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Anund, A., Fors, C., Ihlström, J. & Kecklund, G. (2018). An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 114, 71-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers
2018 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers.

The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337. s; split shift 0.347. s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Bus, Driver, Working conditions, Test, In situ
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11886 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.005 (DOI)000428829800011 ()28506403 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019144045 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Kjellman, E., Fors, C. & Lundkvist, S.-O. (2018). Analys av livscykelkostnader för vägmärken med fokus på reflexmaterial. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analys av livscykelkostnader för vägmärken med fokus på reflexmaterial
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Analysis of life-cycle costs for road signs with focus on retroreflective sheeting materials
Abstract [sv]

I dagsläget är det okänt om de vägmärken med reflexfolie som finns på svenska vägar uppfyller gällande krav på funktion där god läs- och upptäckbarhet är målet. Det finns ingen inventering av vägmärken på statliga vägar och inget register för vilka vägmärken som har satts upp, när de satts upp och vilken kvalitet de har.

Detta projekt syftar till att analysera livscykelkostnader för vägmärken på statliga vägar genom inventering av befintliga vägmärken på det statliga vägnätet. Livslängden bestäms av flera parametrar men framförallt av retroreflexionskrav enligt Trafikverkets dokument Standardbeskrivning för Basunderhåll Väg (SBV) och färgkrav enligt SS-EN 12899-1.

Livslängden samlades in genom att i fält observera cirka 300 vägmärken. Vägmärkena valdes ut slumpmässigt i Trafikverkets regioner Väst och Mitt. Information om dessa vägmärken såsom tillverkningsår, hur mycket ljus de reflekterar, vilka färgkoordinater de har och vilken kompassriktning de stod i samlades in. Vägmärken med fem olika bottenfärger inventerades; vita (vägvisare till lokalt mål i tätort), blåa (vägvisare för allmän väg), röda (stopplikt), gröna (vägvisare till motorväg eller motortrafikled) och gula (vägvisare för enskild väg). Dessa tillhörde tre olika klasser; RA1, RA2 och RA3B. Klasserna skiljer sig åt vad gäller mängden ljus som reflekteras, där RA3B reflekterar mest. Kostnaderna för vägmärken, stolpe och fundament erhölls via telefonintervjuer med fem olika entreprenörer.

Abstract [en]

It is unknown if the road signs with retroreflective sheeting on Swedish roads meet the current requirements for a performance where good reading and discoverability are the targets. No inventory of road signs on state roads is done and no registry for mounted road signs, date of mounting and quality of signs are available.

This project aims at analyzing life cycle costs for road signs on state roads through inventory of existing road signs on the state road network. Lifetime is determined by several parameters, but primarily by retroreflection requirements according to the Swedish Transport Administration's document Standard Description for Basic Road Maintenance (SBV) and colour requirements according to SS-EN 12899-1.

The lifetime was determined by observing approximately 300 road signs in the field. The road signs were randomly selected from the Swedish Transport Administration's regions West and Mid. Information about these road signs, such as year of manufacture, how much light they reflect, what colour coordinates they have and what compass direction they were mounted in were registered. Road signs with five different bottom colours were invented; white (road to local destination in urban area), blue (public road), red (stop), green (road to or on motorway) and yellow (private roads). The signs belong to three different classes; RA1, RA2 and RA3B. The classes differ in terms of the amount of light reflected, where the RA3B reflects most. The costs of road signs, posts and foundations were collected through telephone interviews with five different contractors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 71
Series
VTI notat ; 23-2018
Keywords
Traffic sign, Reflectorized material, Lifetime, Life cycle, Cost, Ageing, Retroreflection
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
70 Road: Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13407 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Anund, A., Ahlström, C., Fors, C. & Åkerstedt, T. (2018). Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 44(1), 88-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.

Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.

Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.

Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL WORK ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Driver, Professional category, Simulator (driving), Speed, Behaviour
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12735 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3677 (DOI)000418916600010 ()29018866 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040066980 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-17 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Abtahi, F., Anund, A., Fors, C., Seoane, F. & Lindecrantz, K. (2018). Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads. In: IFMBE Proceedings: . Paper presented at Joint Conference of the European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference, EMBEC 2017 and Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, NBC 2107, 11 June 2017 through 15 June 2017 (pp. 149-152). Springer Verlag, 65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads
Show others...
2018 (English)In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 65, p. 149-152Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Detection, Heart beat, Variability, Driver, ECG
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11938 (URN)10.1007/978-981-10-5122-7_38 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021750920 (Scopus ID)9789811051210 (ISBN)
Conference
Joint Conference of the European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference, EMBEC 2017 and Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, NBC 2107, 11 June 2017 through 15 June 2017
Available from: 2017-07-19 Created: 2017-07-19 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Ahlström, C., Anund, A., Fors, C. & Åkerstedt, T. (2018). Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 112, 127-134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers
2018 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Roadside, Stimulation, Attention, Simulator (driving), Impact study, Mental load
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12812 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.012 (DOI)000424963000015 ()29346084 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
Johansen, T. C. & Fors, C. (2018). Method description – assessment of road marking materials used in contracts: Nordic certification system for road marking materials. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Method description – assessment of road marking materials used in contracts: Nordic certification system for road marking materials
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Metodbeskrivning – kontroll av vägmarkeringsmaterial som används i kontrakt : nordiskt certifieringssystem för vägmarkeringsmaterial
Abstract [en]

A Nordic certification system for road marking materials was introduced in 2015. In the first stage, the certification system applies to the countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In these countries, a documented product approval will be required in order to use a road marking material on roads managed by the national road authorities. Product approval will be based on monitored and documented performance measurements of material samples applied on test fields on public roads.

In order to be able to assess whether the (approved) road marking materials that are specified in contracts with a national road authority correspond to the materials that are applied on the roads, an assessment system will be introduced. The present report describes this assessment system.

The assessment system prescribes that material samples shall be taken when road marking materials are applied on the roads. A selection of the samples will then be sent to an accredited laboratory for analysis. The report describes how the material samples are selected, collected and analysed, and how the result is reported. It also describes the contractor’s responsibilities related to sample collection and the required competences of the assessment organization.

Abstract [sv]

Ett nordiskt certifieringssystem för vägmarkeringsmaterial introducerades år 2015 och omfattar i ett första steg Danmark, Norge och Sverige. I dessa länder krävs (eller kommer inom kort att krävas) ett dokumenterat godkännande av vägmarkeringsmaterial som används på vägar som administreras av den statliga väghållaren. Detta godkännande baseras på funktionsmätningar på vägmarkeringar som har applicerats på provfält.

För att kunna kontrollera och följa upp att de (godkända) vägmarkeringsmaterial som har specificerats i kontrakt med en statlig väghållare stämmer överens med de material som sedan läggs ut på vägen, kommer ett kontrollsystem att införas. Föreliggande rapport beskriver detta kontrollsystem.

Kontrollsystemet innebär att materialprover tas i samband med att vägmarkeringsmaterial läggs ut på vägen. Ett urval av proverna skickas sedan till ett ackrediterat laboratorium för analys. Rapporten beskriver hur prover väljs ut, samlas in och analyseras, samt hur resultatet rapporteras. Den beskriver också entreprenörens skyldigheter i samband med provtagning och de kompetenser som krävs hos organisationen som utför kontrollen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 24
Series
VTI notat ; 6A-2018
Keywords
Carriageway marking, Material (constr), Paint, Field (test), Measurement, Specification (standard), Denmark, Norway, Sweden
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
50 Road: Materials, 55 Road: Miscellaneous materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12873 (URN)
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Fors, C. & Lundkvist, S.-O. (2018). Metoder för att bedöma synavstånd för vägmarkeringar. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metoder för att bedöma synavstånd för vägmarkeringar
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Methods for estimation of the visibility distance of road markings
Abstract [sv]

Studien syftade till att ta fram en metod för att bedöma längsgående vägmarkeringars synavstånd i fordonsbelysning. Metoden ska användas i en kommande studie för att validera en beräkningsmodell, benämnd Visibility, som nyligen har reviderats. Med modellen beräknas vägmarkeringars synavstånd utifrån olika parametrar, bland annat retroreflexion och area.

Studien omfattade en litteraturgenomgång och en serie metodtester i fält. Utifrån litteraturgenomgången och ett fåtal små inledande fälttester togs en kravspecifikation fram. Två metoder, benämnda reflektormetoden respektive kantstolpsmetoden, bedömdes kunna uppfylla kravspecifikationen och de fortsatta testerna inriktades därför på dessa metoder. Reflektormetoden går ut på att vägbanereflektorer placeras intill vägmarkeringen med ett visst avstånd. Bedömningen av synavstånd görs stillastående, genom att ange hur långt vägmarkeringen syns, uttryckt i antal reflektorer. Med kantstolpsmetoden används istället kantstolparnas reflektorer som referenspunkter och vägmarkeringens synavstånd anges därmed i antal kantstolpsreflektorer. Bedömningen görs i fart och observatören bedömer vägmarkeringens synavstånd kontinuerligt över en längre sträcka. Båda metoderna fungerade bra rent praktiskt och upplevdes ge rimliga resultat när de testades var för sig. En jämförelse av metoderna visade dock att de gav väsentligt olika resultat. Orsaken till detta har inte helt klarlagts. Vid ytterligare tester, på väg med intermittenta kantmarkeringar, bedömdes synavstånden genom att räkna antalet synliga markeringar med hjälp av kikare. Denna metod antas ge det mest ”sanna” värdet och den indikerade att kantstolpsmetoden tenderar att överskatta synavstånden, medan reflektormetoden tenderar att underskatta synavstånden något om reflektorerna är placerade nära vägmarkeringen. Att göra bedömningen i stillastående jämfört med i fart hade inte någon väsentlig inverkan på resultatet (synavstånden blev något kortare i fart), men det upplevdes vara svårare att göra en noggrann bedömning i fart.

Abstract [en]

The study aimed at developing a method for estimation of the visibility distance of longitudinal road markings in headlight illumination. The method will be used in a forthcoming study to validate a mathematical model, denoted Visibility, that was recently revised. With this model, the visibility distance of road markings can be calculated from various parameters, such as retroreflectivity and area.

The study included a literature review and a series of tests on public roads. Based on the literature review and a few minor field tests, a requirement specification was prepared. Two methods, denoted the reflector method and the post delineator method, respectively, were assumed to have the potential to fulfil the requirements and were further tested. In the reflector method, reflective road studs are placed along the road marking at a known distance between them. The estimation of visibility distance is done at standstill, by indicating the distance at which the marking is visible, expressed as the number of reflectors. In the post delineator method, the retroreflectors of post delineators are used as reference points instead of road studs and accordingly, the visibility distance is expressed in number of post delineator reflectors. The estimation is done at speed and the observer is continuously estimating the visibility distance while the vehicle is moving. Both methods worked well from a practical point of view and both also seemed to give reasonable results. However, when compared, it was clear that they gave substantially different results. The reason behind this has not been completely clarified. Further tests on a road with broken edge lines, the visibility distances were estimated by calculating the number of visible road markings by using binoculars, which is assumed to give the most “true” estimation. This method indicated that the post delineator method overestimates the visibility distances, while the reflector method may underestimate the visibility distance, if the road studs are placed close to the road marking. Estimating the visibility distance at standstill compared to at speed, did not have a substantial influence on the result, (the visibility distances were somewhat shorter at speed) however, the participants thought it was more difficult to make accurate estimations at speed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 46
Series
VTI notat ; 24-2018
Keywords
Carriageway marking, Visibility, Visibility distance, Measurement, Calculation, Method, Field (test), Retroreflection, Eye movement
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
30 Road: Highway design, 34 Road: Safety devices
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13448 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Johansen, T. C., Fors, C. & Kjellman, E. (2018). Nordic certification of road marking materials in Denmark 2015–2017. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nordic certification of road marking materials in Denmark 2015–2017
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Nordisk certifiering av vägmarkeringsmaterial i Danmark 2015–2017
Abstract [en]

A Nordic certification system for road marking materials was introduced in 2015. In the first stage, the certification system applies to the countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In these countries, a documented product approval will be required in order to use a road marking material on roads managed by the national road authorities. Product approval will be based on monitored and documented performance measurements of material samples applied on test fields on public roads.

The first round of material tests in Denmark started in autumn 2015. In all, 32 materials, out of which 24 were for certification and 8 for manufacturer’s internal test, were applied at the Danish test site in Hornbæk. In 2016, a new test site was established close to Gørlev, where another 22 materials were applied, 20 for certification and 2 for manufacturer’s internal test.

The present report documents the follow-up performance measurements that were carried out in 2017, i.e. one year follow-up measurements for materials applied in 2016 and two years follow-up measurements for materials applied in 2015. The performance parameters include the coefficient of retroreflected luminance (RL) under dry and wet conditions, the luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination (Qd), the friction, and the chromaticity in daylight.

Abstract [sv]

En nordisk certifiering av vägmarkeringsmaterial introducerades 2015 och avser i ett första steg Danmark, Norge och Sverige. I dessa länder kommer det att krävas ett dokumenterat godkännande av vägmarkeringsmaterial som används på vägar som administreras av den statliga väghållaren. Detta godkännande baseras på funktionsmätningar på vägmarkeringar som har applicerats i provfält.

En första testomgång i Danmark påbörjades hösten 2015. Totalt 32 material, varav 24 för certifiering och 8 för tillverkarnas interna test, applicerades på det danska provfältet i Hornbæk. År 2016 etablerades ett nytt provfält nära Gørlev, där ytterligare 22 material applicerades, 20 för certifiering och 2 för tillverkarnas interna test.

Föreliggande rapport redovisar resultaten från de uppföljande funktionsmätningar som gjordes 2017, det vill säga ettårsuppföljning av material som lades ut 2016 och tvåårsuppföljning av material som lades ut 2015. Funktionsmätningarna omfattar retroreflexion (RL) i torrt och vått tillstånd, luminanskoefficient (Qd), friktion och färg i dagsljus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 41
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 963A
Keywords
Carriageway marking, Field (test), Test method, Performance, Measurement, Retroreflection, Luminance, Friction, Chromatography, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Specification (standard)
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12803 (URN)
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved
Johansen, T. C. & Fors, C. (2018). Nordic certification of road marking materials in Denmark 2016–2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nordic certification of road marking materials in Denmark 2016–2018
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Nordisk certifiering av vägmarkeringsmaterial i Danmark 2016–2018
Abstract [en]

A Nordic certification system for road marking materials, that applies to the countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, was introduced in 2015. In these countries, a documented product approval is required in order to use a road marking material on roads managed by the national road authorities. Product approval is based on monitored and documented performance measurements of material samples applied on test fields on public roads.

A Danish test site was established in 2015, where between 13 and 32 materials have been applied yearly. The applied materials are followed up with performance measurements for two years. The materials are approved (certified) in relation to the number of wheel passages they will stand.

The certification system includes road marking materials for longitudinal road markings in categories with respect to colour (white, yellow), type (type I, type II, antiskid) and thickness (0.4, 0.6, 1.5, 3 and 4 mm).

The present report documents the follow-up performance measurements that were carried out at the Danish test site in 2018, i.e. one-year follow-up measurements for materials applied in 2017 and two years follow-up measurements for materials applied in 2016. The performance parameters include the coefficient of retroreflected luminance (RL) under dry and wet conditions, the luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination (Qd), the friction, and the chromaticity in daylight.

Abstract [sv]

En nordisk certifiering av vägmarkeringsmaterial introducerades 2015 och omfattar för närvarande Danmark, Norge och Sverige. I dessa länder krävs ett dokumenterat godkännande av vägmarkeringsmaterial som används på vägar som administreras av den statliga väghållaren. Detta godkännande baseras på funktionsmätningar på materialprover som har applicerats i provfält.

Ett danskt provfält etablerades år 2015, där mellan 13 och 32 material har lagts ut för provning varje år. De utlagda materialproven följs upp med funktionsmätningar under två år. Materialen godkänns (certifieras) i relation till antalet hjulpassager de klarar.

Certifieringssystemet omfattar vägmarkeringsmaterial för längsgående vägmarkeringar i olika kategorier med avseende på färg (vit, gul), typ (typ I, typ II, friktion) och tjocklek (0,4; 0,6; 1,5; 3 och 4 mm).

Föreliggande rapport dokumenterar resultaten från de uppföljande funktionsmätningar som gjordes på det danska provfältet 2018, det vill säga ettårsuppföljning av material som lades ut 2017 och tvåårsuppföljning av material som lades ut 2016. Funktionsmätningarna omfattar retroreflexion (RL) i torrt och vått tillstånd, luminanskoefficient (Qd), friktion och färg i dagsljus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 41
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 994A
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13439 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Johansen, T. C., Fors, C. & Kjellman, E. (2018). Nordic certification of road marking materials in Norway and Sweden 2015–2017. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nordic certification of road marking materials in Norway and Sweden 2015–2017
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Nordisk certifiering av vägmarkeringsmaterial i Norge och Sverige 2015–2017
Abstract [en]

A Nordic certification system for road marking materials was introduced in 2015. In the first stage, the certification system applies to the countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In these countries, a documented product approval will be required in order to use a road marking material on roads managed by the national road authorities. Product approval will be based on monitored and documented performance measurements of material samples applied on test fields on public roads.

The first round of material tests in Sweden started in May 2015. In all, 81 materials, out of which 78 were for certification and 3 for manufacturer’s internal test, were applied at the Swedish test site north of Sunne, in the west of Sweden. In 2016, another 72 materials were applied for certification at the Swedish test site.

The present report documents the follow-up performance measurements that were carried out in 2017, i.e. one-year follow-up measurements for materials applied in 2016 and two years follow-up measurements for materials applied in 2015. The performance parameters include the coefficient of retroreflected luminance (RL) under dry and wet conditions, the luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination (Qd), the friction, the chromaticity in daylight, and the chromaticity of retroreflected light (yellow materials, only).

Abstract [sv]

En nordisk certifiering av vägmarkeringsmaterial introducerades 2015 och avser i ett första steg Danmark, Norge och Sverige. I dessa länder kommer det att krävas ett dokumenterat godkännande av vägmarkeringsmaterial som används på vägar som administreras av den statliga väghållaren. Detta godkännande baseras på funktionsmätningar på vägmarkeringar som har applicerats i provfält.

En första testomgång i Sverige påbörjades i maj 2015. Totalt 81 material, varav 78 för certifiering och tre för tillverkarnas interna test, applicerades på det svenska provfältet norr om Sunne. År 2016 applicerades ytterligare 72 material på det svenska provfältet.

Föreliggande rapport dokumenterar resultaten från de uppföljande funktionsmätningar som gjordes 2017, det vill säga ettårsuppföljning av material som lades ut 2016 och tvåårsuppföljning av material som lades ut 2015. Funktionsmätningarna omfattar retroreflexion (RL) i torrt och vått tillstånd, luminanskoefficient (Qd), friktion, färg i dagsljus och färg i fordonsbelysning (för gula material).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 52
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 962A
Keywords
Carriageway marking, Field (test), Test method, Performance, Measurement, Retroreflection, Luminance, Friction, Chromatography, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Specification (standard)
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
50 Road: Materials, 55 Road: Miscellaneous materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12802 (URN)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2061-5817

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