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Johansson, E., Anund, A. & Koglin, T. (2019). Appraisal of a regional public transport project: A document and interview analysis on a light rail case in Sweden. Case Studies on Transport Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appraisal of a regional public transport project: A document and interview analysis on a light rail case in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Public transport, Investment, Evaluation (assessment), Planning, Interview, Method
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13888 (URN)10.1016/j.cstp.2019.04.007 (DOI)000468374600004 ()2-s2.0-85065137847 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Buendia, R., Forcolin, F., Karlsson, J., Sjöqvist, B. A., Anund, A. & Candefjord, S. (2019). Deriving heart rate variability indices from cardiac monitoring: An indicator of driver sleepiness. Traffic Injury Prevention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deriving heart rate variability indices from cardiac monitoring: An indicator of driver sleepiness
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2019 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Driver fatigue is considered to be a major contributor to road traffic crashes. Cardiac monitoring and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a candidate method for early and accurate detection of driver sleepiness. This study has 2 objectives: to evaluate the (1) suitability of different preprocessing strategies for detecting and removing outlier heartbeats and spectral transformation of HRV signals and their impact of driver sleepiness assessment and (2) relation between common HRV indices and subjective sleepiness reported by a large number of drivers in real driving situations, for the first time.

Methods: The study analyzed >3,500 5-min driving epochs from 76 drivers on a public motorway in Sweden. The electrocardiograph (ECG) data were recorded in 3 studies designed to evaluate the physiological differences between awake and sleepy drivers. The drivers reported their perceived level of sleepiness according to the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) every 5 min. Two standard methods were used for identifying outlier heartbeats: (1) percentage change (PC), where outliers were defined as interbeat intervals deviating >30% from the mean of the four previous intervals and (2) standard deviation (SD), where outliers were defined as interbeat interval deviating >4 SD from the mean interval duration in the current epoch. Three standard methods were used for spectral transformation, which is needed for deriving HRV indices in the frequency domain: (1) Fourier transform; (2) autoregressive model; and (3) Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Different preprocessing strategies were compared regarding their impact on derivation of common HRV indices and their relation to KSS data distribution, using box plots and statistical tests such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student’s t test.

Results: The ability of HRV indices to discriminate between alert and sleepy drivers does not differ significantly depending on which outlier detection and spectral transformation methods are used. As expected, with increasing sleepiness, the heart rate decreased, whereas heart rate variability overall increased. Furthermore, HRV parameters representing the parasympathetic branch of the autonomous nervous system increased. An unexpected finding was that parameters representing the sympathetic branch of the autonomous nervous system also increased with increasing KSS level. We hypothesize that this increment was due to stress induced by trying to avoid an incident, because the drivers were in real driving situations.

Conclusions: The association of HRV indices to KSS did not depend on the preprocessing strategy. No preprocessing method showed superiority for HRV association to driver sleepiness. This was also true for combinations of methods for frequency domain HRV indices. The results prove clear relationships between HRV indices and perceived sleepiness. Thus, HRV analysis shows promise for driver sleepiness detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Inc., 2019
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Heart beat, Variability, ECG, Use, Measurement
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13733 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2018.1548766 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064529128 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Vadeby, A. & Anund, A. (2019). Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort: Resultat från mätningar år 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort: Resultat från mätningar år 2018
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Speed compliance on municipality streets : Results 2018
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med föreliggande studie är att följa upp förändringar av trafikanternas hastighetsval ochhastighetsefterlevnad på det kommunala huvudvägnätet i tätort. År 2012 var startår för mätserien ochunder 2018 genomfördes den sjätte uppföljande mätningen. Enbart det kommunala huvudvägnätetmed hastighetsgränser 40–70 km/tim studerades. Mätningarna genomfördes under september månadpå 23 orter i Sverige.

Resultaten visar att för alla fordon år 2018 var den genomsnittliga reshastigheten på det studeradevägnätet 46 km/tim. Vad gäller efterlevnaden av hastighetsgränserna var det totalt sett 66 procent somhöll hastighetsgränsen år 2018. Hastighetsefterlevnaden är sämst på gator med hastighetsbegränsning40 km/tim där endast 53 procent av trafiken höll hastighetsgränsen. På gator med 50 km/tim var det66 procent, på 60 km/tim 80 procent och på 70 km/tim var det 79 procent som höll hastighetsgränsen.Resultaten för 60 och 70 km/tim ligger därmed i princip på den målnivå om 80 procents hastighetsefterlevnadsom finns för år 2020. Om hastigheterna i de studerade punkterna 2018 jämförs medhastigheterna uppmätta 2017 så finns det inte någon signifikant skillnad.

Sammanfattningsvis kan konstateras att de genomsnittliga reshastigheterna i tätort ligger undergällande hastighetsgränser, men bristande hastighetsefterlevnad är fortfarande ett problem, framföralltpå gator med hastighetsbegränsning 40 km/tim. För att nå målet att 80 procent av trafiken ska följagällande hastighetsgräns år 2020 är det framför allt hastighetsefterlevnaden på gator med låghastighetsbegränsning som behöver förbättras.

Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study is to report the changes between the years 2017 and 2018 concerningdriver speed levels and speed limit compliance on the main municipality streets. The year 2012 wasthe starting year for the measurement series, and in 2018 a sixth follow-up was performed. Only themain municipality streets with speed limits between 40 km/h and 70 km/h were included. Themeasurements were made during the month of September in 23 different municipalities in Sweden.

The results show that in 2018 the space-mean-speed for all vehicles on the main municipality roadswas 46 km/h. With respect to speed violations, overall, 66 per cent of drivers obeyed the speed limit2017. The lowest speed limit compliance was found on roads with a speed limit of 40 km/h, whereonly 53 per cent of the traffic obeyed the speed limit; 66 per cent obeyed the speed limit on 50 km/hroads, 80 per cent on 60 and 79 per cent on 70 km/h roads.

In conclusion, the space-mean-speeds in urban areas are below the legal speed limit, but the lack ofspeed compliance remains a problem, especially on streets with speed limit 40 km/h. Primarily, thespeed limit compliance on roads with lower speed limits must be improved in order to reach the goalof 80 per cent compliance by 2020.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 42
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1001
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13707 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-25 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Vadeby, A. & Anund, A. (2019). Hastighetsefterlevnad på gator med 40 km/h – vad skiljer en gata med god efterlevnad från en med dålig?: resultat från mätningar år 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hastighetsefterlevnad på gator med 40 km/h – vad skiljer en gata med god efterlevnad från en med dålig?: resultat från mätningar år 2018
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Speed compliance on streets with speed limit 40 km/h - what differentiates a street with good compliance from one with poor? : results from measurements in 2018
Abstract [sv]

Tidigare mätningar har visat att det generellt är dålig efterlevnad på gator med hastighetsbegränsning 40 km/tim. Det finns därmed ett behov av att hitta förhållningssätt som bidrar till att öka efterlevnaden på gator med hastighetsgräns 40 km/tim, dels för att få den effekt man önskar av en sänkning av en hastighetsgräns, dels för att bibehålla acceptansen för hastighetsgränserna.

Syftet med studien var att studera hastighetsefterlevnad på gator med 40 km/tim på det kommunala vägnätet. Genom att utnyttja dels befintliga, dels nya mätningar studerades hastighetsefterlevnaden vid olika fysiska utformningar och miljöer där hastighetsbegränsningen är 40 km/tim. Totalt studerades hastigheten vid 51 mätplatser i 23 olika kommuner.

Abstract [en]

Previous measurements have shown that there is generally poor speed compliance on streets with a speed limit of 40 km/h. There is need to find approaches that increase speed compliance on these streets, both to obtain the effect desired by a speed limit reduction and to maintain the acceptance of the speed limits.

The aim of the study was to study speed compliance on streets with speed limit 40 km/h on municipality streets in Sweden. By utilizing both existing and new measurements, speed compliance was studied for different physical designs and locations where the speed limit is 40 km/h. In total, speed was studied at 51 measurement sites in 23 different municipalities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 37
Series
VTI notat ; 14-2019
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14366 (URN)
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Hughes, B., Falkmer, T. & Anund, A. (2019). The Relevance of Australasian Road Safety Strategies in a Future Context. JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF ROAD SAFETY, 30(1), 34-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Relevance of Australasian Road Safety Strategies in a Future Context
2019 (English)In: JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF ROAD SAFETY, ISSN 1832-9497, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 34-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The improvements to road safety since the 1970's are becoming increasingly difficult to sustain in many developed countries. This paper analyses ten Australasian Government road safety strategies against two key criteria: 1. a comprehensive framework for road safety, and 2. the anticipated changing, difficult and unpredictable nature of future transport and its context. The analysis concludes that current Australasian road safety strategies are weak in some areas of content and do not address future challenges. Improvements are suggested to strengthen strategies' thoroughness and robustness, as well as ways that the strategies can be more resilient to future circumstances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AUSTRALASIAN COLL ROAD SAFETY, 2019
Keywords
Safety, Government (national), Planning, Policy, Forecast
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13595 (URN)000458365200005 ()
Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Hughes, B. P., Falkmer, T., Anund, A. & Black, M. H. (2019). The relevance of U.S. Strategic Highway Safety Plans in a future context. PLoS ONE, 14(10), Article ID e0223646.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relevance of U.S. Strategic Highway Safety Plans in a future context
2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 10, article id e0223646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While road safety in the United States (U.S.) has been continually improving since the 1970's, there are indications that these improvements are becoming increasingly difficult to sustain. Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) are prepared by States to guide road safety management, however assessing the appropriateness of these plans remains a significant challenge, especially for the future in which they are to be applied. This study developed a new methodology to assess SHSPs from the perspectives of comprehensive system-based safety management and relevant future issues that can be applied before SHSPs are implemented, thereby avoiding long periods after implementation before assessing the appropriateness of the plans. A rating scale was developed and applied to assess 48 U.S. SHSPs against two key criteria: 1. a comprehensive framework for road safety, and 2. the anticipated changing, difficult and unpredictable nature of future transport and its context. The analysis concluded that current SHSPs have good national oversight with several strengths but were weak in some areas of content and did not address future challenges. Improvements are suggested to strengthen the plans' thoroughness by being consistent with systems theory and practice, as well as ways that these SHSPs can be more resilient to future circumstances. Implementing the recommendations in this paper provides the opportunity to adopt a system-based safety management practice that has been successful in other hazardous industries. Doing so is expected to most efficiently and effectively continue the recent improvements to road safety, which is likely to be increasingly difficult otherwise. © 2019 Hughes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14291 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0223646 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072981728 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-23 Created: 2019-10-23 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Anund, A., Fors, C., Ihlström, J. & Kecklund, G. (2018). An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 114, 71-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers
2018 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers.

The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337. s; split shift 0.347. s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Bus, Driver, Working conditions, Test, In situ
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11886 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.005 (DOI)000428829800011 ()28506403 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019144045 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Anund, A., Ahlström, C., Fors, C. & Åkerstedt, T. (2018). Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 44(1), 88-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.

Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.

Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.

Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL WORK ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Driver, Professional category, Simulator (driving), Speed, Behaviour
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12735 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3677 (DOI)000418916600010 ()29018866 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040066980 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-17 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Abtahi, F., Anund, A., Fors, C., Seoane, F. & Lindecrantz, K. (2018). Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads. In: IFMBE Proceedings: . Paper presented at Joint Conference of the European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference, EMBEC 2017 and Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, NBC 2107, 11 June 2017 through 15 June 2017 (pp. 149-152). Springer Verlag, 65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads
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2018 (English)In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 65, p. 149-152Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Detection, Heart beat, Variability, Driver, ECG
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11938 (URN)10.1007/978-981-10-5122-7_38 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021750920 (Scopus ID)9789811051210 (ISBN)
Conference
Joint Conference of the European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference, EMBEC 2017 and Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, NBC 2107, 11 June 2017 through 15 June 2017
Available from: 2017-07-19 Created: 2017-07-19 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Anund, A., Ihlström, J., Stave, C. & Nybom, P. (2018). Bälte i buss: observationsstudie av användande och resenärers perspektiv. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bälte i buss: observationsstudie av användande och resenärers perspektiv
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Seat belt usage in buses : an observation study of usage and travellers’ perspectives
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med studien har varit att belysa omfattningen av bältesanvändningen idag, omfattningen av information om att bälte ska användas och att förstå resenärernas incitament att använda bälte, och med det som utgångspunkt föreslå åtgärder för att öka användningen av bälte vid resa med buss.

Metoder som använts är observationsstudie av bältesanvändning hos passagerare och bussförare, samt förekomst av förarens utrop om bältesanvändning. Arbetet omfattar även diskussioner i fokusgrupp med resenärer och förare, samt en webbenkät. Resultaten från observationsstudien visade att bältesanvändningen bland passagerare var 92 % i beställningstrafik, 50 % i kommersiell linjetrafik och 27 % i regional linjetrafik. Förarnas användande var på motsvarande sätt 100% i beställningstrafik, 79 % i kommersiell linjetrafik och 85 % i regional linjetrafik. Slutsatsen blir att åtgärder behövs för att öka användandegraden, särskilt i linjetrafiken.

I observationsstudien tillfrågades förare om de utropat att bälte ska tas på och passagerare tillfrågades om de blivit upplysta om att bältet ska tas på. I beställningstrafiken var det 86 % som erfarit utrop, i kommersiell linjetrafik var det 61 % och i regional linjetrafik var det 19 %. Slutsatsen blir att det framförallt i linjetrafiken finns stora brister i informationen om att ta på bältet, vilket bör åtgärdas.

Beslutet att använda bälte eller inte är individuellt. Faktorer som hur gammal du är, vilken erfarenhet du har av säkert bussåkande, på vilken typ av väg du reser, när du reser och hur du ser på säkerhet rent allmänt spelar en roll.

Abstract [en]

This study aims to evaluate the seat belt usage in buses, to evaluate to what extent information about the need to use the seat belt are provided and to understand travelers' incentives of seatbelt usage. Based on the results the aim was to propose measures to increase the use of a belt when traveling by bus.

Methods used are observational studies, discussion within focus groups and a web questionnaire. The results from the observation study showed that passenger seat belt usage was 92% in charter service, 50% in commercial liner traffic and 27% in regional liner traffic. The drivers' use was correspondingly 100% in charter service, 79% in commercial liner traffic and 85% in regional liner traffic. The results from the web questionnaire show a lower level of usage. The conclusion is that measures are needed to increase the user rate, especially in line traffic.

In the observation study, drivers were asked if they remind the passengers to use the seat belt, in the same way the passengers were asked if they have received information when going but charter service or commercial liner traffic. In charter service, 86% experienced they had received information, in commercial liner traffic it was 61% and in regional liner traffic it was 19%. The conclusion is that there are major shortcomings in the information on the belt, which should be addressed, especially in line traffic.

The decision to use a belt or not is individual. Factors like how old you are, what experience you're having on a safe bus, what kind of road you travel, when you travel and how you're looking at safety generally plays a part.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 53
Series
VTI notat ; 16-2018
Keywords
Safety belt, Bus, Passenger, Use, Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Statistics
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13266 (URN)
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4790-7094

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