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Jussila Hammes, JohannaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7864-5982
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Nilsson, J.-E. & Jussila Hammes, J. (2016). The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: Welfare maximization, political economy or both?. Economics of Transportation, 7, 53-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: Welfare maximization, political economy or both?
2016 (English)In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 7, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper compares models for explaining the volume of transport investments in Swedish municipalities: 1 by the planned projects’ welfare consequences, 2. in terms of the district demand (the common pool) model, namely a municipality's share of the cost towards the investment and 3. electoral concerns and/or lobbying, as described by a swing voter model.

We find that the welfare only hypothesis has little explanatory power. The district demand model explains the investment volume in rail projects, while the swing voter model explains road investment better. Lobbying does not seem to have any impact on the investment volume.

Finally, we find that including a measure of the welfare in the political economy models greatly enhances the models’ explanatory power. Our main conclusion is that future analyses of what drives the allocation of resources for transport infrastructure should consider aspects related to both political economy, welfare, and the transport mode.

Keywords
Transport infrastructure, Financing, Priority (gen), Choice, Policy, Lobbying, Region, Calculation, Mathematical model
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11380 (URN)10.1016/j.ecotra.2016.11.002 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J., Pyddoke, R. & Swärdh, J.-E. (2016). The influence of public transport supply on private car use in 17 mid-sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 2011. Stockholm: CTS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of public transport supply on private car use in 17 mid-sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 2011
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We analyse the impact of increased public transport supply on private car use using micro data on individuals from 17 mid-sized cities in Sweden. The data is obtained from Swedish administrative registers (tax and odometer), which exists for all Swedish adults and cars, and information of public transport supply, namely bus kilometres supplied.

In a description of the data we see that that the increase of private Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT) per inhabitant stagnate in the sample cities towards the end of the period 1997-2011. Our hypothesis is that changes in the supply of public transport is the main cause for this stagnation. The probability of owning a car and the demand functions for VKT are estimated. The principal finding is that private car use is reduced by increased supply of bus kilometres with an average elasticity ranging from -0.01 to -0.04. This effect is larger in peripheral areas and in larger cities. In small cities the effect is almost nil. We conclude that public transport has an effect on the private VKT of inhabitants but that the impact is relatively small and cannot be the main cause for the stagnating increase of private VKT per inhabitant in the sample cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: CTS, 2016
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2016:25
Keywords
Public transport, Impact study, Car, Use, Supply, Vehicle kilometer, Urban area
National Category
Economics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 11 Road: Personal transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11382 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J. (2015). Political economics or Keynesian demand-side policies: What determines transport infrastructure investment in Swedish municipalities?. Research in Transportation Economics, 51, 49-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political economics or Keynesian demand-side policies: What determines transport infrastructure investment in Swedish municipalities?
2015 (English)In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 51, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines investment in transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities according to the three National Transport Infrastructure Plans of 2004, 2010 and 2014. The plans cover 12 years each. The test of a swing voter model, combined with variables relevant to the Keynesian model of demand side policies, supports the proposition that there is less investment in municipalities with highly partisan electorates. The model seems to work better for road than for rail investments. Municipalities with a high density of voters at the ideological cut-point (middle of the ideological distribution) got more investment in the 2010 plan but not in the other plans. The impact of the elasticity of output on public service provision raised investment in road projects in sub-plan period 1 compared to later sub-plan periods. The tax elasticity of output may influence the volume of investment downward. The Plan for 2010–2021 seems to be the most politically determined of the plans considered here.

Keywords
Transport infrastructure, Local authority, Investment, Population, Policy, Services (public), Tax
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7987 (URN)10.1016/j.retrec.2015.07.007 (DOI)000366076500007 ()2-s2.0-84947041862 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J. (2015). Styrmedelsinventering: delstudie inom SAMKOST. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Styrmedelsinventering: delstudie inom SAMKOST
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Inventory of policy instruments for the transport sector : an understudy to SAMKOST.
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten inventerar och beskriver styrmedel som påverkar omfattningen av olika externa effekter som uppstår från transporter; buller, påverkan på infrastruktur (både planering av ny infrastruktur och konsumtionsfasen), klimat, luftföroreningar, trafiksäkerhet, trängsel samt påverkan på vatten. Styrmedelsanalysen omfattar alla fyra trafikslag: väg-, järnvägs- och sjötransporter samt luftfart. Beskrivningen inleds med en genomgång av relaterade internationella avtal och EU-bestämmelser. Därefter diskuteras inhemska styrmedel utifrån huruvida de påverkar marginalkostnaden av en aktivitet eller inte.

Det är svårt att koppla ett visst styrmedel till en viss extern effekt, även om det i styrmedlets konstruktion ligger en sådan koppling. Skälet är att alla styrmedel som påverkar omfattningen av trafiken per definition också påverkar alla externaliteter som uppstår. Rapportens upplägg är dock sådan att kopplingen görs till den primära externa effekten som styrmedeln påverkar.

Rapporten innehåller även en överblick av styrmedel i fem grannländer: Danmark, Finland, Norge, Storbritannien och Tyskland. Den internationella överblicken omfattar inte någon undersökning av kopplingar till externa effekter utan listar och beskriver styrmedel utifrån vilket transportslag som de påverkar.

Abstract [en]

This report takes stock and describes policy instruments that affect the extent of the various externalities arising from transport; noise, impact on infrastructure (both planning new infrastructure and consumption phase), climate, air pollution, traffic safety, congestion and impact on water. The analysis of policy instruments covers all four transport modes: road, rail, maritime and air transport. The description begins with a review of related international agreements and EU regulations. It then discusses domestic policy measures. The point of departure in this discussion is whether a policy instrument affects the marginal cost of an activity or not.

It is difficult to link a specific policy instruments to specific external effects, even though there is such a link in the instrument's design. The reason for this is that all policy instruments that affect the volume of traffic also by definition  influence all the externalities that arise. The report is nevertheless arranged so that every policy instrument is coupled to the external effect that it primarily aims at.

The report also contains an overview of policy instruments in five neighboring countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, the UK and Germany. The international overview does not include an examination of the links between external effects and policy instruments but lists and describes the policy instruments on the basis of the transport mode they affect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2015. p. 116
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 841
Keywords
External effect, Tax, Congestion charging, Road pricing, Policy, Noise, Emission, Air pollution, Safety, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Road traffic, Rail traffic, Maritime transport, Air traffic, Water contamination
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics; SAB, Prz Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7775 (URN)
Available from: 2015-02-13 Created: 2015-02-13 Last updated: 2016-02-05Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J. & Nilsson, J.-E. (2015). The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: welfare maximization, political economy or both?. Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: welfare maximization, political economy or both?
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The choice of transport infrastructure projects to include in the National Transport Infrastructure Plans in Sweden is often said to be motivated by the weighing of cost against social benefits. Examining the projects that are included in the Plans, it is clear, however, that not all projects have positive net present values, and are therefore more costly to build than the benefits they create. This paper studies alternative models that might explain the choice of projects. Two political economy models, the district demand and the swing voter with lobbying, are tested, and a model that accounts for the spatial distribution of the projects, as well as the possibility that priorities are based on welfare concerns, is estimated. No support is found for the political economy models. What explains investment volume is the existence of CBA results for a project, which may indicate that welfare benefits have an impact, as do the spatial spillovers from a project’s benefits and lobbying, especially by the municipalities concerned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies, 2015. p. 46
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2015:4
Keywords
Transport infrastructure, Financing, Priority (gen), Choice, Policy, Lobbying, Region, Calculation, Mathematical model
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7779 (URN)
Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2016-08-09Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J. (2014). A biofuel mandate and a low carbon fuel standard with ‘double counting’. Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biofuel mandate and a low carbon fuel standard with ‘double counting’
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 European Union’s (EU) energy legislation from 2009 is still being implemented in the Member States. We study analytically the Renewable Energy Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive’s provisions for the transport sector. The former Directive imposes a biofuel mandate and allows double counting of some biofuels. The latter Directive imposes a Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). We show that either the biofuel mandate or the LCFS is redundant. Double counting makes the biofuel mandate easier to fulfil but also depresses the price of biofuels. Production of the doubly counted biofuels increases nevertheless and production of the single-counted biofuels falls. Given the type of technical change studied, double counting spurs technical development of the doubly counted biofuels. The LCFS directs support towards those biofuels with lowest life-cycle carbon emissions. The redundant policy instrument, the biofuel mandate or the LCFS, only creates costs but no benefits and should be abolished. Double counting makes the biofuel mandate non-cost-efficient and should be reconsidered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies, 2014. p. 37
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2014:19
Keywords
Alternative energy, Fuel, EU directive
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7295 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-24 Created: 2014-10-24 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J. (2014). Kvotplikt för biodrivmedel: högsta vinsten till specialintressen?. Ekonomisk Debatt, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kvotplikt för biodrivmedel: högsta vinsten till specialintressen?
2014 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

I mars 2013 lade regeringen fram ett förslag till ett nytt system för att öka användningen av biodrivmedel. Man föreslår en kvot för bensin och två kvoter för dieselbränslen, utan någon koppling mellan kvoterna. Förslaget omfattar inte alla biodrivmedel. Denna artikel visar att regeringens förslag varken är kostnadseffektivt, teknikneutralt eller ekologiskt hållbart och diskuterar vem som är vinnare och förlorare av förslaget.  I artikeln skisseras även ett alternativt kostnadseffektivt system som bland annat möjliggör handel i biodrivmedelscertifikat.

Keywords
Subsidy, Cost, Fuel, Alternative energy, Ethanol, Mathematical model, Cost benefit analysis, Tax
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, Road: Economics; Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6641 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J. (2014). Nya regler för biodrivmedel gynnar mest producenter. Dagens nyheter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nya regler för biodrivmedel gynnar mest producenter
2014 (Swedish)In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Felriktad politik. Regeringen inför en kvotplikt för att öka konsumtionen av biodrivmedel. Men systemet motverkar regeringens egna uppsatta mål. Dessutom kommer särskilda intressegrupper att gynnas medan skattebetalarna och vanliga bilister blir de stora förlorarna, skriver forskaren Johanna Jussila Hammes.

Keywords
Subsidy, Cost, Fuel, Alternative energy, Ethanol
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6828 (URN)
Available from: 2014-03-24 Created: 2014-03-24 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Nerhagen, L., Pyddoke, R. & Jussila Hammes, J. (2014). Response to a social dilemma: an analysis of the choice between an economic and an environmental optimum in a policy making context. Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response to a social dilemma: an analysis of the choice between an economic and an environmental optimum in a policy making context
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many countries have begun to require benefit-cost analysis as a way of informing key regulatory decisions. However, its actual use seem to be limited, especially in the area of environmental, health, and safety regulation. Reasons for this seem to be lack of knowledge and experience among decision makers and that established quality objectives prevent the use of this type of analysis and deliberation. We present the results from an experiment designed to investigate choice behavior in a public sector context. Students with different academic majors were asked to act as decision makers. There were two choice situations: one in a municipality deciding on an action plan and one in a government agency having to propose a national limit value. In both settings, the outcome that would pass a benefit-cost test would not achieve a natural state of the environment, hence a social dilemma choice situation. We find that a majority of the respondents prefer outcomes that can be considered environmental “optimum” but that there is a difference depending on academic major. The choice context also influences the response behavior and so does the information about an international standard. The latter increases the likelihood to accept alternatives that imply higher costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centre for Transport Studies, 2014. p. 32
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2014:8
Keywords
Cost benefit analysis, Policy, Decision process, Choice, Local authority, Government (national), Willingness to pay
National Category
Economics Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Public Administration Studies
Research subject
SAB, Uh Environmental protection and nature conservation; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6889 (URN)
Available from: 2014-05-12 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Vierth, I., Jussila Hammes, J. & Sowa, V. (2014). Översiktlig strukturanalys för sjötransporter. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Översiktlig strukturanalys för sjötransporter
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Brief structural analysis for sea transports
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med rapporten var att analysera de trender och särskilda händelser som kan påverka handelsflöden, transportsystemet, sjötransporternas omfattning och Sjöfartsverkets avgiftsintäkter till år 2020. Forskarna har i tre delar beskrivit utvecklingar som påverkar Sjöfartsverkets intäkter. Den första delen avhandlar om hur handelsflödena ser ut och förväntas utvecklas, den andra delen avser utvecklingar i transportsystemet och i den tredje delen beskrivs den historiska utvecklingen av godsvolymer och antalet anlöp i de svenska hamnarna och den förväntade utvecklingen framåt. Godsvolymer och anlöp är avgiftsgrundande för Sjöfartsverket och är därför kopplat till verkets intäkter. Metoden har varit en litteraturgenomgång, sammanställning och analys av historiska data, intervjuer med varuägare som representerar olika industrier och en enkel statistisk ansats för att göra en prognos för utvecklingen till år 2020. Både intervjuerna och den statistiska ansatsen tyder på att framtida nivåer av godsvolymer i de svenska hamnarna kommer att vara i stort sett konstanta med dagens nivåer eller något ökande. Antalet anlöp förväntas minska ytterligare till 2020.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of the report is to analyze trends and specific events that could affect trade flows, the transport system, the sea transport volumes and the fee revenues of the Swedish Maritime Administration in 2020. In three parts the researchers have described the developments that affect the revenues of the Swedish Maritime Administration. The first part discusses present trade flows and how these are expected to develop, the second part addresses the developments in the transport system and the third part the past development of loaded and unloaded tonnes goods and the number of calls in the Swedish ports and their expected continued development. Loaded and unloaded tonnes and number of calls are the basis for the fairway dues and pilot fees levied by the Swedish Maritime Administration and therefore linked to their revenues. The researchers reviewed the literature, compiled and analyzed historical data, carried out interviews with shippers from different industries and applied a simple statistical approach to forecast the development up to 2020. Both the interviews and the statistical approach suggest that the future of freight volumes in the Swedish ports will be roughly constant with current levels or slightly increasing. The number of calls in the ports is expected to decline to 2020.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2014. p. 68
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 840
Keywords
Maritime transport, Freight transport, Development, Trend (stat), Statistics, Forecast
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
SAB, Prz Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7449 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7864-5982

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