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Swärdh, Jan-Erik
Publications (10 of 29) Show all publications
Swärdh, J.-E. (2019). Benefits of noise measure in train commuting suburbs: a comparison of Swedish guidelines and WHO recommendations. Stockholm: VTI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benefits of noise measure in train commuting suburbs: a comparison of Swedish guidelines and WHO recommendations
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this study, we compare different valuation functions for a noise abatement measure in an exploitive train commuting suburb in Sweden. The benefits are estimated with different functions focusing on Swedish guidelines and recent WHO recommendations. The results show that the willingness-to-pay-based estimates of the Swedish guidelines are much lower than the estimates based on WHO guidelines. The main reason for the higher benefit estimates with WHO recommendations is the discontinuous valuation function that leaps from 0 to about 5000 SEK at 49 dB, whereas the Swedish guidelines does not include any corresponding discontinuity in its valuation function. Furthermore, the WHO recommendations are sensitive to night exposure as the cost of sleep disturbance is dominating. These different results of the monetary benefits illustrate the importance of including only established impact functions and valuation functions, and carefully apply them when noise-abatement benefits are calculated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: VTI, 2019. p. 20
Series
Working Papers, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute ; 2019:5
National Category
Economics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14095 (URN)
Note

Supplement: http://transportportal.vti.se/VTISWoPEc/Kalkylverktyg bullernytta Stationssamhällen.xlsx

Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Pyddoke, R., Swärdh, J.-E., Algers, S., Habibi, S. & Sedehi Zadeh, N. (2019). Long-term responses to car-tax policies: distributional effects and reduced carbon emissions. Stockholm: VTI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term responses to car-tax policies: distributional effects and reduced carbon emissions
Show others...
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We analyze the long-term effects on the car fleet and welfare distribution of three car-related policy instruments intended to reduce CO2 emissions: increased fossil-fuel taxes, an intensified bonus-malus system for new cars, and increased mandated biofuel blending. The effects on the car fleet are analyzed in terms of energy source, weight, and CO2 emissions. Distributional effects are analyzed in terms of income and geographical residence areas. The increased fuel taxes reduce CO2 emissions by 36%, mainly through less driving of fossil-fuel cars. The intensified bonus-malus system for new cars reduces CO2 emissions by 5%. Both these policies shift the car fleet toward increased shares of electric vehicles and increased average weight. Increased mandated biofuel blending has no estimated effect on the car fleet unless prices increase differently from in the reference scenario. The two first policy instruments are weakly progressive to slightly regressive over most of the income distribution, but barely regressive if the highest income group is also included. The fraction of each population group incurring substantial welfare losses is higher the lower the income group. In the geographical dimension, for all policies the rural areas bear the largest burden, small cities the second largest burden, and large cities the smallest burden. The burden in the long term versus the short term is lower for high-income earners and urban residents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: VTI, 2019. p. 37
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2019:4
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14367 (URN)
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, J., Pyddoke, R. & Swärdh, J.-E. (2018). Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases. Economics of Transportation, 15, 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases
2018 (English)In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 15, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category, and spatial dimensions. The analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but barely regressive if the highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups. We also study revenue recycling schemes; when these are included, the combined effect of tax and recycling is progressive. Considering geographical differences; rural areas carry a larger burden of fuel and vehicle taxes than urban areas, and satellites/suburbs carry a larger burden than central cities. However, rural areas are affected remarkably similar regardless of where in the country they are located.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
Tax, Impact study, Fuel consumption, Carbon dioxide, Distribution (gen), Vehicle ownership, Rural area, Urban area, Income
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works; 00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13274 (URN)10.1016/j.ecotra.2018.03.001 (DOI)000443458400001 ()2-s2.0-85045105994 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-09-28 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Björklund, G. & Swärdh, J.-E. (2017). Estimating policy values for in-vehicle comfort and crowding reduction in local public transport. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 106, 453-472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating policy values for in-vehicle comfort and crowding reduction in local public transport
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 453-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study estimates policy values for comfort, defined as getting a seat, and crowding reduction on board local public transport in Sweden. We use stated-preference (SP) data and present crowding as a mode-neutral crowding level among the standing travelers depicted in images presented to the respondents. We analyze whether there are differences in the willingness to pay (WTP) for comfort and crowding reduction among the three largest urban areas in Sweden. In general, we find no significantly different preferences for sitting and crowding reduction among the three urban areas. Still, the point estimates differ in some cases, indicating that there may be differences across the three urban areas, but the estimates have large confidence intervals that overlap each other. Also, these differences are likely to have resulted from mode-share differences and not from differences in preferences across the urban areas. Some significant differences are found among the modes, for example, a higher disutility of standing on a bus versus on a tram. These mode-specific estimates can be used as policy values for a given tram line or metro line. Nevertheless, we also pooled the data suggesting average WTP estimates for sitting and crowding reductions that can be used for national cost–benefit analysis policy in all large urban areas in Sweden where crowding on local public transport occurs. Importantly, analysis of heterogeneity and SP-design differences shows that the results are in line with empirical knowledge of the value of travel time savings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Public transport, Stated preference, Bus, Comfort, Urban area, Tram, Underground railway
National Category
Economics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12611 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2017.10.016 (DOI)2-s2.0-85033584157 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-19Bibliographically approved
Swärdh, J.-E. & Pyddoke, R. (2017). Principdiskussion kring LCC-kalkyler för väginvesteringar. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Principdiskussion kring LCC-kalkyler för väginvesteringar
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Analysis of LCC principles for road investments
Abstract [sv]

I detta projekt studerar vi hur Trafikverket principiellt bör förhålla sig till LCC-kalkyl i sin verksamhet med speciellt fokus på väginvesteringar. Grunden för den principiella analysen utgörs av kalkylmetodiken och dess likheter och skillnader med samhällsekonomisk kalkyl (CBA) som länge varit en viktig del av Trafikverkets beslutsunderlag vid åtgärdsval.

Tre viktiga observationer har gjorts i studien. Den första är den övergripande iakttagelsen att LCC-kalkyl bör betraktas som ett komplement till samhällsekonomiska kalkyler men användas främst på en mer detaljerad nivå för att välja mellan olika tekniska lösningar. Olika slags LCC-bedömningar kan därför ligga till grund för val av lösningar i alla skeden av bedömningar: förstudier, vägutredningar och projektering, och därmed med olika grad av detaljering. Det innebär att LCC-kalkyl kan och bör betraktas som ett beslutsunderlag för att genomföra en åtgärd med en given funktion kostnadseffektivt, det vill säga minimera kostnaden över livscykeln.

Vidare är en ytterligare observation att det kan finnas en risk att det optimala underhållet inte blir gjort, dels för att det saknas resurser för underhåll, men även på grund av att investeringsåtgärder genomförs med en annan pengapåse än underhållsåtgärder med anledning av politiska prioriteringar. Det kan även vara så att det är budgetförfarandet inom en organisation som gör det problematiskt med en optimering över hela livscykeln. Detta är organisatoriska frågor som bara kan lösas av regeringen eller inom Trafikverket med direktiv rörande vilka investeringar som ska genomföras och vilka beslutsunderlag som skall finnas. 

Dessutom är det observerat i vår studie att det metodmässigt kan skilja sig mellan LCC-kalkyl och samhällsekonomiska kalkyler beträffande trafikantkostnader vid trafikstörningar i samband med framtida underhåll. Vår uppfattning är att dessa trafikantkostnader bör ingå i en LCC-kalkyl och påvisar samma iakttagelser som Eriksson och Edelman (2014), nämligen att en stor trafikmängd gör att åtgärdsalternativ med ett lågt underhållsbehov generellt får en lägre relativ livscykelkostnad.

Slutligen blir rekommendationen att LCC-kalkyler har en viktig roll att spela inom Trafikverket när det kommer till att genomföra åtgärder på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt. Det är emellertid viktigt att kalkylmetodiken utvecklas och, framför allt, att de organisatoriska hindren för kostnadseffektiva åtgärdsval undanröjs.

Abstract [en]

In the current study, we analyze how the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) should involve LCC analysis in their activities regarding road investments. The basis for the study is the LCC analysis and its similarities and differences compared to cost-benefit analysis (CBA), where the latter for a long time has been an important part of STA’s decision basis for infrastructure measures.

We have made three important observations in our analysis. First, a generic observation is that LCC analysis should be used as a complement to CBA but preferably on a more detailed level to choose between different technical solutions. This implies that LCC analysis may, and should, be treated as a decision basis to conduct measures with a given operational function in an efficient way.

Furthermore, another observation is the risk for not conducting the efficient amount of maintenance, partly due to the lack of resources, but also since the maintenance measures and infrastructureinvestment measures are based on different, politically decided, budget constraints. Also, the budget process within the organization makes it difficult to optimize for the complete life cycle. Both these issues are organizational, that only can be solved on the governmental level or within STA with directions regarding the investment measures to conduct and which decision basis to rely on.

In addition, we have observed methodological differences between LCC analysis and CBA considering the road-user costs in connection to disturbances of planned road maintenance. Our view is that these costs should be included in an LCC analysis and our analyze confirm the observation of Eriksson and Edelman (2014), namely that a relatively high traffic volume leads to that measures with a small maintenance requirement in the future in general will have a lower life cycle cost.

Finally, our recommendation is that LCC analysis has an important role within STA when aiming for efficient design of infrastructure measures. However, it is of importance to develop the LCC methods and, especially, eliminate the organizational barriers for implementing LCC as a way for efficient measures

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2017. p. 33
Series
VTI notat ; 28-2017
Keywords
Life cycle, Cost, Lifetime, Calculation, Method, Road construction, Transport infrastructure, Investment, Construction, Cost benefit analysis
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12537 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Pyddoke, R. & Swärdh, J.-E. (2017). The influence of demand incentives in public transport contracts on patronage and costs in medium sized Swedish cities. und: K2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of demand incentives in public transport contracts on patronage and costs in medium sized Swedish cities
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective to reduce carbon emissions has inspired Swedish regional public transport authorities (RPTA) to adopt a goal of doubling public transport patronage from 2006 to 2020. Several measures have been used to achieve this goal. Increasing the public transport supply and increasing the share of contract payments tied to demand incentives are among them. The purpose here is to examine the effect of demand incentives on patronage in tendered bus contracts, controlling for other factors that affect public transport patronage, with panel data for 17 medium sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 2011. In the data for a subset of 10 cities from 2000 to 2011 the number of trips increased by 36 percent, the supply of bus kilometers by 38 percent, the revenues per boarding with 49 percent and the total costs with 106 percent.

The analysis does not find any statistically significant effects of demand incentives on either patronage or costs. In the demand models, only the effect of the price variable is significant and has the expected sign. In the cost models, all control variables have the expected signs and most are significant. Surprisingly, the estimate of the coefficient of the output variable bus kilometers is not significant. These results indicate that the combination of limited freedom for operators to influence important variables that determine demand and the demand incentives that were used during the observed period, were insufficient to give statistically significant effects.

Contrary to the assumption that appears to underlie the recommendations of a subcommittee of the Swedish Public Transport Association current demand incentives appear to be ineffective. This suggests that a revision of the recommendations for the design of public transport contracts may be called for.

Abstract [sv]

Målsättningen att minska koldioxidutsläppen har inspirerat svenska regionala kollektivtrafikmyndig­heter (RKM) att anta ett mål att fördubbla kollektivtrafikresandet från 2006 till 2020. Flera åtgärder har använts för att nå detta mål. Att öka utbudet av kollektivtrafik och att öka andelen kontraktsbetal­ningar som är knutna till efterfrågeincitament är bland dem. Syftet här är att undersöka effekten av efterfrågeincitament på antalet resande i upphandlade busskontrakt i mellanstora svenska städer, när man kontrollerar andra faktorer som påverkar resande. Analysen genomförs med paneldata från 17 svenska städer från åren 1997 till 2011. I en delmängd data för 10 av dessa städer från 2000 till 2011 ökade antalet resor med 36 procent, utbud av busskilometer med 38 procent, intäkter per ombordstigning med 49 procent och totala kostnader med 106 procent.

Analysen finner inga statistiskt signifikanta effekter av efterfrågeincitament på vare sig resande eller kostnader. I efterfrågemodellerna är det endast effekten av pris som är statistiskt signifikant skild från noll och har det förväntade tecknet. I kostnadsmodellerna har alla kontrollvariabler de förväntade tecknen och de flesta är statistiskt signifikanta. Överraskande är att skattningen av koefficienten för busskilometervariabeln inte är statistiskt signifikant. Dessa resultat indikerar att kombinationen av begränsad frihet för operatörer att påverka viktiga variabler som påverkar efterfrågan på resor och de efterfrågeincitament som användes under den observerade perioden var otillräckliga för att ge statistiskt signifikanta effekter.

I motsats till det antagande som verkar ligga till grund för rekommendationerna från Partnersamverkan (det organ som givit rekommendationer om incitament) förefaller nuvarande efterfrågeincitament vara verkningslösa. Detta indikerar att en revision av rekommendationerna för utformningen av kollektivtrafikkontrakt kan vara påkallad.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
und: K2, 2017. p. 28
Series
K2 Working Papers ; 2017:10
Keywords
Contract, Public transport, Bus, Cost, Income, Journey, Statistics
National Category
Economics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport; 00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12473 (URN)
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, J., Pyddoke, R. & Swärdh, J.-E. (2016). Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases. Stockholm: CTS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category and several spatial dimensions.

All the analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but just barely regressive if the absolutely highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the variation within income groups is substantial; the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups.

The two most important geographical distinctions are between rural and urban areas (including even small towns), and between central cities and satellites/suburbs; these spatial dimensions matter much more for distributional effects than for example whether an area is remote or sparsely populated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: CTS, 2016
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2016:11
Keywords
Tax, Impact study, Fuel consumption, Carbon dioxide, Distribution (gen), Vehicle ownership, Rural area, Urban area, Income
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11383 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
Swärdh, J.-E. & Genell, A. (2016). Estimation of the marginal cost for road noise and rail noise. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of the marginal cost for road noise and rail noise
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Skattning av marginalkostnader för väg- och järnvägsbuller
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal cost of road noise and rail noise in Sweden. We use the impact pathway approach (IPA) where traffic noise exposure implies an impact on individuals, which in turn is related to monetary valuation of these outcomes.

Our data consists of noise calculations and number of exposed individuals at different noise levels. We further use monetary valuations of noise disturbances based on property market differentials. Finally, impact functions of negative health outcomes due to noise exposure, and monetary valuations of these negative health outcomes, are used.

The empirical results show that the marginal costs of traffic noise are highly dependent on the number of exposed individuals and the vehicle type. The overall conclusion is thus that differentiation of the marginal costs is essential, as the noise exposure varies strongly with the population density, and that different vehicle types contribute very differently to the noise emissions. Furthermore, road noise marginal costs are positively influenced by the speed limit and the traffic volume. Nevertheless, the sensitivity with respect to traffic volume is not very substantial. For rail noise marginal costs, there is no effect of traffic volume on the estimated marginal cost.

In addition, the marginal costs for road noise are estimated separately for different times of the day. These results show that day times have the lowest marginal costs despite the largest traffic volume. Highest marginal costs are mostly estimated for evening but also in some calculations for night time. Sleep disturbances may not be captured in our analysis however, but a sensitivity analysis, including a separate function for sleep disturbance, shows that night time marginal costs are consistently the highest.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna studie är att skatta marginalkostnaden för väg- och järnvägsbuller i Sverige. Vi använder effektkedjeansatsen där trafikbullrets påverkan på exponerade individer kopplas till en monetär värdering av dessa utfall.

De data som används består av bullerberäkningar och antalet individer exponerade för olika bullernivåer. Vidare använder vi monetära värderingsfunktioner för bullerstörningar, vilka baseras på variationer i småhuspriser. Slutligen använder vi effektsamband för olika ohälsoeffekter till följd av bullerexponering samt monetära värderingar för dessa ohälsoeffekter.

Det skattade resultatet visar att marginalkostnaden för trafikbuller är starkt beroende av antalet exponerade individer och fordonstyp. Den övergripande slutsatsen är därför att en differentiering av marginalkostnaden är nödvändig, dels eftersom exponering varierar kraftigt med befolkningstätheten men även för att olika fordonstyper bidrar i mycket varierad grad till bulleremissionerna. Vidare påverkas marginalkostnaden för vägbuller positivt av hastighetsgräns och trafikmängd. Känsligheten med avseende på trafikmängd är emellertid inte särskilt påtaglig. Beträffande järnvägsbuller har vi inte funnit något statistiskt samband mellan trafikmängden och marginalkostnaden.

Dessutom är variationen i marginalkostnaden över dygnet skattad för vägbuller. Dessa resultat visar att marginalkostnaden är lägst under dagtid trots att trafiken är som störst då. Högst marginalkostnad har oftast kvällstid och i några fall nattetid. Eventuellt är sömnstörningar inte infångat i dessa marginalkostnader varför vi i en känslighetsanalys inkluderar en separat funktion avsedd att ta hänsyn till sömnstörningar med resultatet att marginalkostnaden genomgående är högst nattetid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 32
Series
VTI notat ; 22A-2016
Keywords
Noise, Noise annoyance, Social cost, External effect, Health, Calculation, Method, Road traffic, Rail traffic
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11342 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-02 Created: 2016-12-02 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Yarmukhamedov, S. & Swärdh, J.-E. (2016). Marginal cost of road maintenance and operation: Swedish estimates based on data from 2004 to 2014. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marginal cost of road maintenance and operation: Swedish estimates based on data from 2004 to 2014
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Marginalkostnader för drift och underhåll på väg : skattningar på svenska data från 2004–2014
Abstract [en]

In this study, we estimated the marginal costs of road operation and maintenance by using the cost function approach with Swedish road network data from 2004 to 2014. The results of this study suggest a marginal cost of 0.07 SEK per vehicle kilometre for maintenance and operation of gravel roads, but none for paved roads. The data consist of traffic volume, costs, and road attributes for the Swedish national road network. The observational unit is the road maintenance delivery unit (MDU), and there were 109 such MDUs in Sweden in 2014. We estimated models separately for paved road operation and maintenance, gravel road operation and maintenance, and winter road operations. In paved road maintenance, reinvestment is excluded.

The data are given in panel format and the models are estimated with random effects. A logarithmic functional form has been used, and this means that the estimated parameter can be interpreted as an elasticity. This elasticity together with the average cost yields the marginal cost. The results of this study suggest a marginal cost of 0.07 SEK per vehicle kilometre for maintenance and operation of gravel roads. The estimated marginal cost for winter road operation is less than 0.01 SEK per vehicle kilometre, and this marginal cost estimate is statistically significant. We do not find a statistically significant marginal cost for maintenance and operation of paved roads.

Our estimates of marginal costs for road maintenance and operation are generally lower compared to previous Swedish estimates. An important reason for this is that the definition of an MDU has changed over time, but we used the current classification for each year of data in this report. The lack of a significant marginal cost for paved roads is most likely explained by the fact that reinvestment costs were not included in our analysis. We have tested other model specifications to check the robustness of our results. The estimates are robust with respect to different time periods, the choice of measure of traffic volume, and new explanatory variables, except in the case of the gravel roads.

Abstract [sv]

I studien redovisad i detta notat skattas marginalkostnaden för drift och underhåll på det nationella svenska vägnätet 2004–2014. Resultaten visar en skattad marginalkostnad på omkring 7 öre per fordonskilometer för grusvägars drift och underhåll, men ingen marginalkostnad för underhåll av belagda vägar. Vägdata och trafikdata från nationella vägdatabasen (NVDB) har tillsammans med kostnadsdata från Trafikverkets bokföring utgjort det analyserade datamaterialet. Observationerna är på driftområdesnivå. En viktig distinktion är att reinvesteringar i form av större beläggningsarbeten analyseras med en annan metod och kvar blir då övrigt vägunderhåll, vinterväghållning och övrig drift.

Separata modeller har skattats för drift och underhåll belagd väg, drift och underhåll grusväg och vinterväghållning. Modellerna har skattats med paneldatametoden ”random effects”. En logaritmisk funktionsform har används vilket ger kostnadselasticiteter direkt från den skattade parametern. Tillsammans med mått på genomsnittliga kostnader kan marginalkostnaden beräknas. Resultaten visar en skattad marginalkostnad på omkring 7 öre per fordonskilometer för grusvägars drift och underhåll. Den skattade marginalkostnaden för vinterväghållning är statistiskt signifikant men så pass låg som under 1 öre per fordonskilometer.

För belagda vägars drift och underhåll finner vi ingen marginalkostnad som är statistiskt skild från noll. Jämfört med tidigare marginalkostnadsskattningar av drift och underhåll på nationella vägar ligger våra skattningar generellt lägre. En viktig anledning till detta är att driftområden har slagits samman jämfört med tidsperioder som använts för tidigare studier. Att vi inte finner någon signifikant marginalkostnad för belagda vägars drift och underhåll beror sannolikt på att reinvesteringar inte ingår i analysen. Forskarna har testat andra modellspecifikationer för att analysera hur de skattade kostnadselasticiteterna förändras. Skattningarna är robusta med avseende på olika tidsperioder, valet av trafikmått och extra förklarande variabler, med undantag för grusvägar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 34
Series
VTI notat ; 15A-2016
Keywords
Maintenance, Winter, Operations (transp network), Expenditure, Cost, Estimation, Calculation, Gravel road
National Category
Economics
Research subject
00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10677 (URN)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2016-08-22Bibliographically approved
Jussila Hammes, J., Pyddoke, R. & Swärdh, J.-E. (2016). The influence of public transport supply on private car use in 17 mid-sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 2011. Stockholm: CTS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of public transport supply on private car use in 17 mid-sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 2011
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We analyse the impact of increased public transport supply on private car use using micro data on individuals from 17 mid-sized cities in Sweden. The data is obtained from Swedish administrative registers (tax and odometer), which exists for all Swedish adults and cars, and information of public transport supply, namely bus kilometres supplied.

In a description of the data we see that that the increase of private Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT) per inhabitant stagnate in the sample cities towards the end of the period 1997-2011. Our hypothesis is that changes in the supply of public transport is the main cause for this stagnation. The probability of owning a car and the demand functions for VKT are estimated. The principal finding is that private car use is reduced by increased supply of bus kilometres with an average elasticity ranging from -0.01 to -0.04. This effect is larger in peripheral areas and in larger cities. In small cities the effect is almost nil. We conclude that public transport has an effect on the private VKT of inhabitants but that the impact is relatively small and cannot be the main cause for the stagnating increase of private VKT per inhabitant in the sample cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: CTS, 2016
Series
CTS Working Paper ; 2016:25
Keywords
Public transport, Impact study, Car, Use, Supply, Vehicle kilometer, Urban area
National Category
Economics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 11 Road: Personal transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11382 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
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