Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 84) Show all publications
Lindé, T., Vierth, I. & Cullinane, K. (2019). Evaluating the effects of Sweden's environmentally differentiated fairway dues. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 70, 77-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the effects of Sweden's environmentally differentiated fairway dues
2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 70, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]
  • Evaluation of a globally unique system of environmentally differentiated fairway dues.
  • The evolution of the system and its effects are analyzed.
  • Emissions reductions achieved and associated abatement costs are estimated.
  • Costs and benefits for society are compared.
  • Abatement costs for both SOx and NOx substantially lower than value to society.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Maritime transport, Tariff, Environment protection, Emission, Decrease, Cost benefit analysis, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Economics
Research subject
SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13723 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2019.04.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063919184 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Vierth, I., Sowa, V. & Cullinane, K. (2019). Evaluating the external costs of a modal shift from rail to sea: An application to Sweden's East coast container movements. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 19(1), 60-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the external costs of a modal shift from rail to sea: An application to Sweden's East coast container movements
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 60-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyzes the comparative level of social and external costs if an existing transport chain is replaced by one that includes a greater use of shipping. The main objective of the paper is to assess, on the basis of changes in social and external cost, the potential effectiveness of policies which aim to promote a modal shift to shipping. The social and external costs of both options are evaluated, therefore, using both Sweden's national guidelines for cost-benefit analysis and the European guidelines. A secondary objective of the paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of outcomes to the methodology applied and the input values employed, as well as to identify the relative strengths and weaknesses of these two CBA methodologies when applied to choices involving a shipping mode, The paper concludes that evaluation outcomes are highly sensitive to the choice of CBA methodology and the input values embedded therein. In addition, a number of shortcomings with the guidelines are identified, the most important of which are the need to: (1) have specific values for air pollution from ships; (2) incorporate a system for continuous updates of emission factors, given that vessel speeds vary over time and; (3) incorporate values for water pollution and its effects on the coast and sea bottom. For the Swedish guidelines specifically, there is a need to encompass a value for the scarcity of rail capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDITORIAL BOARD EJTIR, 2019
Keywords
Freight transport, Transport mode, Maritime transport, Policy, Social cost, Cost benefit analysis, Method, Evaluation (assessment), Air pollution
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 12 Road: Freight transport; SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13758 (URN)000464970700004 ()2-s2.0-85066450138 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Vierth, I., Karlsson, R., Lindé, T. & Cullinane, K. (2019). How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden. Maritime Business Review, 4(1), 4-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to achieve less emissions from freight transport in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Maritime Business Review, ISSN 2397-3757, E-ISSN 1548-1921, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs.

The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs.

Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over €30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well.

The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated.

The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives.

Keywords
Freight transport, Tariff, Tax, Modal split, Logistics, Emission, Social cost, Greenhouse gas
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 12 Road: Freight transport; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J05 Railway: Freight transport; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J11 Railway: Environment; SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13988 (URN)10.1108/MABR-09-2018-0032 (DOI)000468332200002 ()
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Christodoulou, A., Gonzalez-Aregall, M., Lindé, T., Vierth, I. & Cullinane, K. (2019). Targeting the reduction of shipping emissions to air: A global review and taxonomy of policies, incentives and measures. Maritime Business Review, 4(1), 16-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Targeting the reduction of shipping emissions to air: A global review and taxonomy of policies, incentives and measures
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Maritime Business Review, ISSN 2397-3757, E-ISSN 1548-1921, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 16-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify the various initiatives developed and implemented across the globe for the abatement of maritime air emissions.

In this paper, an extensive survey of various sources was conducted, including the official reports of international and regional institutions, government policy documents, port authority websites, classification society pages, private firms’ sites and the academic literature. The initiatives were then categorized in accordance with the classification of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software to give some insight into their frequencies and the interrelationships between them.

This exploratory review resulted in the establishment of a comprehensive global database of initiatives encouraged by the whole range of shipping stakeholders and decision-makers for the reduction of shipping air emissions. According to the findings, economic incentives that provide motivation for the adoption of less environmentally damaging practices are the most commonly used initiative, followed by infrastructure investments and informative policies.

The results provide implications for further research that include an in-depth analysis of ports’ policies, as well as an evaluation of initiatives applied on a large scale to map their emissions reduction potential for shipping.

The main contribution of this paper is the identification and analysis of all the diverse initiatives implemented globally in a comprehensive way and its dealing with air pollution from shipping as a whole.

Keywords
Maritime transport, Ship, Emission control, Air pollution, Incentive (reward), Transport infrastructure
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13989 (URN)10.1108/MABR-08-2018-0030 (DOI)000468332200003 ()
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Abate, M., Vierth, I., Karlsson, R., de Jong, G. & Baak, J. (2018). A disaggregate stochastic freight transport model for Sweden. Transportation, 1-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A disaggregate stochastic freight transport model for Sweden
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

This paper presents estimation results for models of transport chain and shipment size choice, as well as an implementation of the estimated disaggregate models (for two commodity groups), in the context of the national freight transport model for Sweden. The new model is a disaggregate and stochastic (logit) model, whereas the existing Swedish national model is deterministic. One advantage of the new approach is that it bases the underlying behavior of shippers on a stronger empirical foundation (that is micro-data from the Swedish Commodity Flow Survey, CFS). Another advantage is that it overcomes a well-known disadvantage of deterministic models that lead to implausibly large responses to changes in scenario or policy variables. Although estimation and implementation of aggregate stochastic models were done before, in the context of a national freight transport forecasting model, we think this is the first implementation of disaggregate freight transport chain and shipment size models estimated on choice data for individual shipments, certainly in Europe. We carried out a number of model runs with both versions of the implemented model to compare elasticities and found that transport cost and time elasticities for tonne-km are smaller (in absolute values) in the disaggregate stochastic model than in their deterministic counterparts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2018
Keywords
Freight transport, Freight, Size, Mathematical model, Stochastic, Transport operator, Behaviour, Cost, Time, Elasticity
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 12 Road: Freight transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13537 (URN)10.1007/s11116-018-9856-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040766219 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Lindé, T. & Vierth, I. (2018). An evaluation of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden 1998–2017. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden 1998–2017
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
En utvärdering av de miljödifferentierade farledsavgifterna i Sverige 1998–2017
Abstract [en]

The report aims to present and analyze the development of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden and the impacts of the system. A system differentiated for sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) was introduced in 1998. The implementation of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) stricter SOx requirements in the Baltic and North Sea areas in 2015 made the SOx differentiation obsolete. In 2018 the system was replaced by a new fee system with different differentiation.

The Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) is responsible for determining and collecting the fairway dues and is also dependent on this income as an important source of funding for its activities. The amounts to be paid and the emission levels that are necessary to be eligible for a certificate that entitles discounts are stated in the SMA’s regulations on fairway dues. These regulations have changed over the years and to give an overview of these changes a presentation of regulations and found amendments is provided.

Except for some early studies evaluating the first few years of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues, little has been done to evaluate the impact of the policy instrument that was in place for 20 years. The information found in previous studies, annual reports and available data provided by the SMA is compiled and analyzed to present the impacts of the fairway dues from 1998 to 2017.

The numbers and characteristics of vessels with SOx and NOx reduction certificates are compiled from several sources. Abatement techniques and costs are discussed. Available estimates of reduced emissions from certified vessels are presented and analyzed. As far as possible, the costs and benefits for society of reduced emissions are compared and the contribution to fulfillment of environmental objectives is discussed. More emphasis is placed on the NOx differentiation since problems with high levels of NOx emissions remain whereas SOx emissions have declined substantially in the Baltic Sea, especially since the implementation of stricter IMO requirements.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med rapporten är att presentera och analysera utvecklingen av de miljödifferentierade farledsavgifterna i Sverige och systemets inverkan. Ett system differentierat för svaveloxider (SOx) och kväveoxider (NOx) infördes 1998. Införandet av Internationella sjöfartsorganisationens (IMO) striktare SOx krav i Östersjön och Nordsjönsområdet 2015 ersatte behovet av SOx differentieringen. 2018 ersattes systemet av ett nytt avgiftssystem med en annan differentiering.

Sjöfartsverket ansvarar för att fastställa och infordra farledsavgifterna och är också beroende av denna inkomst som en viktig finansieringskälla till dess aktiviteter. De belopp som ska betalas och utsläppsnivåerna som krävs för att få ett certifikat som ger rätt till lägre farledsavgifter anges i Sjöfartsverkets föreskrifter om farledsavgift. Dessa föreskrifter har ändrats under åren och för att ge en överblick av dessa förändringar ges en presentation av föreskrifter och funna ändringar.

Förutom några tidiga studier som utvärderar de första åren av de miljödifferentierade farledsavgifterna, har lite gjorts för att utvärdera effekten av styrmedlet som var implementerat under 20 år. Information från tidigare studier, årliga rapporter och tillgängliga data från Sjöfartsverket sammanställs och analyseras för att presentera effekterna av farledsavgifterna från 1998 till 2017.

Antalet fartyg med SOx- och NOx-reduktionscertifikat och dess egenskaper sammanställs från flera källor. Åtgärder och kostnader för att minska utsläppen diskuteras. Tillgängliga uppskattningar av reducerade utsläpp från certifierade fartyg presenteras och analyseras. Så långt som möjligt jämförs samhällsekonomiska kostnader och nyttor av minskade utsläpp och bidraget till uppfyllandet av miljömål diskuteras. Mer fokus läggs på NOx-differentieringen eftersom problem med höga nivåer av NOx-utsläpp kvarstår, medan SOx-utsläppen har minskat avsevärt i Östersjön, särskilt efter införandet av IMO:s striktare krav.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 43
Series
VTI notat ; 3A-2018
Keywords
Maritime transport, Cost, Tariff, Emission, Sulphur, Nitrogen oxide
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12791 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Vierth, I., Sowa, V. & Cullinane, K. (2018). Evaluating the external costs of trailer transport: a comparison of sea and road. Maritime Economics & Logistics, 1-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the external costs of trailer transport: a comparison of sea and road
2018 (English)In: Maritime Economics & Logistics, ISSN 1479-2931, E-ISSN 1479-294X, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to deduce the comparative level of external costs per transported trailer within a context where an existing freight transport chain is replaced by one that includes greater use of shipping. Using both Sweden’s national guidelines for cost–benefit analysis (ASEK) and the European guidelines (Ricardo), the external costs of two alternative options are evaluated. The external costs for a road and shipping option are estimated to be lower than for the direct shipping option under Swedish guidelines, but higher under the European guidelines. However, the results favour the road and shipping option in preference to the direct shipping option under both Swedish and European guidelines when internalizing taxes and fees are accounted for. This is the case even where the shipping mode is compliant with the most stringent environmental regulations. The paper concludes that the evaluation system employed can have a fundamental impact on the outcome of a CBA and that the Swedish guidelines (ASEK) could by improved by incorporating specific values for air pollution from ships (particularly NOx emissions) and a system for regularly updating emission factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan Ltd., 2018
Keywords
Freight transport, External effect, Cost, Emission, Cost benefit analysis, Road transport, Maritime transport, Mathematical model, Calculation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 12 Road: Freight transport; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment; SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13535 (URN)10.1057/s41278-018-0099-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041280807 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Vierth, I., Lindgren, S. & Lindgren, H. (2018). Impact of higher road vehicle dimensions on modal split: An ex-post analysis for Sweden. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of higher road vehicle dimensions on modal split: An ex-post analysis for Sweden
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Effekten av högre lastbilsdimensioner på trafikslagsfördelningen i Sverige
Abstract [en]

Road freight transport is responsible for a considerable amount of congestion, noise and various forms of air pollution and policy instruments that reduce these negative external effects are therefore on top of many policy-makers’ lists. One of the discussed initiatives to reduce these externalities is to increase the maximum permissible weight and length of vehicle combinations. There are however concerns that higher vehicle dimensions will reduce road transport cost per tonne-kilometre and therefore lead both to a modal shift and to induced demand for road transportation.

The extent to which the introduction of longer and heavier road vehicles attracts freight from competing modes is therefore a crucial question. The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence on this matter, by analyzing how the modal split in Sweden has developed following the adoption of increases in the maximum permissible vehicle dimensions.

In this study, we utilize official statistics on freight transport by road, rail and water covering the period 1985 to 2013. We first investigate the extent to which LHVs were adopted following the increases in vehicle dimensions in 1990 and 1993. We then construct time-series for the modal split both on the aggregate level and the commodity group-level and analyze the short- and long-run development. 

We show that the share of tonne-kilometres and vehicle-kilometres performed by trucks with a load capacity above 40 tonnes increased substantially in the 1990s, which mainly came at the expense of the vehicles with the lowest capacity. This shows the high degree of incorporation of LHVs in the Swedish vehicle fleet. 

Our analysis of the aggregate modal split shows that both the rail and water shares were decreasing from 1985 up until 1995, when the trend reversed for rail transportation. In 2000, rail had regained the market share it had in 1990 and continued to increase in the 2000. Water transportation kept on losing market shares throughout the period of study. The modal share for road transportation developed much in the opposite way. The road share increased steadily between 1985–1990 and continued this way during most of the 1990s, until it stabilized around 60–65 percent. We also show that road and rail have experienced increases in the level of tonne-kilometres since 1990, which implies that the falling rail share between 1990 and 1995 was driven by higher tonne-kilometer growth rates for road transportation than for rail transportation.

Our aggregated freight statistics do not allow us to attribute the development of the modal split during this period of study to a particular event such as the increase in maximum weights in 1990 and 1993. In particular, it is not possible to trace out substitution patterns between the transport modes. The weight reforms are likely to have mattered for the modal development, but so are the economic recession in the early 1990s, the railway sector reforms of 1996 and other structural changes in the transport market. What we do document is the lack of breaks in modal split trends at the weight reforms in 1990 and 1993. On the contrary, the share of each mode is continuing its long-term development.   

Abstract [sv]

Godstransporter på väg bidrar till en stor mängd trängsel, buller och olika former av luftföroreningar. Policyinstrument som leder till att minska dessa negativa externaliteter ligger därför högt upp på dagordningen hos beslutsfattare. Ett av de diskuterade initiativen för att minska de externa effekterna är att öka den maximala tillåtna vikten och längden på fordonskombinationer. Det finns emellertid oro för att högre fordonsdimensioner minskar vägtransportkostnaden per tonkilometer och därför leder till transportslagsskifte och en inducerad efterfrågan på vägtransporter.

I vilken utsträckning införandet av längre och tyngre vägfordon leder till att vägtransporter ökar på bekostnad av konkurrerande transportsätt är därför en viktig fråga. Syftet med denna studie är att ge empiriska underlag till denna fråga genom att analysera hur trafikslagsfördelningen i Sverige har utvecklats efter att ökningar i de maximala tillåtna fordonsdimensionerna har antagits.

I denna studie använder vi officiell statistik om godstransporter på väg, järnväg och i sjöfart som sträcker sig under perioden 1985 till 2013. Vi undersöker först i vilken utsträckning längre och tyngre lastbilar införlivades i fordonsflottan efter ökningen av tillåtna fordonsdimensioner 1990 och 1993. Vi konstruerar sedan tidsserier för trafikslagsfördelningen både på aggregerad nivå och varugruppsnivå och analyserar utvecklingen på kort och lång sikt.

Vi visar att andelen tonkilometer och fordonskilometer som utfördes med lastbilar med en lastkapacitet över 40 ton ökade kraftigt under 1990-talet, vilket främst skedde på bekostnad av lätta lastbilar. Detta visar på en hög grad av införlivande av längre och tyngre lastbilar i den svenska fordonsflottan.

Vår analys av den aggregerade trafikslagsfördelningen visar att andelarna för både järnvägen och sjöfarten sjönk från 1985 fram till 1995, då trenden vände för järnvägstransporter. År 2000 hade järnvägen återvunnit sin marknadsandel som den hade 1990 och fortsatte sedan att öka under 00-talet. Sjöfarten fortsatte att förlora marknadsandelar under hela den studerade perioden. Marknadsandelen för vägtransporter utvecklades på motsatt sätt. Andelen vägtransporter ökade stadigt mellan 1985 och 1990 och fortsatte på detta sätt under den största delen av 1990-talet, tills den stabiliserades runt 60–65 procent. Vi visar också att mängden transporter i tonkilometer på väg och järnväg har ökat sedan 1990, vilket innebär att järnvägens sjunkande marknadsandel mellan 1990 och 1995 drivs av högre tonkilometertillväxt för vägtransporter än för järnvägstrafik.

Vår sammanlagda godstransportstatistik tillåter oss inte att tillskriva utvecklingen av trafikslagsfördelningen under den studerade perioden till en viss händelse, såsom ökningen av maxvikter 1990 och 1993. Det är i synnerhet inte möjligt att fastställa överflyttningsmönster mellan transportsätten. Viktreformerna hade sannolikt betydelse för utvecklingen av trafikslagsfördelningen, men det hade sannolikt även den ekonomiska krisen i början av 1990-talet, reformerna av järnvägssektorn 1996 och andra strukturella förändringar på transportmarknaden. Vad vi kan dokumentera i vår studie är frånvaron av tydliga trendbrott i trafikslagsfördelningen vid viktreformerna 1990 och 1993; tvärtom följer varje trafikslag sin långsiktiga trendutveckling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 37
Series
VTI notat ; 34A-2017
Keywords
Longer and heavier vehicle, Lorry, Modal split, Freight transport, Impact study, Calculation, Prediction, LHV
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 12 Road: Freight transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12776 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Vierth, I. & Lindé, T. (2018). Internaliseringsgrader för godstransporter med olika trafikslag i Europa. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internaliseringsgrader för godstransporter med olika trafikslag i Europa
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Degrees of internalization for freight transports with different modes in Europe
Abstract [sv]

Transporter ger upphov till externa kostnader för exempelvis utsläpp av luftföroreningar, koldioxid och buller. Förekomsten av internaliserande skatter och avgifter relaterade till transporter gör att externa kostnader beaktas vid beslut om transporter. Hur väl skatter och avgifter täcker de externa kostnaderna kan presenteras som kvoten av dessa, internaliseringsgraden. I denna rapport presenteras och analyseras studier av godstransporters externa kostnader och internaliseringsgrader i olika länder i Europa. Rapporten ska användas som underlag i Trafikanalys årliga regeringsuppdrag att rapportera om transportsektorns externa kostnader och skatter och avgifter.

En litteraturgenomgång har gjorts av den akademiska och gråa litteraturen. Avgränsningen har varit aktuella studier för länder eller transportkorridorer inom Europa. Utgångspunkten för analysen av de inventerade studierna har varit Trafikanalys sammanställning av internaliseringsgrader i Sverige och i korridorer i Europa.

Abstract [en]

Transports cause external costs of, for example, emissions of air pollutants, carbon dioxide and noise. The presence of internalizing taxes and fees related to transports means that external costs are taken into account when deciding on transports. How well taxes and fees cover the external costs can be presented as the ratio of these, the degree of internalization. In this report, studies of freight transports’ external costs and degrees of internalization in different countries in Europe are presented and analyzed. The report will be used as a basis in Transport Analysis’ annual government commission to report on the transport sector’s external costs and taxes and fees.

A literature review has been conducted of academic and grey literature. The delimitation has been recent studies of countries or transport corridors in Europe. The reference point for the analysis of the included studies has been Transport Analysis’ compilations of degrees of internalization in Sweden and in corridors in Europe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 44
Series
VTI notat ; 7-2018
Keywords
Social cost, External effect, Freight transport, Tax, Road transport, Rail bound transport, Maritime transport
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning; J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J13 Railway: Economics; SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12808 (URN)
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Vierth, I. (2018). Organization of pilot and icebreaking in the Nordic countries and update of the external costs of sea transports in Sweden: a report in SAMKOST 3. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organization of pilot and icebreaking in the Nordic countries and update of the external costs of sea transports in Sweden: a report in SAMKOST 3
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Organisation av lotsning och isbrytning i de nordiska länderna och uppdatering av sjötransporternas samhällsekonomiska kostnader i Sverige : en delrapport inom Samkost 3
Abstract [en]

The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review current knowledge of the external costs for all modes of transport. This report is the third part of the government commission (Samkost 3), it addresses sea transports where the access to data and the knowledge level is generally lower than for the land-based modes. One finding in the government commission 2016 (Samkost 2) was that the possibilities to apply the external cost estimates for pricing are rather limited in the existing organizational structures. This report comprises two parts. Part 1 addresses the organization models of piloting and icebreaking in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The Nordic countries have chosen different organization models to provide these services that can influence the capacity and service levels, the cost structure, the cost effectiveness and the pricing of the services. Part 2 updates the costs of pilot and icebreaking services and the external costs related to traffic safety, greenhouse gases and air pollution caused by sea transports in Swedish waters from Samkost 2 (2014 prices and valuations) to Samkost 3 (2017 prices and valuations). The calculated total external costs per year are lower in Samkost 3 than in Samkost 2: about five percent in the low alternative and about ten percent in the high alternative. This implies that the internalization is about 100 percent which is higher than in Samkost 2. The external costs caused by the transports in international waters are probably are internalized to a low extent and national and international policies are needed to reach e.g. national and international climate objectives.

Abstract [sv]

Regeringen har bett VTI att se över den aktuella kunskapen om de externa kostnaderna för samtliga trafikslag. Denna rapport ingår i den tredje etappen av regeringsuppdraget (Samkost 3). Rapporten behandlar sjötransporter där tillgången till data och kunskapsnivån i allmänhet är lägre än för de landbaserade trafikslagen. En slutsats i Samkost 2 (år 2016) var att möjligheterna att tillämpa de beräknade externa kostnaderna för prissättningen är tämligen begränsade i de befintliga organisationsstrukturerna. Denna rapport består av två delar. Del 1 jämför organisationsmodellerna för lotsning och isbrytning i Danmark, Finland, Norge och Sverige. De nordiska länderna har valt olika modeller för att tillhandahålla lots- och inbrytningstjänster, vilket kan påverka kapacitet och servicenivån, kostnadsstrukturen, kostnadseffektiviteten och prissättningen av tjänsterna. Del 2 uppdaterar (infrastruktur)- kostnaderna för lotsning och isbrytning och de externa kostnaderna avseende trafiksäkerhet, växthusgaser och luftföroreningar som orsakas av sjötransporter på Sveriges sjöterritorium från Samkost 2 (2014 års priser och värderingar användes) till Samkost 3 (2017 års priser och värderingar används). De beräknade totala årliga externa kostnaderna är lägre i Samkost 3 än i Samkost 2: ca fem procent i det lågalternativet och ca tio procent i högalternativet. Detta innebär att internaliseringsgraden för sjöfart på svenskt sjöterritorium är ungefär 100 procent, vilket är högre än i Samkost 2. Transporterna på internationellt vatten troligtvis har en låg internaliseringsgrad och det krävs både nationella och internationella styrmedel för att uppnå t.ex. uppsatta nationella och internationella klimatmål.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 114
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 988A
Keywords
Maritime transport, Social cost, External effect, Air pollution, Emission, Accident, Fuel consumption, Calculation, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
SAB, Prc Ships and shipping
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13352 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6401-6536

Search in DiVA

Show all publications