit by buses in about 1/3 of all cases in Sweden. Side impact was most common for local buses (38 %). Boarding and alighting were contributing to injuries in about 1/3 of all cases. If the coach has more than one section it seems that the upper section is more exposed to risk for injuries than the lower section.

Safety belts can improve the passive safety in buses. The 2-point belt prevents passenger ejection but in frontal crashes the jack knife effect could cause head and thoracic injuries. However, the 3- point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes, as it keeps the passenger remained seated.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med litteraturanalysen har varit att beskriva ett mönster för skadehändelser och dödsfall relaterade till stads- och långfärdsbusstransporter och att identifiera möjliga framtida säkerhetsåtgärder speciellt med tanke på passiv säkerhet. Den internationella litteraturen var mycket disparat vilket föranledde författarna att använda sig av begreppet skadehändelser relaterade till buss med syfte att täcka alla typer av skadehändelser som förekommer hos busstransporter. I denna litteraturöversikt är endast kategorierna M2 och M3-bussar inkluderade, dvs. bussar som väger mer än 3,5 ton. Andelen bussar av det totala antalet fordon uppgår till 1 % i nästan samtliga OECD länder. Busspassagerarnas genomsnittliga antal personkilometer utgör 10 % av det totala antalet personkilometer räknat för alla fordon.

Antalet döda och skadade orsakade av stads- och långfärdsbusstrafik har legat på en stabil nivå de senaste åren i den Europeiska Unionen (EU). När det gäller risk att dödas, är buss tio gånger säkrare per km än att resa med bil. Dödsfall i busstrafik utgör mellan 0,3 och 0,5 % av alla dödsfall i trafiken. De kroppsdelar som skadats mest hos bussresenärer i alla typer av krascher var nedre extremiteter (35 %), övre extremiteter (33 %) samt huvud och ansikte (28 %). Vältningar och rullningar var orsaken till i stort samtliga svåra krascher. Tre huvudkategorier av skador kategoriserades vid svåra krascher; thoraxskador, massiva skador fördelade över hela kroppen och bäckenfrakturer.

Hårda sidvindar verkar påverka långfärdsbussarnas aerodynamiska och fordonsdynamiska egenskaper, speciellt högbyggda bussar. I Sverige kolliderade bussar med gående, cyklister eller mopedister i en tredjedel av alla fall. Sidokollisioner för stadsbussar var den vanligaste krockriktningen. Flera fynd indikerar att ca 1/3 av alla skadehändelser härrör från på- och avstigning. Om långfärdsbussen har mer än ett plan verkar passagerare i det övre planet vara mera utsatta för att skadas än dem i nedre planet.

Säkerhetsbälten i långfärdsbussar kan med stor sannolikhet förbättra den passiva säkerheten. Ett 2-punkts midjebälte förhindrar att man kastas ut ur bussen vid en krasch men kan vid en frontalkollision göra att överdelen av bålen samt huvudet slår emot det framförvarande sätet. Ett 3-punktsbälte ger dock det bästa skyddet, då det håller fast passagerarna i sin stol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2003. p. 40
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 488
Keywords
Bus, Accident, Injury, Fatality, Passive safety system, Collision, Overturning, Ejection, Fracture, Wind, Safety belt
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 811 Road: Accident statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6355 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved
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