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Gustafsson, M., Blomqvist, G., Elmgren, M., Johansson, C., Järlskog, I., Lundberg, J., . . . Silvergren, S. (2019). Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–2018
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Operational measures against PM10 pollution in Stockholm : evaluation of winter season 2017–2018
Abstract [sv]

Stockholms stad bedriver sedan 2011 ett arbete med att, genom förbättrade och specifika gatudriftsåtgärder, minska uppvirvlingen av vägdamm för att minska partikelhalter i luften. Sedan starten har effekterna på såväl dammförråd som luftkvalitet följts upp av VTI och SLB-analys vid Miljöförvaltningen i Stockholm. Specifika åtgärder har omfattat främst dammbindning med kalciummagnesiumacetat (CMA) och städning med vakuumsug (Disa-Clean). Innevarande säsong har vakuumsugen dock inte använts. Luftkvalitetsmätningarna visar att miljökvalitetsnormen för PM10 klaras för femte året i Stockholm, men halterna är högre än föregående år. Vägdammsmängderna mätt som DL180 (vägdamm mindre än 180 μm) har generellt ökat vilket varit utvecklingen sedan säsongen 2014–2015. Folkungagatan, som fick en ny beläggning 2016, har fortsatt höga vägdammsmängder, men också lägre PM10-halter än före beläggningsbytet. Utvärderingen av möjligheterna att optimera dammbindningen visar att CMA ofta läggs ut trots att PM10-halterna inte skulle överskridits. Maj var särskilt torr och flera överskridanden kunde då ha förhindrats med CMA, men åtgärden avslutas sista april på grund av risk för halka. Högre precision med till exempel prognosbaserade åtgärder skulle sannolikt vara gynnsamt för optimering av insatserna.

Abstract [en]

The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 65
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1000
Keywords
Particulate matter, Dust, Dust control, Method, Pollution concentration, Winter, Urban area, Street, Maintenance
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment; 70 Road: Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13579 (URN)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Gjerstad, K.-I., Gustafsson, M., Blomqvist, G., Denby, B., Elmgren, M., Grythe, H., . . . Vogt, M. (2019). NORDUST: Nordic Road Dust Project.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NORDUST: Nordic Road Dust Project
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Road dust is an important contributor to airborne particle pollution, especially in the Nordic countries where high road surface wear, due to studded tyre useas well as winter maintenance and operations including sanding and salting are important contributors. Even though the road dust problems are similar, the countries have tackled different parts of the problem with different research approaches, resulting in a complex knowledgebase in need of compilation. A former project, NORTRIP, started this work and implemented the knowledge into an emission model with a specially elaborated road dust focus. The model work has been used to identify knowledge gaps, intended to be filled within the NorDust project. Laboratory tests and controlled and uncontrolled field measurements as well as parametrisation and modelling has been used as tools to find, describe and implement issues concerning road dust formation, suspension and dynamics and road operation effects on emissions in facilities and sites in Finland and Sweden. The NORTRIP model has been implemented and evaluated in Iceland, not previously involved in the model development, to identify input data needs. The project has resulted in an array of findings, of which some have been possible to implement in new parametrisations in the NORTRIP model. In the complex research area of road dust dynamics, the project has also resulted in a lot of practical experiences concerning experimental and measurement designs and evaluation possibilities that future research will be able to benefit from.

Publisher
p. 132
Series
NordFoU ; 2019-01
Keywords
Dust, Dust control, Mathematical model, Laboratory (not an organization), In situ, Measurement, Apparatus (measuring), Particulate matter, Tyre, Sand
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14950 (URN)
Available from: 2020-01-22 Created: 2020-01-22 Last updated: 2020-04-21Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M., Blomqvist, G., Järlskog, I., Lundberg, J., Niska, A., Janhäll, S., . . . Johansson, C. (2019). Optidrift: optimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift för bättre luftkvalitet. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optidrift: optimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift för bättre luftkvalitet
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2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Optidrift : optimized urban street operation for better air quality
Abstract [sv]

Drift av gator och vägar påverkar, förutom framkomlighet och säkerhet, även miljöaspekter som luftkvalitet. Åtgärder som sandning och saltning påverkar halten av inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) i luften. Driftåtgärder som görs för att minska uppvirvlingen av partiklar på våren kan å andra sidan ha effekt på vinterdriften, genom att de saltlösningar som används också fungerar som halkbekämpningsmedel. Projektet har undersökt möjligheterna att optimera gatudriften ur dessa aspekter, med ett fokus på luftkvalitet. I olika aktiviteter inhämtades synpunkter och erfarenheter kring problembild och lösningar från bransch, väghållare och praktiker. En provtagare för vägdamm, WDS II, vidareutvecklades. Utvärderingar av olika spol- och städvarianters effekt på dammförrådet visade att en positiv effekt av metoderna kräver att det finns förhållandevis mycket damm på vägytan. Optimeringstester visade att god prognosstyrning av insatserna är viktigt för ett bra resultat. En kriteriebaserad analys visade att ingen optimering av dammbindningen skett under projektperioden. Sammantaget har projektets ursprungliga mål att kunna föreslå en optimerad gatudrift i en stadsdel i Stockholm inte nåtts, främst beroende av gällande driftkontrakt och av miljökvalitetsmålets (PM10) och framkomlighetens höga prioritet i staden. Däremot har Optidrift identifierat framgångsfaktorer och problem med gatudriften, resulterat i ökad kunskap om gatudriftens effekter på dammförråd och luftkvalitet samt tagit fram användbara utvärderingsmetoder och scenarioanalyser användbara i fortsatt arbete med att förbättra och optimera vinter- och barmarksdrift.

Abstract [en]

Operation of streets and roads, in addition to accessibility and safety, also affects environmental aspects such as air quality. Measures such as sanding and salting affect the content of inhalable particles (PM10) in the air. On the other hand, operational measures that are made to reduce the suspension of particles in the spring can have an effect on the winter operation, because the salt solutions used also act as de- and anti-icing agents. The project has investigated the possibilities of optimizing street operations from these aspects, with a focus on air quality. In various activities, views and experiences were gathered about problem images and solutions from industry, road managers and practitioners. A road dust sampler, WDS II, was developed. Evaluations of the effect of different coil and cleaning variants on the road dust load showed that a positive effect of the methods requires that there is relatively much dust on the road surface. Optimization tests showed that good forecasting of dust binding is important for a good result. A criteria-based analysis showed that no optimization of the dust binding occurred during the project period. Overall, the project's original goal of being able to propose an optimized street operation in a district in Stockholm has not been achieved, mainly due to current operating contracts and of the high priority of the environmental quality objective (PM10) and accessibility in the city. On the other hand, Optidrift has identified success factors and problems with the street operation, resulting in increased knowledge about the street operations' effects on dust load and air quality, and developed useful evaluation methods and scenario analyzes useful in continued work on improving and optimizing winter and barge operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 117
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1004
Keywords
Particulate matter, Air pollution, Dust control, Cleaning, Deicing agent, Method, Evaluation (assessment), Street, Footway, Cycle track, Urban area, Winter maintenance, Maintenance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
70 Road: Maintenance; 70 Road: Maintenance, 71 Road: Winter maintenance; 70 Road: Maintenance, 71 Road: Winter maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13669 (URN)
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Hellman, F. (2019). Orsaker till halka på cykelvägar och beläggningens inverkan: en beskrivning av kunskapsläget. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Orsaker till halka på cykelvägar och beläggningens inverkan: en beskrivning av kunskapsläget
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Causes of slipping on cycle paths and impact of the pavement : a description of the state of knowledge
Abstract [sv]

En littereratursammanställning av kunskapsläget har gjorts för att förstå orsaker till halka på cykelbanor. Inverkan av textur på friktion och halkrisk samt omgivnings inverkan beskrivs. Ett huvudsyfte med rapporten är att utifrån kunskapsläget identifiera kunskapsbehovet om olika beläggningstypers friktion och halkbenägenhet under olika förhållanden i cykelhastigheter upp till 40 km/h. Halkrisken bestäms bland annat av friktionen mellan däcket och vägbanan. Det finns många faktorer som påverkar halkrisken till exempel vägytans geometri och ytegenskaper, fordonets hastighet, hjulens egenskaper, temperatur och omgivningens miljö (t.ex. vegetation och nedsmutsningsrisk). Denna rapport fokuserar på vägytans egenskaper och meteorologiska faktorer (främst temperatur och fukt) och inte på cykeln eller dess komponenters egenskaper. Texturen på vägytan är en viktig parameter när det gäller halka. Texturen delas upp i tre våglängdsområden: mikro-, makro- och megatextur. Främst är det mikrotextur och makrotextur som påverkar friktionen för cyklar. I praktiken utgör däcket och cykelbanan sällan två rena ytor som möts. Ofta uppstår också halka då ytan är nedsmutsad, vatten, snö och is agerar då som ett friktionssänkande skikt mellan hjulen och ytan. Även rullgrus ger upphov till halkrisk.Det finns friktionskrav för gång- och cykelvägar även om det sällan utförs friktionsmätningar. Befintliga krav i Sverige för belagda vägar inklusive gångoch cykelvägar är att medeltalet för friktionstalet inte får understiga 0,50 över en 20 meter lång sträcka. Friktionsmätning kan göras med PFT (Portable Friction Tester) då detta handhållna instrument enligt preliminära resultat korrelerar med standardmetoden Road Friction Tester (SAAB Friction Tester) som inte kan användas på cykelvägar.

Abstract [en]

This report is a literature review of the state of knowledge to understand the reasons for slipperiness on bicycle paths. The effect of texture on friction and slip risk and environmental impact is described. One of the main aims of the report is to present knowledge and needs around the friction and slip resistance of different types of surface courses under different conditions in cycle speeds up to 40 km/h. The slip risk is determined among others by the friction between the tire and the road surface. There are many factors that affect this friction, for example, the road surface's property, vehicle speed, tyre characteristics and the environment. This report focuses on the road surface's properties and meteorology (mainly temperature and humidity) and not on the bicycle or its component properties. The texture of the road surface is an important parameter when it comes to slip. The texture is divided into three wavelength ranges: micro, macro, and mega textures. Primarily, it is micro-texture and macro-texture that affect the friction of bicycles. In practice, the tire and the cycle path are rarely two clean surfaces that meets. Often, slip also occurs when the surface is dirty, water, snow and ice act as a friction-reducing layer between the wheels and the surface. Loose gravel also gives rise to slipping risk.

There are friction requirements for walking and cycling paths, although friction measurements are rarely carried out. Existing requirements in Sweden for surface course, including walking and cycling routes, are that the average friction number must not be less than 0.50 over a 20 meter long distance. Friction measurement can be done with PFT (Portable Friction Tester) as this hand-held instrument correlates well with the standard method Road (SAAB) Friction Tester which cannot be carried out on a bicycle path.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 26
Series
VTI notat ; 18-2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14797 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-09 Created: 2019-12-09 Last updated: 2020-03-03Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T., Lundberg, J., Genell, A., Sandberg, U., Blomqvist, G., Gustafsson, M., . . . Erlingsson, S. (2019). Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019: . Paper presented at 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, 7 July 2019 through 11 July 2019. Canadian Acoustical Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, Canadian Acoustical Association , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One possible solution to reduce noise resulting from tyre-pavement interaction is to use a porous pavement surface. A porous surface will reduce noise by decreasing air pressure gradients in the tyre-pavement contact as well as by decreasing the acoustical impedance of the road surface and reducing the horn effect. While reducing noise, other functional aspects of a pavement such as abrasion wear which impacts on air pollution through generation and suspension of particles, friction and rolling resistance need to be addressed. This paper analyses the acoustical behaviour of a Double Layered Porous Asphalt (DLPA), applied in the city of Linköping, Sweden, as a solution to mitigate noise, compared to a non-porous Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement used as reference. The analysis is based on Close Proximity noise measurements, both in absolute value and as frequency spectra, acoustical homogeneity over the surface length and sound absorption measurements. The acoustic analysis is combined with analyses of air quality measurements of PM10 (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm) from two Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measurement stations placed near each different pavement section. The initial results indicate that the porous pavement results in a noise reduction of up to 5 dB for light vehicles, and up to 4 dB for heavy vehicles. So far, the DPLA shows approximately 52 % lower PM10 concentrations than the SMA. It should be noted that PM10 is influenced also by meteorological conditions, like humidity, background sources as well as vehicle properties, e.g. use of studded tyres, and that some of the observed decrease can be due to other aspects than porosity e.g. road surface moisture and wind direction. In conclusion, the use of a porous pavement shows promising results from both acoustical and air quality aspects, given the initial, short term results

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canadian Acoustical Association, 2019
Keywords
Porous asphalt, Noise level, Wear, Particle, Particulate matter, Measurement, In situ
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14292 (URN)2-s2.0-85073001670 (Scopus ID)9781999181000 (ISBN)
Conference
26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, 7 July 2019 through 11 July 2019
Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2020-04-20Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T., Lundberg, J., Genell, A., Sandberg, U., Blomqvist, G., Gustafsson, M., . . . Erlingsson, S. (2019). Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019: . Paper presented at 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, 7 July 2019 through 11 July 2019. Canadian Acoustical Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, Canadian Acoustical Association , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One possible solution to reduce noise resulting from tyre-pavement interaction is to use a porous pavement surface. A porous surface will reduce noise by decreasing air pressure gradients in the tyre-pavement contact as well as by decreasing the acoustical impedance of the road surface and reducing the horn effect. While reducing noise, other functional aspects of a pavement such as abrasion wear which impacts on air pollution through generation and suspension of particles, friction and rolling resistance need to be addressed. This paper analyses the acoustical behaviour of a Double Layered Porous Asphalt (DLPA), applied in the city of Linköping, Sweden, as a solution to mitigate noise, compared to a non-porous Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement used as reference. The analysis is based on Close Proximity noise measurements, both in absolute value and as frequency spectra, acoustical homogeneity over the surface length and sound absorption measurements. The acoustic analysis is combined with analyses of air quality measurements of PM10 (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm) from two Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measurement stations placed near each different pavement section. The initial results indicate that the porous pavement results in a noise reduction of up to 5 dB for light vehicles, and up to 4 dB for heavy vehicles. So far, the DPLA shows approximately 52 % lower PM10 concentrations than the SMA. It should be noted that PM10 is influenced also by meteorological conditions, like humidity, background sources as well as vehicle properties, e.g. use of studded tyres, and that some of the observed decrease can be due to other aspects than porosity e.g. road surface moisture and wind direction. In conclusion, the use of a porous pavement shows promising results from both acoustical and air quality aspects, given the initial, short term results © Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canadian Acoustical Association, 2019
Keywords
Air Quality, Noise, Pavement, PM10, Tyre, Acoustic impedance, Acoustic wave absorption, Mastic asphalt, Noise abatement, Pavements, Quality control, Sound insulating materials, Suspensions (fluids), Tires, Air quality measurements, Meteorological condition, Sound absorption measurements, Stone mastic asphalts, Tapered element oscillating microbalances, Acoustic noise
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-15297 (URN)2-s2.0-85084011387 (Scopus ID)9781999181000 (ISBN)
Conference
26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, 7 July 2019 through 11 July 2019
Available from: 2020-05-27 Created: 2020-05-27 Last updated: 2020-05-27Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M., Blomqvist, G., Järlskog, I., Lundberg, J., Janhäll, S., Elmgren, M., . . . Silvergren, S. (2019). Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden. Atmospheric Environment: X, 2, Article ID 100014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment: X, ISSN 2590-1621, Vol. 2, article id 100014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traffic related non-exhaust particulate sources and road dust are an increasingly important source for PM10 air pollution as exhaust sources are decreasing due to regulations. In the Nordic countries, the road dust problem is enhanced by use of studded tyres, causing increased road wear and winter road maintenance including gritting. Efforts to reduce road dust emissions requires knowledge on temporal and spatial road dust load dynamics. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, has therefore financed seasonal (October to May) road dust sampling to be able to optimize their winter and spring time street operation measures for reduced road dust emissions. This work describes the outcome of six seasons (2011/2012–2016/2017) of road dust sampling in five central streets using the VTI wet dust sampler (WDS).The results show that road dust load, expressed as DL180 (dust load smaller than 180 μm) has a seasonal variation with the highest loads (up to 200 g/m2) in late winter and early spring and a minimum (down to about 15 g/m2) in early autumn and late spring. The dust load varies between streets and is depending on pavement surface properties. On a smaller scale the dust load has a high variability across streets due to differences in rates of suspension from different parts of the road surface, with low amounts in wheel tracks and higher in-between and outside the tracks. Between 2 and 30% of the DL180 is smaller than 10 μm and could directly contribute to PM10 emissions. In general, higher road surface texture leads to higher dust loads, but the condition of the pavement (e.g. cracks, aggregate loss) might also have an effect. A new, wear resistant pavement accumulated markedly higher road dust amounts than a several years old pavement. This paper closes with a discussion on the complex relation between road dust load and PM10 concentrations and a discussion on the challenges and comparability of road dust sampling techniques and measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Dust, Particulate matter, Sampling, Season, Variability, Surface texture
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13645 (URN)10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061003909 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
Niska, A. & Blomqvist, G. (2019). Sopsaltning av cykelvägar i teori och praktik: erfarenheter från utvärderingar i svenska kommuner. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sopsaltning av cykelvägar i teori och praktik: erfarenheter från utvärderingar i svenska kommuner
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Sweep-salting of cycleways in theory and practice : experiences from evaluations performed in Swedish municipalities
Abstract [sv]

För att främja ett ökat cyklande och minska antalet singelolyckor, krävs en bra vinterväghållning av cykelvägar. För snöröjning och halkbekämpning av cykelvägar används traditionellt sett plogning och sandning. En alternativ metod som blivit alltmer etablerad under senare år, är ”sopsaltmetoden”. Den innebär att en roterande sopvals används för snöröjning och att saltlösning, torrt eller befuktat salt används för halkbekämpning. Linköpings kommun var först ut med sopsaltning av cykelvägar redan 1999. Idag pågår försök från Umeå i norr till Malmö i söder med en stor variation av utrustningar och strategier. VTI har sedan vintern 2013/14 utvärderat metodens tillämpning på cykelstråk i Stockholm. I det här projektet har tidigare utvärderingar kompletterats med detaljerade fältstudier på utvalda cykelvägar i Linköping och Stockholm samt vetenskapliga teorier och praktiska erfarenheter från ett flertal kommuner. Målet har varit att bidra med ökad kunskap om sopsaltmetodens för- och nackdelar samt tekniker, metoder och strategier för bästa effektivitet under olika yttre förutsättningar. Studierna visar att sopsaltning gör det möjligt att även vintertid uppnå barmark på cykelvägarna och därmed en högre friktion än på cykelvägar som plogas och sandas. Metodens effektivitet är beroende av flera faktorer såsom väder, cykelinfrastrukturens utformning och tillstånd, vinterväghållningsstrategi och -utrustning. Spridning av saltlösning med spraymunstycken, dysor, ger en jämnare spridning över ytan medan en tallriksspridare är att föredra vid låga temperaturer och stora nederbördsmängder då större saltmängder kan behövas. Saltningen görs med fördel i preventivt syfte, innan förväntad nederbörd, för att cykelvägen ska klara lägre temperaturer och nederbörd innan tillfrysning sker. En effektiv borstning som tar bort så mycket vätska som möjligt från ytan, medför att saltgivan kan minskas. Även om den utrustning som används utvecklats över åren, finns fortfarande en förbättringspotential.

Abstract [en]

To encourage people to cycle during winter and at the same time reduce the number of single bicycle crashes, a high winter maintenance service level is needed. Traditionally in Sweden, ploughing and gritting is used for winter maintenance of cycleways and footways. In recent years, a method using a front-mounted power broom for snow clearance and salt for de-icing (commonly called “sweepsalting”) has become popular for winter maintenance of cycleways in Swedish municipalities. Linköping was the first municipality to test the method, already in 1999. Today, municipalities from Umeå in the north to Malmö in the south are applying the method with a variation in methods, equipment and strategies. In this project earlier research has been complemented with detailed field studies in Linköping and Stockholm, theoretical knowledge as well as practical experiences from several Swedish municipalities. The objective has been to provide a better understanding regarding pros and cons of “sweep-salting” as well as the equipment, methods and strategies appropriate under various conditions. The studies presented in this report show that when working successfully, the sweep-salting method creates a bare surface with higher friction than traditional ploughing and gritting. Measures must be done in time and the operating speed adjusted according to the prevailing conditions. In mild weather brine is sufficient, but with lower temperatures and heavy snowfall larger amounts of salt is needed and pre-wetted or dry salt must be used. For the method to work properly, the bicycle path construction should be of good condition without cracks or other damages in the surface. The equipment for sweep-salting needs to be further developed for a higher efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 127
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1005
Keywords
Deicing salt, Snow clearance, Cycle track, Method, Evaluation (assessment), Field (test), Winter maintenance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
70 Road: Maintenance, 71 Road: Winter maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13705 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, J., Blomqvist, G., Gustafsson, M., Janhäll, S. & Järlskog, I. (2019). Wet Dust Sampler: a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 230(8), Article ID 180.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wet Dust Sampler: a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses
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2019 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method—the wet dust sampler (WDS)—was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses.

In this paper, the latest version of the WSD is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Particulate matter, Method, Measurement, Apparatus (measuring), Sample (mater), Dust, Repeatability, Prediction, Performance, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14085 (URN)10.1007/s11270-019-4226-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85069672194 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
Niska, A., Blomqvist, G. & Hjort, M. (2018). Cykelvägars friktion: mätningar i fält i jämförelse med cykeldäcks friktion på olika underlag i VTI:s däckprovningsanläggning. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cykelvägars friktion: mätningar i fält i jämförelse med cykeldäcks friktion på olika underlag i VTI:s däckprovningsanläggning
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
The skid resistance of cycleways : measurements on cycleways in comparison with the friction of bicycle tyres on different types of road conditions in VTI's tyre testing facility
Abstract [sv]

Halka är en vanlig orsak till att cyklister skadas allvarlig i trafiken. Varken kravställning eller föreskrivna mätmetoder gällande friktion på cykelvägar har utgått ifrån cykeltrafiken. Det behövs därför en ökad kunskap om cykeldäcks friktionsegenskaper och det väggrepp som kan fås med en cykel på en cykelväg under olika förhållanden. I det här projektet har vi sammanställt mätningar med VTI:s portabla friktionsmätare, PFT, på cykelvägar med en mängd olika underlag. För att relatera de med PFT:n uppmätta friktionsvärdena till den friktion som ett cykeldäck presterar, har vi även gjort jämförande mätningar med cykeldäck i VTI:s stationära däckprovningsanläggning. Dessa visar på en mycket god överensstämmelse mellan PFT-värdena och den maximala laterala friktionen tillgänglig för ett sommardäck. Det innebär att de friktionsvärden vi uppmätt med PFT:n i fält också kan sägas representera den friktion som skulle fås med ett cykeldäck på samma yta. Friktionsmätningarna på cykelytor i verklig miljö visar att friktionen påverkas av väglaget, beläggningsmaterialet, samt av vägmarkeringar och brunnslock. Is och snö medför en betydligt lägre friktionsnivå än barmarksförhållanden.

Skillnader i väglag gör att olika typer av cykelinfrastruktur och olika vinterdriftmetoder medför olika friktionsnivåer. Det innebär att det kan förekomma stora variationer i friktionsnivå längs en och samma sträcka. Överraskningseffekten och därmed olycksrisken kan då bli stor. Inte bara snö och is, utan även grus, löv, smuts och annat på ytan kan innebära en sänkt friktion. För cyklisternas säkerhet är det viktigt att informera om var halka kan uppstå och att anpassa halkbekämpningsinsatser, utformning och konstruktion utifrån den kunskapen.

Abstract [en]

Skidding is a common cause for cyclists getting seriously injured in traffic. Neither requirements nor prescribed friction measurement methods for cycleways have been based on the performance of bicycles. There is therefore a need for increased knowledge regarding the friction characteristics of bicycle tyres and the traction between a bicycle tyre and the road surface under different conditions. In this project we have compiled measurements with VTI's portable friction tester, PFT, on cycleways with a variety of road conditions. To relate the PFT friction values to the friction of bicycle tyres, we have also made comparative measurements with bicycle tyres in VTI's stationary tyre testing facility. These show a very good match between the PFT friction values and the maximum lateral friction available for a bicycle tyre. This means that the PFT friction values recorded on cycleways can also be said to represent the friction that a bicycle tyre would perform on the same surface. Our friction measurements on cycleways show that the skid resistance is affected by the road condition, the road surface material, as well as road markings and manhole-covers. Ice and snow cause a significantly lower friction level than at bare conditions. Differences in road conditions mean that different types of cycling infrastructure and different winter maintenance methods result in different friction levels. This means that there may be large variations in friction along one and the same cycle route. The surprise effect and thus the accident risk can then be great. Not only snow, ice and grit, but also leaves, clay and other dirt on the surface might lead to a reduced skid resistance. For the safety of cyclists, it is important to inform about where a slippery condition can occur and to adjust anti-icing actions, road design and construction according to that knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 63
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 993
Keywords
Cycle track, Skidding resistance, Friction, Measurement, In situ, Snow, Ice, Laboratory (not an organization), Test, Bicycle, Tyre
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
30 Road: Highway design, 33 Road: Surfacing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13451 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0124-04802

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