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Andersson, Henrik
Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Andersson, H., Hultkrantz, L., Lindberg, G. & Nilsson, J.-E. (2018). Economic Analysis and Investment Priorities in Sweden's Transport Sector. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, 9(1), 120-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic Analysis and Investment Priorities in Sweden's Transport Sector
2018 (English)In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2194-5888, E-ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 120-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Beginning as a planning tool within Sweden's national road administration some 50 years ago, benefit-cost analysis (BCA) has come to be a pillar of the national transport policy because of subsequent strategic choices made by the national parliament. These choices made it necessary to widen the analysis of costs to include also externalities and a foregone conclusion was that efficient investment priorities should be made based on BCA. But no one asked whether the political decision makers or the BCA models were up to that task. This paper reviews the institutional framework and practice of BCA in Sweden for transport infrastructure investment, and considers design issues that have been and still are debated, such as whether the discount rate should include a risk term and how to account for the marginal cost of public funds. A main concern with BCA results is the underestimation of construction costs, making transport sector projects look better than they are. Several ex post analyses have established that a higher NPV ratio increases the probability of being included in the investment program proposal prepared by the agency. The requirement to let projects undergo BCA seems to make planners trim project proposals by trying to reduce investment costs without significantly reducing benefits. This relationship is weaker among profitable projects. Moreover, there is no correlation between rate of return and the probability of being included in the final program, which is established on political grounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2018
Keywords
Cost benefit analysis, Transport infrastructure, Government (national), Decision process, Investment, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13047 (URN)10.1017/bca.2018.3 (DOI)000431405400006 ()
Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Swärdh, J.-E. & Ögren, M. (2015). Traffic noise effects of property prices: hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators. Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic noise effects of property prices: hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated. Data consists of characteristics of sold properties, property-specific noise calculation, and geographical variables.

We use the hedonic approach to estimate the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for maximum noise abatement where we model the effect as the maximum noise level subtracted with the equivalent noise level. Furthermore, we control for the equivalent noise level in the estimations. The estimated results show that including the maximum noise level in the model has influence on the property prices, but only for rail and not for road. This means that for road we cannot reject the hypothesis that WTP for noise abatement is based on the equivalent noise level only. For rail, on the other hand, we estimate the marginal WTP for the maximum noise level and it turns out to be substantial. Also, the marginal WTP for the equivalent noise levels seems to be unaffected by the inclusion of the maximum noise level in the model. More research of this novel topic is requested though.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies, 2015. p. 28
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2015:11
Keywords
Noise annoyance, Noise level, Value analysis, Willingness to pay, Rail traffic, Road traffic
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7952 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2016-08-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Swärdh, J.-E. & Ögren, M. (2013). Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller. Trafikverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller
2013 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trafikverket, 2013. p. 22
Keywords
Noise, Willingness to pay, Residential area, Price, Income
National Category
Economics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment; 00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7394 (URN)
Note

Slutrapport inom projektet Väsmage finansierat av Trafikverket.

Available from: 2014-11-04 Created: 2014-11-04 Last updated: 2016-02-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. & Ögren, M. (2011). Charging the polluters: a pricing model for road and railway noise. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Charging the polluters: a pricing model for road and railway noise
2011 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study outlines a method to estimate the short run marginal cost (SRMC) for road and railway noise. It is based on standardized calculation methods for total noise levels and monetary cost estimates from well established evaluation methods. Here official calculation methods and monetary values are used for Sweden, but the estimation method for the SRMC outlined can be directly applied using other standardized noise calculation methods and monetary values. This implies that the current knowledge regarding the calculation of total noise levels and the evaluation of the social cost of noise can be extended to estimate the marginal effect as well. This is an important finding since it enables policy makers to price noise externalities in an appropriate way. Several sensitivity tests run for the SRMC show that: (i) increasing the total traffic on the infrastructure has only a minor influence, (ii) estimates are quite sensitive to the number of exposed individuals, and (iii) to the monetary values used. Hence, benefits transfer, i.e. using monetary values elicited based on road noise for railway noise, should be done with caution or not at all. Results also show that the use of quiet technology can have a significant effect on the SRMC. The fact that this model is able to differentiate not only modes of transport, but also vehicles and even technologies is an important finding. It is essential that the noise charges give the operators the right incentives to choose their optimal allocation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2011. p. 29
Keywords
Noise, Noise level, External effect, Cost, Tariff, Mathematical model, Road traffic, Rail traffic
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Economics; Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Environment; Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Environment; Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5362 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-03-21Bibliographically approved
Ögren, M., Swärdh, J.-E., Andersson, H. & Jonsson, L. (2011). Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations. Stockholm: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations
2011 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes an effort to calculate marginal costs for railway traffic in Sweden using 1) standardised and already well established methods for calculating noise and 2) valuations of noise based on hedonic regression. The main point is that the marginal costs are calculated using well established methods used for other purposes (urban planning for the noise method and cost benefit analysis for the noise values), the combination of these methods requires knowledge in both transport economics and acoustics but apart from that no new methods need to be developed. The results show large variations over the network explained mainly by the large variations in population density. It is necessary to include similar variations in a charging system in order to gain the full benefits of internalizing the noise cost.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2011. p. 10
Keywords
Rail traffic, Noise, Noise level, External effect, Cost, Dwelling, Exposure (human), Value analysis, Calculation, Method
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Economics
Research subject
Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Environment; Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5358 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-03-17Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Jonsson, L. & Ögren, M. (2010). Property Prices and Exposure to Multiple Noise Sources: Hedonic Regression with Road and Railway Noise. Environmental and Resource Economics, 45(1), 73-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Property Prices and Exposure to Multiple Noise Sources: Hedonic Regression with Road and Railway Noise
2010 (English)In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

Keywords
Noise, Tyre noise, Impact study, Building, Price, Residential area, Calculation, Mathematical model, Regression analysis, Rail traffic, Road traffic
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Environment; Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6637 (URN)10.1007/s10640-009-9306-4 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Jonsson, L. & Ögren, M. (2009). Bullervärden för samhällsekonomisk analys: beräkningar för väg- och järnvägsbuller. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullervärden för samhällsekonomisk analys: beräkningar för väg- och järnvägsbuller
2009 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Noise charges for railway operators : Pricing by marginal cost principle
Abstract [sv]

Noise is a significant social problem. For example, more than 20 per cent of the European Union's population is exposed to higher noise than what is considered acceptable. The transport sector is a major contributor to society's increasing noise problem, due to increased traffic volumes and urbanization exposing more people to noise. Road traffic is admittedly the largest individual noise source in the transport sector, but other transport modes such as aircraft and railways are also responsible for considerable noise emissions. Noise entails costs for the society. This fact, and that society has different needs, means that policies and projects to reduce noise levels need to be evaluated to secure an efficient resource allocation. Benefit cost analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate noise abatement, but it requires both benefits and costs to be measured in a common metric, i.e. in monetary values. Today's official monetary values for all modes are based on the impact of road-traffic noise on property prices. It is a well established fact that the disturbance which individuals experience differs between modes, and therefore there is a need to estimate monetary values based on the respective modes. This report focuses on road and rail noise, two noise sources with different characteristics. This study describes the need to revise the current official Swedish policy values for noise abatement. Current values for road-traffic noise show a progressive relationship between the social cost and the noise level that is too strong, and values for railway noise has been missing and instead based on results for road noise. Valuation of health effects should also be based on EKM since it is sanctioned within the EU, instead of the approach now proposed by ASEK based on estimated total social costs from noise exposure in relation to estimates from willingness to pay studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2009. p. 26
Series
VTI notat ; 30-2008
Keywords
Noise, Noise level, Limit, Value analysis, Cost, Calculation, Estimation, Mathematical model, Road traffic, Rail traffic
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Economics
Research subject
J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J11 Railway: Environment; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1704 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. & Ögren, M. (2009). Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure. In: Scott, N.P. (Ed.), Railway Transportation: Policies, Technology and Perspectives (pp. 141-162). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure
2009 (English)In: Railway Transportation: Policies, Technology and Perspectives / [ed] Scott, N.P., Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2009, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2009
Keywords
Cost, Rail bound transport, Noise, Tariff, Social cost, Transport infrastructure, Network (transport), Estimation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J11 Railway: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13180 (URN)2-s2.0-85048593111 (Scopus ID)9781617285745 (ISBN)9781606928639 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Sundström, K. & Andersson, H. (2009). Swedish consumers' willingness to pay for food safety: a contingent valuation study on salmonella risk. Stockholm: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish consumers' willingness to pay for food safety: a contingent valuation study on salmonella risk
2009 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

This paper examines the value to Swedish citizens of reducing the risk for salmonella bacteria in chicken filet. The contingent valuation (CV) study is based on the results of a postal questionnaire that was distributed to 2 000 randomly selected Swedish citizens aged 18-74. The valuation format used is a stated preference double bounded dichotomous choice. We employ the non-parametric Turnbull Lower Bound method in combination with Monte Carlo simulations to obtain lower bound estimates of the mean and median values of expected willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing the risk for salmonellosis, as well as values of a statistical case (VSC) and a statistical life (VSL). We find a VSC of between SEK 121 045 (110 297-131 814) and SEK 182 966 (167 915-197 896) depending on the format used (values in parentheses constitute a 90 percent confidence interval). VSL values of SEK 13.3 million and 48.3 million are estimated using different formats, but neither estimation is statistically significant. Since this is the first Swedish study on WTP for food safety, mean and median values of VSL and VSC cannot be directly compared with previous results, but the values obtained are in line with comparable Swedish studies on WTP for traffic safety as well as with international studies related to food safety. We do not find any strong linkage between WTP and income, age or gender. Scale sensitivity seems to depend on which model is chosen, while household size, risk perception ability and perceived Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY:s) lost seem to be strong predictors of WTP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2009. p. 52
Series
Working papers in transport economics ; 2009:2
Keywords
Food, Industry, Willingness to pay
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
SAB, V Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-700 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-03Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. & Ögren, M. (2008). Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure. Stockholm: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure
2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2008. p. 23
Keywords
Noise, Rail traffic, Cost, External effect, Calculation, Method, Mathematical model
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Economics; Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Railway: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-692 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-05-14Bibliographically approved
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