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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Eriksson, A., Augusto, B., Strand, N. & Sandin, J. (2018). Drivers’ recovery performance in a critical run-off-road scenario: A driving simulator study. In: Nicole Van Nes, Charlotte Voegelé (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018: . Paper presented at 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers’ recovery performance in a critical run-off-road scenario: A driving simulator study
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018 / [ed] Nicole Van Nes, Charlotte Voegelé, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Single vehicle accidents are commonly caused by fatigue and distractionand resulting in severe casualties and high economic costs. In order to evaluate driver recovery from run-off-road accidents, comprising of 80% of fatal crashes on rural roads, a simulator study in an advanced full-motion driving simulator was carried out. Drivers were given a secondary task to perform at six positions down the road(to simulate distraction), and an artificial yawdeviation was added to the vehicle to induce a run-off-road accident whilst the driver was distracted. The results show that the severity of the recovery manoeuvre was larger than similar events caused by the failureof automated lane keeping systems, leading to lane departures. Furthermore, significant learning effects was found, providing recommendations for further studies into run-off-road experiments.

National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13751 (URN)
Conference
6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, P., Laine, L., Sandin, J., Jacobson, B. & Eriksson, O. (2018). On actions of long combination vehicle drivers prior to lane changes in dense highway traffic: A driving simulator study. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 55, 25-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On actions of long combination vehicle drivers prior to lane changes in dense highway traffic: A driving simulator study
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2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 55, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we address drivers’ actions prior to mandatory lane changes of long combination vehicles in dense highway traffic. The studied driver actions were: turn indicator activation, speed reduction and lateral intrusion. We categorised and compared the drivers’ actions with respect to the surrounding traffic cooperation and the level of urgency. Urgency here was based on the remaining distance to a targeted exit ramp. The results show that when the subject vehicle is close to the exit ramp, drivers used speed reduction significantly more than when the vehicle is further away. No significant difference was found for the use of lateral intrusion considering the distance to the exit ramp. As regards traffic cooperation, significant differences were found for both speed reduction and lateral intrusion. The drivers’ speed reduction and lateral intrusion were significantly greater when the surrounding traffic cooperation was low.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Lorry, Driver, Behaviour, Overtaking, Speed, Decrease, Lane changing
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13091 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2018.02.004 (DOI)000432641100003 ()2-s2.0-85045795640 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Sandin, J., Augusto, B., Nilsson, P. & Laine, L. (2017). A lane-change scenario developed for assessment of active safety and ADAS in heavy vehicles: evaluated in a driving simulator study. Linköpng
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A lane-change scenario developed for assessment of active safety and ADAS in heavy vehicles: evaluated in a driving simulator study
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this project was to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles.

The definition of the lane-change scenario was based on a literature review, and an investigation of lane-change accidents in Sweden.

A lane-change manoeuvre is in the literature typically described by accepted gap at the initiation of the manoeuvre as well as duration of the manoeuvre and speed during the manoeuvre. The literature review showed that there is a lack of real-world data regarding lane-change manoeuvres with heavy vehicles. The data that exist are collected mainly in the US and for discretionary lane changes, and a distinction between sizes of heavy vehicles is rarely made. Regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles on European level, there is a general lack of useful and reliable accident data. The most comprehensive data are available from the US and show that lane-change accidents account for a large share of accidents involving heavy vehicles.

The investigation of lane-change accidents was made in the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), on 10 500 police-reported accidents with heavy vehicles involved during the years 2003 to 2013. In STRADA, lane-change accidents are categorized together with overtaking accidents. Therefore, it is not possible to identify lane-change accidents and their share of heavyvehicle accidents directly from STRADA. Instead, lane-change accidents were identified by reading the accident narratives for overtaking accident and rear-end accidents (in total 5 612 accidents). Rearend accidents were included because the manner of collision may resemble lane-change collisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköpng: , 2017. p. 38
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2017-1
Keywords
Lane changing, Active safety system, Advanced driver assistance system, Driver assistance system, Gap acceptance, Accident, Simulator (driving), Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13267 (URN)
Available from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, P., Laine, L. & Sandin, J. (2016). High speed control of long combination heavy commercial vehicles within safe corridors. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High speed control of long combination heavy commercial vehicles within safe corridors
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main scope of the project was to initiate a technical framework for studying manual and automated high-speed driving of long vehicle combinations (LVCs) in a driving simulator environment.

The project included implementation and evaluation of vehicle models representing a rigid truck solo (reference vehicle) and an A-double LVC in VTI driving simulator IV (Sim IV). The A-double combination consisted of a 6x4 tractor unit followed by a three-axle semi-trailer, two-axle converter dolly and a second three-axle semi-trailer unit. The total vehicle length of the A-double was 32 metres and the total weight was set to 80 tonnes. The implementation of the vehicle models was evaluated by drivers from Volvo product development. The evaluation was carried out during normal driving conditions, with speeds ranging from 0 to 90 km/h.

Besides the implementation and evaluation of vehicle models, the project also included a driving simulator study in which manual and automated driving of the A-double have been studied. The participants in the study were 12 professional truck drivers from a haulage contractor and 8 drivers from Volvo product development. The driving scenario consisted of a relatively curvy and hilly single-lane Swedish county road (Road 180), without additional road users and safety critical events. Two automated driving strategies for steering, propulsion and braking were formulated, whereof one of the steering strategies included results from an optimal control based receding horizon approach. The drivers’ manual lane keeping and speed profiles were recorded for post-analysis. In addition, the drivers’ subjective acceptance of automated driving trajectories was also collected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 60
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2016-1
Keywords
Simulation, Simulator (driving), Test method, Autonomous vehicle, Lorry, Semi trailer, Driving (veh), Driver, Attitude (psychol), Questionnaire
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11558 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-02-06 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
Sandin, J., Augusto, B., Nilsson, P. & Laine, L. (2015). A Lane-Change Gap Acceptance Scenario Developed for Heavy Vehicle Active Safety Assessment: A Driving Simulator Study. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015: . Paper presented at FAST-zero 2015 Symposium, September 9-11, Gothenburg, Sweden (pp. 537-543).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Lane-Change Gap Acceptance Scenario Developed for Heavy Vehicle Active Safety Assessment: A Driving Simulator Study
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015, 2015, p. 537-543Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aims of this study were to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators in order to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles. The scenario was set up based on information from lane-change accidents and on-road lane-change observations. The gap acceptance scenario consisted of two consecutive lane changes were the intention was to study truck drivers’ accepted gap between two vehicles in the adjacent right lane, at the initiation of each lane change. An experiment was conducted with 18 truck drivers in a full-motion driving simulator with implemented high fidelity models of an 80tonnes and 32m long vehicle combination and a 40tonnes and 22m tractor semi-trailer. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the accepted gaps to the lead and lag vehicles in the target lane. For both heavy vehicles, the overall average lead gap and lag gap was estimated to 0.85s and 0.83s respectively, at the average velocity of 17.3m/s. The difference in lane-change duration for the two vehicles was statistically significant and estimated to an average of 8.7s for the tractor semi-trailer, and 10.5s for the A-double. The conclusion from the present study is that the drivers performed the lane changes equally well with the tractor semi-trailer and the long vehicle combination. There were no major differences between the manoeuvres other than the duration times, which can be justified by the difference in vehicle length. Future studies are able to use this scenario as a non-critical reference to more critical events in the development and assessment of active safety functionality and automated driving systems.

Keywords
Simulator (driving), Traffic lane, Change, Heavy vehicle, Articulated vehicle, Semi trailer, Vehicle spacing, Driver, Behaviour
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8024 (URN)
Conference
FAST-zero 2015 Symposium, September 9-11, Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved
Sandin, J., Augusto, B., Johansson, R., Svanberg, B. & Petersson, M. (2015). Evaluation of a Run-off-Road Scenario for Driving Simulators used for the Assessment of Automatic Steering-Wheel Interventions. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015: . Paper presented at FAST-zero 2015 Symposium, September 9-11, Gothenburg, Sweden (pp. 545-550).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a Run-off-Road Scenario for Driving Simulators used for the Assessment of Automatic Steering-Wheel Interventions
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015, 2015, p. 545-550Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The setup of a run-off-road scenario was based on the current knowledge about critical run-off-road situations and accidents. The scenario was initiated by a visual secondary task. During the task, an added clockwise yaw deviation, intended to create the run-off-road scenario, was presented visually but not by the vehicle dynamics or the lateral acceleration of the simulator’s motion system. Results from two experiments show that the drivers frequently neutralised the yaw deviation because of their lack of full attention to the secondary task, the occasionally rough yaw deviation, or a combination of both. Because of the frequently neutralised yaw deviations, the number of steering-wheel interventions from an implemented system, intended to steer back into the lane in run-off-road situations, became limited in number. The system generated in total 14 steering-wheel interventions, ranging from torque levels of 0.3 to 3.7Nm. During ten of the interventions, the driver counteracted the torque with one hand. Nevertheless, the drivers that had experienced the interventions would like to have a system that could steer back to the lane when approaching the road edge, and accept that it takes control of the steering wheel. Further research on shared steering control is required so that driver responses to interventions does not neutralise the intended safety benefit of the system.

Keywords
Run off the road (accid), Single vehicle accident, Simulator (driving), Driving aid (electronic), Test, Distraction, Reaction time
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8025 (URN)
Conference
FAST-zero 2015 Symposium, September 9-11, Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2016-07-06Bibliographically approved
Kharrazi, S., Karlsson, R., Sandin, J. & Aurell, J. (2015). Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: Report 1: Review of existing regulations and literature. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: Report 1: Review of existing regulations and literature
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Prestandabaserade kriterier för högkapacitetstransporter i Sverige : FIFFI projekt 2013-03881: Rapport 1: genomgång av befintliga regelverk och litteratur
Abstract [en]

Project Performance Based Standards (PBS) for High Capacity Transports (HCT) in Sweden started at the end of 2013 to investigate applicability of PBS in Sweden. The purpose of the project is to propose a performance based regulation of HCT vehicles and their access to the road network; under a PBS approach to regulation, standards would specify the performance required from vehicle, rather than mandating how this level of performance should be achieved by putting limits on the vehicle length or weight. In this project, all the three domains of safety, infrastructure and environment will be addressed, but the focus is on safety for which extensive testing, simulations and analysis are planned. This report gathers the outcome of work packages 1 and 2 of the project, which is a review of the existing regulation in Sweden, PBS approaches in other countries and relevant literature and regulations.

Abstract [sv]

Projektet “Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden” startade i slutet av 2013 för att undersöka möjligheterna att applicera prestandabaserade kriterier, eller Performance Based Standards (PBS), i Sverige. Vid prestandabaserade föreskrifter så specificeras kriterier eller standarder för en prestandanivå som ett fordon måste uppfylla, istället för att bestämma hur samma prestandanivå skulle uppnås genom att sätta gränser för fordonets längd eller vikt. Projektet kommer att beakta de tre domänerna säkerhet, infrastruktur och miljö, men fokus kommer att ligga på säkerhet och det planeras därför omfattande testning, simulering och analys. Denna rapport beskriver resultatet från projektets arbetspaket ett och två som omfattat en genomgång av nuvarande regelverk i Sverige, PBS-koncept i andra länder samt relevant litteratur och övriga regelverk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2015. p. 72
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 859A
Keywords
Lorry, Size, Weight, Performance, Legislation, Vehicle regulations, Safety, Vehicle handling, Braking, Accident rate, Emission, Fuel consumption, Noise level, Bearing capacity
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7845 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2016-04-08Bibliographically approved
Jansson, J., Sandin, J., Augusto, B., Fischer, M., Blissing, B. & Källgren, L. (2014). Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV. In: Andras Kemeny (Ed.), New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings. Paper presented at Driving simulation conference 2014 (pp. 4.1-4.7). Paris
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV
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2014 (English)In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Paris, 2014, p. 4.1-4.7Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The VTI simulator IV (Sim IV) is the fourth advanced driving simulator designed and built at The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The simulator, taken into operation 2011, has an 8 degrees of freedom (DoF) moving base, a field of view (FoV) of 180 degrees and features a system for rapid cabin exchange. With a budget of roughly 2,4 M euro; Sim IV was developed to provide VTI’s newly established Gothenburg office with advanced driving simulation capability, and to be a cost efficient complement to the Sim II and Sim III facilities in VTI’s Linköping office. This paper describes the design and technical performance of the facility. A brief summary of results and experience from validation studies for the first three years of operation is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris: , 2014
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Design (overall design), Characteristics
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7062 (URN)
Conference
Driving simulation conference 2014
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Sandin, J. & Nilsson, P. (2014). Drivers’ Assessment of Driving a 32 Meter A-double with and without full automation in a moving base simulator. In: : . Paper presented at 13th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Transport Technology (HVTT13).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers’ Assessment of Driving a 32 Meter A-double with and without full automation in a moving base simulator
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In situations where LongCombination Vehicles can be challenging to maneuver, drivers could be supportedthrough automated driving systems. A safe way to assess prototypes of suchsystems is to take advantage of driving simulators. This study assessed therealism of driving a 32m and 80 ton A-double in an advanced moving-base drivingsimulator, with and without full automation. The conclusions were that the realism of the roadenvironment, vehicle suspension, vibrations, steering-wheel feeling and themaneuverability/drivability was on adequate levels but would benefit of moretuning. More urgent were adjustments of braking, acceleration, level of enginesound and improved view in the right-hand side mirror. Two tested automateddriving systems were appreciated for their lane positioning and drivingperformance, with a slight preference of the more advanced system for lateralcontrol. Negative comments referred to harsh decelerations before curves. Thesubjective assessment was much in correlation with the objective data from thesame simulator experiment.

Keywords
Higher Capacity Vehicles, High Capacity Transport, Heavy Vehicles, LCV, automation, Optimal Control Problem, Cost Function, Rearward Amplification, RWA, High Speed Offtracking, HSO
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7097 (URN)
Conference
13th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Transport Technology (HVTT13)
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Sandin, J., Bálint, A., Fagerlind, H. & Kharrazi, S. (2014). Traffic safety of Heavy Goods Vehicles and implications for High Capacity Transport vehicles. In: Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris: . Paper presented at Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic safety of Heavy Goods Vehicles and implications for High Capacity Transport vehicles
2014 (English)In: Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris, 2014Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper summarizes the results of the programme "Traffic safety effects of High Capacity Transport (HCT) vehicles and suggestions for compensatory measures" this far. An analysis of ten years of Swedish accident data shows that "long" combinations (18.76m to 25.25m) had lower rate of fatal or severe accidents per billion vehicle kilometres travelled compared to medium and short vehicles. It is argued in the literature that HCT vehicles would, on average, reduce the number of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) accidents because fewer vehicles would be needed to transport a given amount of goods. However, further investigation is required of the causal relationship between crash risk and a HGVs’ weight, length, number of units, links and axles in certain traffic situations. One way to ensure the safety performance of HCT vehicles, and HGVs, is to assess them by Performance Based Standards. The paper describes the plans to adapt PBS to Swedish conditions, and to monitor Swedish HCT vehicles under trial with the surveillance system Intelligent Access Programme (IAP).

Keywords
Heavy goods vehicle, Accident rate, Risk, Weight, Length, Chararactersitics
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 81 Road: Accidents
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7089 (URN)
Conference
Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4169-610X

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