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Selander, H., Stave, C., Dukic Willstrand, T. & Peters, B. (2019). Driving simulator-based training to improve self-rating ability of driving performance in older adults: a pilot study. European Transport Research Review, 11(1), Article ID 35.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving simulator-based training to improve self-rating ability of driving performance in older adults: a pilot study
2019 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective The aim was to investigate the potential of using simulator-based training (SBT) to improve older drivers' self-rating ability and to compare two forms of feedback; corrective versus corrective and rewarding feedback.

Method The study was designed to study the possibility of training for self-rated driving ability in a simulator, and the impact of corrective (errors made) feedback versus corrective (errors made) and rewarding (correct behaviour) feedback during training. In total, 21 older drivers (mean age 78.5, SD=3.9 years) were trained and assessed in the driving simulator. Driving performance was assessed by penalty scores as well as self and expert ratings.

Results The average deviation from correctly rated ability (own vs. expert) changed from -0.7 (under-rating) to 0.1 at the final training and assessment occasion; i.e., drivers ratings became more like the expert's rating or, in other terms, better calibrated. The individuals with the largest deviations from the expert's rating initially improved their self-rating ability the most. There were no differences between the two feedback groups in terms of their ability to self-rate, but rewarding feedback had a positive effect on penalty scores. The SBT showed positive training effects on the ability to self-rate one's driving ability, and rewarding feedback contributed to lower penalty scores. However, simulator sickness was a shortcoming that needs to be adressed, and the optimal form of feedback should be further investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGEROPEN, 2019
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14065 (URN)10.1186/s12544-019-0372-6 (DOI)000474350400001 ()2-s2.0-85068566357 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J. & Peters, B. (2019). The importance of reaction time, cognition, and meta-cognition abilities for drivers with visual deficits. Cognition, Technology & Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of reaction time, cognition, and meta-cognition abilities for drivers with visual deficits
2019 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individuals who do not fulfill required visual field standards have their driving license withdrawn in Sweden. However, understanding of the ability to compensate for this loss is limited. This study aimed to determine if reaction time and cognitive performance are important for safe driving in visual field loss (VFL) individuals. Visually demanding reaction time tasks of different complexity, for example, can help one understand why some VFL individuals drive as safely as normally sighted individuals. Twenty VFL individuals and 83 normally sighted individuals participated in a driving simulator experiment and an additional test battery. The driving task categorized VFL participants into two subgroups: passed or failed. Three reaction time tasks, four cognitive tests, and two meta-cognitive scales were completed. The passed VFL subgroup was faster than the failed subgroup in the context-dependent reaction time task and slower in the context-independent reaction time task. The passed subgroup performed equally well, or less well, on the cognitive tasks compared to the failed subgroup. The VFL participants performed less well than the normally sighted individuals on most cognitive tasks. However, VFL participants did not reflect on their driving ability (in meta-cognitive scales) in the same way as normally sighted individuals. There appear to be VFL subgroups in terms of ability to drive safely. Reaction time is important, but context dependent. Cognitive context-independent tests appear unrelated to driving test outcome for VFL individuals. The problems with context-independent testing of perceptual, cognitive, and meta-cognitive abilities when predicting safe driving capabilities are discussed. © 2019, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14916 (URN)10.1007/s10111-019-00619-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076561696 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-23 Created: 2020-01-23 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Dols, J. F., Peters, B. & Thorslund, B. (2018). Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs. In: : . Paper presented at 18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The legal reference in the field of driving license in the EU is currently the 2006/126/EC Directive, which stipulates that driving licenses shall be granted only to those who meet medical requirements and pass a driving test. This Directive has recently been updated with the Directive EU 2015/653. Actually, there is a lack of knowledge in the application of validated procedures for assessing (potential) drivers of adapted vehicles. The objective of this paper it is to present experimental results of driving assessment procedures developed for assessing drivers with impairments –both motor and sensory-. This assessment is based on performing a series of practical tests in a static test rig and a low-cost driving simulator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12913 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-05 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J. & Peters, B. (2018). Visual reaction time abilities relation to driving performance: a simulator based driving performance experiment with visually impaired individuals. In: : . Paper presented at 18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual reaction time abilities relation to driving performance: a simulator based driving performance experiment with visually impaired individuals
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The literature suggests that ocular diseases are negatively related to driving performance. The factors associated with safe driving is discussed and perceptual abilities are suggested to be related to crash involvement. The present study will focus on i) perceptual tasks or reaction time tasks and ii) attentional and cognitive tasks. All tasks will be visual and cognitive demanding and the objective is to understand how different visual cognitive tasks are related to driving performance. The motive is to be able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers with visual deficits but also understand how different mental mechanisms are related to safe, or unsafe, driving.

The reaction time tasks are interesting since the reaction time of participants in the study can be measured when performing the driving task. The participants’ reaction time when an object is possible to detect can be measured i) within the complex driving scenario as well as in tasks ii) mimicking driving and iii) “regular” computerized reaction time tasks such as the Simon task. Hence, the objective is two-folded to develop a simulator based method able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers (among the visual deficit population). Second, to pinpoint the importance of visual reaction time and different cognitive tasks on driving performance.

The cognitive, attentional demanding tasks are not as analyzed at this point but will be elaborated on in the presentation. The tasks are presented in the method section.

The summarised data on patients with Glaucoma, Cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy reveal, on a general level, is that ocular diseases impair driver performance.  The literature also suggests, for instance, that not all Glaucoma patients fail on-road driving tests. In summary, the majority of the research literature results indicate, a) general decline in driving performance due to a visual impairment, but b) this is not true for all patients with the same visual deficit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018
Research subject
X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12942 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
Strand, N., Suzuki, K. & Peters, B. (2017). Development of a safe driving guidance system that targets 30 km/h zones. In: : . Paper presented at Fourth International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Toward Zero Accidents (FAST-zero ´17). Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a safe driving guidance system that targets 30 km/h zones
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traffic accidents between vehicles and vulnerable road users, and the senior part of the population particularly, is a traffic safety problem that must be addressed continuously. A safe driving guidance system such as an intelligent speed adaptation system that suppress the speed to prevent and mitigate accidents is an important measure that can address this traffic safety problem. In specific, the accidents targeted in this paper are those that appear in intersections. An intelligent speed adaptation system with acoustic and graphical information that is adapted to the driver’s characteristics to increase the compliance with the guidance provided by the system is developed. Two driving simulator studies were conducted as part of the development procedure. The results of these experiments indicated that a speed restraining effect could be determined of the system and different human-machine-interfaces were compared. The safe driving guidance system was also optimized to driver characteristics and a target value was presented with an optimal value. Implications for system design and human-machine-interaction is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, 2017
Keywords
Intelligent speed adaptation, Accident, Junction, Simulator (driving), Human machine interface
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12412 (URN)
Conference
Fourth International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Toward Zero Accidents (FAST-zero ´17)
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Lidström, M., Peters, B., Rosberg, T. & Thorslund, B. (2017). Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Development of a freight train model for the VTI train simulator
Abstract [sv]

Genom höjda hastigheter för godståg finns möjligheter till en högre prioritering av trafikslaget hos tågtrafikledningen, vilket i sig är en kapacitetsvinst och bör ge upphov till bättre flöden och högre kapacitet på det svenska järnvägsnätet (framför allt på stambanorna). Simulatorer är ett effektivt och säkert sätt att undersöka effekter av förändringar på både förarbeteende och kapacitet.

Syftet med det här projektet var att skapa kapacitetshöjande möjligheter och åtgärder genom att ta fram en loktågssimulator och undersöka möjliga användningsområden för denna. Målet med projektet var att få fram en loktågssimulator, bestående av ett lok och ett antal vagnar, som kan användas i studier för att öka kapaciteten genom till exempel optimerad hastighet, och därmed förändrade bromsprofiler, för loktåg. Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet.

Projektet genomfördes i tre successiva etapper. I den första etappen genomfördes en förstudie med lokförare, operatörer och problemägare, som gav forskarna en förståelse för förarmiljön. Här samlades även in en del av det underlag som krävdes för utveckling av loktågsimulatorn. I den andra etappen utvecklades en simulator för loktåg (mjukvara och hårdvara). Etapp tre var en valideringsstudie tillsammans med lokförare.

Ett förarbord av modellen Traxx köptes in från en tysk tillverkare. Fordonsmodellen utvecklades från en enstaka enhet, Reginamodell (motorvagnståg), till en kombination av flera enheter. Loktåget i simulatorn består av ett eller flera draglok samt ett antal vagnar med en total längd på maximalt 750 meter. Som draglok används ett lok av modellen Traxx. För varje enhet, lok och vagn, krävs data över enheten: längd, vikt, last, broms-, rull- och luftmotstånd. För lok tillkommer dessutom information om ljud, drivning, broms (återmatande elbroms samt konventionell pneumatisk broms (P-broms)), hyttutrustning med mera. För närvarande finns bansträckningen mellan Falköping–Jönköping–Forserum färdigmodellerad och kommer användas för loktågskörning med ATC. Modellen är konfigurerbar utifrån ett lok (Traxx) och i nuläget fyra olika vagnar. Dessa kan kopplas samman i olika kombinationer.

Några användningsområden som diskuterades redan vid projektstart var dels de som naturligt kan kopplas till följder av längre och tyngre tåg, dels de idéer som uppkom som följd av den utrustning som köptes in. Vid Trafikverkets vintermöte genomfördes en workshop där ytterligare användningsområden diskuterades. Några av dessa handlar om utbildning,energieffektiv körning eller projektering. Utbildning och vissa typer av studier går att göra med den nu existerande loktågsmodellen, medan andra kräver antingen validering av parametrar eller viss vidareutveckling av modellen.

Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, denna forskningsrapport och en produkt i form av en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet. Projektet har även levererat en nationell resurs i form av simulatormjukvara. Mjukvaran har lagt grunden för en kostnadseffektiv testverksamhet inom loktågsdomänen. En loktågssimulering (simulering av loktåg) har tagits fram, vilken kommer att vara värdefull som ett demonstrationsverktyg samt för utbildning, träning och projektering.

Abstract [en]

Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2017
Series
VTI notat ; 26-2017
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Train, Simulation, Method, Mathematical model, Calculation, Technique, Braking, Freight train, Locomotive
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J02 Railway: Vehicles
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12483 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Peters, B., Selander, H., Stave, C., Andersson Hultgren, J. & Jansson, A. (2016). Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.3. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.3
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Utvärdering av simulatorbaserad träning för äldre bilförare i Sverige
Abstract [en]

Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

Abstract [sv]

Förmågan att kunna bedöma sin körförmåga korrekt kan vara avgörande för en säker mobilitet på äldre dagar. Överskattning kan leda till en ökad risk och underskattning kan leda till obefogade mobilitetsinskränkningar. En före/efter interventionsstudie genomfördes med syfte att förbättra äldre bilförares förmåga att bedöma sin egen körförmåga. Syftet var inte att förbättra körförmågan i sig utan förmågan att bedöma sig själv, det vill säga att bli bättre kalibrerad. Således utvecklades och utvärderades ett simulatorbaserat träningsprogram med en grupp på 36 äldre förare. Simulatorsjuka (illamående), gjorde dock att endast 21 förare kunde genomföra studien i sin helhet. Deltagarna fick vid upprepade tillfällen bedöma sin körförmåga genom att svara på frågan ”Hur bra tycker du att du körde? (1 = mycket dåligt till 5 = mycket bra). En erfaren arbetsterapeut (specialiserad i att bedöma körförmåga) gjorde expertbedömningar av körningarna med samma skala som en referens på korrekt bedömd körförmåga.

Återkoppling kan vara ett effektivt verktyg för förändring, detta verktyg ville vi utvärdera i vår studie. Således, fick deltagarna återkoppling i form av en lista på vilka fel de hade gjort efter varje övning (t.ex. glömde använda körriktningsvisare, körde för fort). Återkoppling kunde också ges som information om vad som var rätt (t.ex. lämnade företräde till fotgängare, höll rätt hastighet). Således delades gruppen i två grupper en (n=11) som bara fick veta vilka fel de hade gjort och en (n=10) som även fick veta vad de hade gjort rätt. Träningen genomfördes vid tre olika tillfällen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 38
Series
VTI notat ; 32A-2016
Keywords
Old people, Driver, Driving (veh), Driving aptitude, Skill (road user), Personality, Attitude (psychol), Questionnaire, Simulator (driving), Test method
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11395 (URN)
Note

Deliverable 2.4.3. of the Safe Move project (Safe Mobility for Older Drivers). A collaborative project carried out between VTI, Mobilitetscenter and Volvo Cars in Sweden and IFSTTAR, CNRS, INSERM, University of Bordeaux, University of Caen, University Claude Bernard Lyon, OKTAL, Continental, Peugeot and Citroën in France.

Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J. & Peters, B. (2016). Simulatorbaserad testmetod: bedömning av körförmåga hos individer med synfältsbortfall. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulatorbaserad testmetod: bedömning av körförmåga hos individer med synfältsbortfall
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Simulator based test method : driving ability assessment of individuals with visual deficits
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med projektet var att utveckla en metod för att bedöma om individer med synfältsbortfall kan köra på ett säkert sätt. Utgångspunkten för projektet var att metoden ska vara en simulatorbaserad metod eftersom i huvudsak två kriterier var önskvärda att uppfylla. Först var det viktigt att det systematiskt inträffade flera händelser som det var möjligt att utvärdera. För det andra bör dessa händelser vara samma för alla personer som skulle testas. Syftet var att utveckla en metod som optimerar giltigheten och tillförlitligheten när det gäller testning av var och en av unika individer. Testningen på den individuella nivån var viktig eftersom metoden inte skulle användas för forskningsändamål, utan i första hand för att bestämma huruvida en unik individ med synfältsförlust kan köra på ett säkert sätt. När man testar en individ kan flera detaljer gå fel under ett vanligt experiment. Det har en minimal inverkan på försöket eftersom det oftast är möjligt att komplettera datainsamlingen med en annan individ. Det är inte ett alternativ för detta projekt. I denna testning får det inte gå fel eftersom individen inte kan få en andra chans, dvs. det finns ingen möjlighet för individen att få komma tillbaka och bli testad igen.

Dessa två kriterier och punkter ovan har resulterat i den metod som utvecklats. När en individ genomförde en testning utvecklades ett testprotokoll som genererades ur simulator data (efter en hel del arbete). Detta protokoll visar hur individen utfört 37 (+2) händelser (och de relaterade måtten för varje händelse) utifrån ett säkerhetsmarginalperspektiv. För att stödja bedömare med bedömningen av en testad individ har a) data från en referensgrupp (över 100 personer) och b) ett utvecklat testprotokoll (med kritiska trösklar för olika mätningar) använts. Bedömningen utfördes av två oberoende bedömare. Om bedömarna var överens behövdes inga ytterligare bedömningar utföras. Om bedömarna inte var överens gjorde en tredje bedömare en bedömning. Syftet med testprotokollet är att de personer som vill använda testprotokollet som grund för en ansökan om undantag kan göra det. Det är fortfarande Transportstyrelsen, som beslutar om undantag.

Abstract [en]

The aim of the project was to develop a method to assess if individuals with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. The starting point for the project was that the method should be a simulator based method because essentially two criteria were desirable. First, it was important that several events occurred systematically and that events were possible to evaluate, i.e., that it was possible to discriminate between good and bad performances. Second, these events should be the same events for all individuals that was to be tested. The aim was to develop a method that optimizes the validity and reliability with respect to testing of each and one of unique individuals. The testing procedure of the individual level was important because the method would not be used for research purposes but primarily to determine whether a unique individual with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. Several details that can go wrong during an ordinary experiment, when running subjects, have a minimal impact concerning the experiment because it is most often possible to complement the experimental data collection with another subject. This is not an option for this project.

These criteria and points raised above collectively resulted in the method developed. When an individual completed the scenario developed, a test protocol was generated (after a lot of work). This protocol reveals how the individual performed during the 37 (+2) events (and related measures) based on a safety margin perspective. To support the rater with the assessment of a subject a) data from a reference group (over 100 individuals) and b) a developed test protocol (with critical thresholds for different measurements) were used. The assessment was carried out by two independent raters. If the raters agreed no further judgments were performed. If the raters disagreed a third rater assessed the subjects’ performance. The purpose of the test protocol is that those individuals who want to use the test protocol results as a basis for an exemption application, can do so. It is still the Transport Agency, which decides on an exemption cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 31
Series
VTI notat ; 33-2016
Keywords
Field of vision, Driving aptitude, Driving (veh), Ability (road user), Test method, Simulator (driving)
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11385 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2019-06-11
Willstrand, T., Selander, H., Peters, B. & Broberg, T. (2015). On road driving assessment in Sweden: results from the SafeMove project. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On road driving assessment in Sweden: results from the SafeMove project
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
På-väg-utvärdering i Sverige : resultat från SafeMove-projektet
Abstract [en]

The present on-road study is part of a major research project, Safe Mobility for Older Drivers – SAFE MOVE, carried out between Sweden and France in collaboration. 42 participants were recruited to perform an on-road driving. The aim was to identify the cognitive and driving ability of the drivers from the cohort and to match it with their own assessment of ability. The project also aimed to identify difficulties encountered in traffic, both the type of behaviour and in which traffic scenarios they encountered the difficulties. The participants drove for 45 minutes in many different traffic environments. Two more people were present in the vehicle; a driving instructor who was responsible for safety (dual controls) and gave directions to follow throughout the route and an occupational therapist who observed and assessed the driving by means of the B On-road protocol. They also underwent a cognitive screening. Results showed that the behaviour which were found challenging for the drivers were related to speed adaptation, driving too fast for the situation, and lack of visual attention to other road users at intersections. All drivers had a visual acuity level required for holding a driving license in Sweden.

Abstract [sv]

I detta notat presenteras resultat från en delstudie inom forskningsprojektet Safe Mobility for Older Drivers (Safemove). Ett körtest på väg visade att det var främst anpassning av fart och brist på uppmärksamhet som skapade problem för förarna. 42 personer i åldrarna 70 eller äldre rekryterades till ett körtest på väg. Målet var att identifiera förarnas kognitiva förmåga samt körförmåga och matcha detta med deras bedömningar av den egna körförmågan. Forskarnas hade också som mål att identifiera vad de äldre upplever som svårigheter i trafiken, både typ av beteende och i vilka trafiksituationer som svårigheter uppstår. Deltagarna körde i 45 minuter i många olika trafikmiljöer. I bilen fanns med en körinstruktör som var ansvarig för säkerheten (hade dubbla kontroller) och gav instruktioner att följa genom hela körningen. Dessutom observerade och bedömde en arbetsterapeut körningen med hjälp av ett B On-road protokoll. Förarna fick också göra en kognitiv screening. Resultaten från körtestet visar att de brister som fanns var relaterade till anpassning av farten och brist på uppmärksamhet i korsningar. Resultaten från de kognitiva testerna visade på god uppmärksamhet eller god kognitiv förmåga för deras ålder. Det visade sig att de förare som hade bättre resultat i de kognitiva testen också gjorde färre fel under körningen på väg

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2015. p. 35
Series
VTI notat ; 27A-2015
Keywords
Old people, Driver, Driving (veh), Cognition, Skill (road user), Driving aptitude, Attention, Vision, Test, Measurement, Mobility (pers)
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8234 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Abadir Guirgis, G. & Peters, B. (2015). Simulatorbaserad utbildning i ERTMS: utvärdering av utbildning och träning för lokförare i VTI:s tågsimulator. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulatorbaserad utbildning i ERTMS: utvärdering av utbildning och träning för lokförare i VTI:s tågsimulator
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Simulator-based education on ERTMS : evaluation of education and training for train drivers in VTI’s train simulator
Abstract [sv]

Detta notat presenterar en studie för att utvärdera VTI:s tågsimulator för träning och utbildning i ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) för lokförare. Resultaten visar att både lärare och elever är mycket positiva till den simulatorbaserade träningen och mycket tyder på att teori och simulatorträning som varvas ger bäst resultat. På sikt ska de större järnvägsstråken i Sverige utrustas med ERTMS. Detta kommer kräva stora utbildningsinsatser för Sveriges cirka 3 500 lokförare. Det är orealistiskt att dessa ska utbildas på riktiga spår och det finns ett behov av en mer realistisk ERTMS-simulator än den ERSA-simulator som Trafikverket erbjuder idag. Studiens syfte var därför att utvärdera VTI:s tågsimulator, dels jämfört med European Rail Software Applications (ERSA) simulatorn, dels för att studera två olika sätt att kombinera teoretisk utbildning med praktisk träning i simulator. Tre olika grupper jämfördes: Teoretisk utbildning i ERTMS kombinerat med träning i ERSA-simulator (grupp 0), teoretisk utbildning i ERTMS som avslutades med träning i VTI-simulatorn (grupp 1) och teoretisk utbildning i ERTMS som till viss del varvades med träning i VTI-simulatorn (grupp 2). Grupp 1 och 2 fick avsluta utbildningen med ett teoretiskt prov och ett praktiskt körprov i simulator. Grupp 0 endast fick göra det teoretiska provet.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the VTI train simulator with regard to simulator-based training and education in the ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) system for train drivers, compared to the ERSA simulator. The purpose was also to study two different ways of combining theoretical education with practical training in a simulator. In the future, the major railway routes in Sweden will be equipped with ERTMS. This will require considerable training for Sweden’s approximately 3,500 train drivers in future need of ERTMS education. It is unrealistic to think that these should be trained on real tracks. Therefore, there is a need for a more realistic ERTMS simulator compared to the European Rail Software Applications (ERSA) simulator that Trafikverket provides. The study was conducted as a between group design with two measurements. Three different groups were compared under different conditions. Theoretical education in ERTMS combined with training in the ERSA simulator (group 0), theoretical education in ERTMS ending with training in the VTI-simulator (group 1) and theoretical education in ERTMS partly alternated with training in the VTI-simulator (group 2).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2015
Series
VTI notat ; 21-2015
Keywords
Train driver, Education, Method, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J14 Railway: Personnel
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8023 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-24 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2301-5793

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