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Sjörs Dahlman, A. & Anund, A. (2020). Utvärdering av trötthetsvarningssystem i buss. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvärdering av trötthetsvarningssystem i buss
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Evaluation of fatigue warning system in buses
Abstract [sv]

Tidigare studier har visat att det är vanligt att bussförare i kollektivtrafik får kämpa för att hålla sig vakna flera gånger i månaden. Det finns i dagsläget tekniska system för att detektera trötthet hos förare men hur denna typ av system påverkar och uppfattas av bussförare är inte känt. Syftet med studien var att utvärdera effekten av ett trötthetsvarningssystem i långfärdsbussar. Studien omfattar två delstudier; en enkätstudie och en utvärdering av trötthetsvarningssystemet med bussförare på väg. Enkätstudien visade att de faktorer som upplevs som mest tröttande var att köra på natten, oregelbundna arbets- och sovtider och delade arbetspass/lång tid sedan rast. Det var 29% av förarna som uppgav att de behövde kämpa för att hålla sig vakna när de kör buss 2-4 ggr/ månad eller oftare. Datainsamlingen på väg visade att självskattad sömnighet var något lägre under körningar med trötthetsvarningssystemet aktivt. Trötthetsvarningssystemets loggar av trötthetshändelser samt förarnas rapporter av varningar som tagits emot stämde inte överens med deras upplevda trötthet. Förarna var överlag positiva till trötthetsvarningssystemet men lyfte fram att systemet behöver bli mer tillförlitligt.

Abstract [en]

Previous studies have shown that it is common for bus drivers in public transport to struggle to stay awake several times a month. Several systems for detecting fatigue in drivers are currently available, but how these types of systems affect and are perceived by bus drivers is not known. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a fatigue warning system for use in long-distance buses. The study comprises two sub-studies; a survey and an on-road evaluation of the fatigue warning system. The survey showed that the factors that were considered the most tiring were driving at night, irregular working and sleeping hours and spread-over shifts/long time since a break. 29% of the drivers stated that they had to fight to stay awake when driving a bus 2–4 times/month or more. The on-road study showed that self-rated sleepiness was slightly lower when the fatigue warning system was active. The logs of fatigue events from the fatigue warning system and the drivers' reports of received warnings did not match their perceived fatigue. The drivers were generally positive about the fatigue warning system but emphasized that the system needs to be more reliable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2020. p. 63
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1026
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14957 (URN)
Available from: 2020-02-10 Created: 2020-02-10 Last updated: 2020-02-10Bibliographically approved
Johansson, E., Anund, A. & Koglin, T. (2019). Appraisal of a regional public transport project: A document and interview analysis on a light rail case in Sweden. Case Studies on Transport Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appraisal of a regional public transport project: A document and interview analysis on a light rail case in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Public transport, Investment, Evaluation (assessment), Planning, Interview, Method
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 111 Road: Public transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13888 (URN)10.1016/j.cstp.2019.04.007 (DOI)000468374600004 ()2-s2.0-85065137847 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Buendia, R., Forcolin, F., Karlsson, J., Sjöqvist, B. A., Anund, A. & Candefjord, S. (2019). Deriving heart rate variability indices from cardiac monitoring: An indicator of driver sleepiness. Traffic Injury Prevention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deriving heart rate variability indices from cardiac monitoring: An indicator of driver sleepiness
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2019 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Driver fatigue is considered to be a major contributor to road traffic crashes. Cardiac monitoring and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a candidate method for early and accurate detection of driver sleepiness. This study has 2 objectives: to evaluate the (1) suitability of different preprocessing strategies for detecting and removing outlier heartbeats and spectral transformation of HRV signals and their impact of driver sleepiness assessment and (2) relation between common HRV indices and subjective sleepiness reported by a large number of drivers in real driving situations, for the first time.

Methods: The study analyzed >3,500 5-min driving epochs from 76 drivers on a public motorway in Sweden. The electrocardiograph (ECG) data were recorded in 3 studies designed to evaluate the physiological differences between awake and sleepy drivers. The drivers reported their perceived level of sleepiness according to the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) every 5 min. Two standard methods were used for identifying outlier heartbeats: (1) percentage change (PC), where outliers were defined as interbeat intervals deviating >30% from the mean of the four previous intervals and (2) standard deviation (SD), where outliers were defined as interbeat interval deviating >4 SD from the mean interval duration in the current epoch. Three standard methods were used for spectral transformation, which is needed for deriving HRV indices in the frequency domain: (1) Fourier transform; (2) autoregressive model; and (3) Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Different preprocessing strategies were compared regarding their impact on derivation of common HRV indices and their relation to KSS data distribution, using box plots and statistical tests such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student’s t test.

Results: The ability of HRV indices to discriminate between alert and sleepy drivers does not differ significantly depending on which outlier detection and spectral transformation methods are used. As expected, with increasing sleepiness, the heart rate decreased, whereas heart rate variability overall increased. Furthermore, HRV parameters representing the parasympathetic branch of the autonomous nervous system increased. An unexpected finding was that parameters representing the sympathetic branch of the autonomous nervous system also increased with increasing KSS level. We hypothesize that this increment was due to stress induced by trying to avoid an incident, because the drivers were in real driving situations.

Conclusions: The association of HRV indices to KSS did not depend on the preprocessing strategy. No preprocessing method showed superiority for HRV association to driver sleepiness. This was also true for combinations of methods for frequency domain HRV indices. The results prove clear relationships between HRV indices and perceived sleepiness. Thus, HRV analysis shows promise for driver sleepiness detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Inc., 2019
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Heart beat, Variability, ECG, Use, Measurement
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13733 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2018.1548766 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064529128 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Anund, A., Solis Marcos, I. & Strand, N. (2019). Driving automation and its effects on drivers: a human factor perspective. In: Meng Lu (Ed.), Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Towards high-level automated driving (pp. 87-103). IET Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving automation and its effects on drivers: a human factor perspective
2019 (English)In: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Towards high-level automated driving / [ed] Meng Lu, IET Digital Library, 2019, p. 87-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter will cover some of the issues mentioned by European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC) and has its starting point in the knowledge and experience from four different EU-funded projects dealing with automation and human factors. It might be expected that there is no difference in how human factors should be considered in relation to automation depending on the country it is used in. However, there are reasons to believe that there are differences in understanding and in acceptance of new functions depending on experience or not from modern vehicles with, for example integrated driver support systems. This chapter has its starting point mainly from work done in Europe, which may be considered to be generic and valid for other countries in the world with the same type of car fleets. The focus will be on challenges covering: the need to have an adaptive Human-Machine Interface (HMI) to achieve trust and acceptance in relation to automated functionalities and system, the importance of considering different driver states and finally the evaluations of automated systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IET Digital Library, 2019
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14804 (URN)10.1049/PBTR025E_ch5 (DOI)9781839530135 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-12-19 Created: 2019-12-19 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Vadeby, A. & Anund, A. (2019). Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort: Resultat från mätningar år 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort: Resultat från mätningar år 2018
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Speed compliance on municipality streets : Results 2018
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med föreliggande studie är att följa upp förändringar av trafikanternas hastighetsval ochhastighetsefterlevnad på det kommunala huvudvägnätet i tätort. År 2012 var startår för mätserien ochunder 2018 genomfördes den sjätte uppföljande mätningen. Enbart det kommunala huvudvägnätetmed hastighetsgränser 40–70 km/tim studerades. Mätningarna genomfördes under september månadpå 23 orter i Sverige.

Resultaten visar att för alla fordon år 2018 var den genomsnittliga reshastigheten på det studeradevägnätet 46 km/tim. Vad gäller efterlevnaden av hastighetsgränserna var det totalt sett 66 procent somhöll hastighetsgränsen år 2018. Hastighetsefterlevnaden är sämst på gator med hastighetsbegränsning40 km/tim där endast 53 procent av trafiken höll hastighetsgränsen. På gator med 50 km/tim var det66 procent, på 60 km/tim 80 procent och på 70 km/tim var det 79 procent som höll hastighetsgränsen.Resultaten för 60 och 70 km/tim ligger därmed i princip på den målnivå om 80 procents hastighetsefterlevnadsom finns för år 2020. Om hastigheterna i de studerade punkterna 2018 jämförs medhastigheterna uppmätta 2017 så finns det inte någon signifikant skillnad.

Sammanfattningsvis kan konstateras att de genomsnittliga reshastigheterna i tätort ligger undergällande hastighetsgränser, men bristande hastighetsefterlevnad är fortfarande ett problem, framföralltpå gator med hastighetsbegränsning 40 km/tim. För att nå målet att 80 procent av trafiken ska följagällande hastighetsgräns år 2020 är det framför allt hastighetsefterlevnaden på gator med låghastighetsbegränsning som behöver förbättras.

Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study is to report the changes between the years 2017 and 2018 concerningdriver speed levels and speed limit compliance on the main municipality streets. The year 2012 wasthe starting year for the measurement series, and in 2018 a sixth follow-up was performed. Only themain municipality streets with speed limits between 40 km/h and 70 km/h were included. Themeasurements were made during the month of September in 23 different municipalities in Sweden.

The results show that in 2018 the space-mean-speed for all vehicles on the main municipality roadswas 46 km/h. With respect to speed violations, overall, 66 per cent of drivers obeyed the speed limit2017. The lowest speed limit compliance was found on roads with a speed limit of 40 km/h, whereonly 53 per cent of the traffic obeyed the speed limit; 66 per cent obeyed the speed limit on 50 km/hroads, 80 per cent on 60 and 79 per cent on 70 km/h roads.

In conclusion, the space-mean-speeds in urban areas are below the legal speed limit, but the lack ofspeed compliance remains a problem, especially on streets with speed limit 40 km/h. Primarily, thespeed limit compliance on roads with lower speed limits must be improved in order to reach the goalof 80 per cent compliance by 2020.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 42
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1001
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13707 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-25 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Vadeby, A. & Anund, A. (2019). Hastighetsefterlevnad på gator med 40 km/h – vad skiljer en gata med god efterlevnad från en med dålig?: resultat från mätningar år 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hastighetsefterlevnad på gator med 40 km/h – vad skiljer en gata med god efterlevnad från en med dålig?: resultat från mätningar år 2018
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Speed compliance on streets with speed limit 40 km/h - what differentiates a street with good compliance from one with poor? : results from measurements in 2018
Abstract [sv]

Tidigare mätningar har visat att det generellt är dålig efterlevnad på gator med hastighetsbegränsning 40 km/tim. Det finns därmed ett behov av att hitta förhållningssätt som bidrar till att öka efterlevnaden på gator med hastighetsgräns 40 km/tim, dels för att få den effekt man önskar av en sänkning av en hastighetsgräns, dels för att bibehålla acceptansen för hastighetsgränserna.

Syftet med studien var att studera hastighetsefterlevnad på gator med 40 km/tim på det kommunala vägnätet. Genom att utnyttja dels befintliga, dels nya mätningar studerades hastighetsefterlevnaden vid olika fysiska utformningar och miljöer där hastighetsbegränsningen är 40 km/tim. Totalt studerades hastigheten vid 51 mätplatser i 23 olika kommuner.

Abstract [en]

Previous measurements have shown that there is generally poor speed compliance on streets with a speed limit of 40 km/h. There is need to find approaches that increase speed compliance on these streets, both to obtain the effect desired by a speed limit reduction and to maintain the acceptance of the speed limits.

The aim of the study was to study speed compliance on streets with speed limit 40 km/h on municipality streets in Sweden. By utilizing both existing and new measurements, speed compliance was studied for different physical designs and locations where the speed limit is 40 km/h. In total, speed was studied at 51 measurement sites in 23 different municipalities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2019. p. 37
Series
VTI notat ; 14-2019
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14366 (URN)
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Vadeby, A., Anund, A. & Choi, S. (2019). Road Safety on Five Continents: Conference in Jeju, South Korea 2018. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 132, Article ID UNSP 105206.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road Safety on Five Continents: Conference in Jeju, South Korea 2018
2019 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 132, article id UNSP 105206Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Road traffic injuries resulting in loss of life is one of the major global health problems today with 1.24 million people killed annually, i.e., one person is killed every 25 s in a road crash. Many countries work systematically to reduce the number of road traffic fatalities and have achieved good results; however, much remains to be done. Estimates indicate that, unless action is taken over the next 15 years, the annual number of fatalities in road crashes may rise to 2.4 million, predominantly increasing in low and middle-income countries.

Global cooperation is required to stop the growth of traffic fatalities. To reverse this trend, knowledge, information and experience from success stories and good practice must be shared. Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C), is an international conference aiming at enhancing road safety globally, by providing a platform for facilitating essential knowledge exchange and helping participating countries to provide a high level of safe and healthy mobility for future transportation.

The foundation of the RS5C lies in state of the art research and good practice. By providing a mutual ground for sharing acquired knowledge and a forum to discuss mutual problems and suitable solutions so that researchers, officials and other stakeholders can learn from results, experiences and success stories.

RS5C aims to be a leading source of research results, information and interaction in the road transport area with a focus on safety, mobility and health issues associated with road transport. This aim is accomplished by cooperation with local as well as global organisations to ensure that RS5C meets local needs with global state of the art solutions. Moreover, RS5C produces papers of high scientific quality that are freely accessible to everyone.

Originally, the emphasis for the conference “Road Safety on Two Continents” was two continents, Europe and North America, to bring road safety researchers together. Conferences were held in Europe between 1987 and 1999 and then expanded to three continents in 2000 when the conference was relocated to South Africa. A fourth continent, Asia, was added in 2007 in which year the conference was hosted in Thailand. In 2016 the conference was expanded to Brazil, South America, hence the new name "Road Safety on Five Continents".

In May 2018, the RS5C conference took place in Jeju, South Korea, and attracted the international research community, national safety experts, decision makers, practitioners and other delegates with an interest in road safety development. More than 100 presentations on road safety were accepted from more than 30 countries. The conference was organised by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) in close cooperation with Korea Transportation Safety Authority (KOTSA) and Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) in South Korea.

The eight peer-reviewed papers in this special issue cover a wide range of topics, demonstrating a broad spectrum of road safety issues from motorised to non-motorised road users, as well as vehicle, road and economical issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14265 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2019.05.031 (DOI)000489192000002 ()31204001 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-14 Created: 2020-01-14 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
Hughes, B., Falkmer, T. & Anund, A. (2019). The Relevance of Australasian Road Safety Strategies in a Future Context. JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF ROAD SAFETY, 30(1), 34-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Relevance of Australasian Road Safety Strategies in a Future Context
2019 (English)In: JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF ROAD SAFETY, ISSN 1832-9497, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 34-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The improvements to road safety since the 1970's are becoming increasingly difficult to sustain in many developed countries. This paper analyses ten Australasian Government road safety strategies against two key criteria: 1. a comprehensive framework for road safety, and 2. the anticipated changing, difficult and unpredictable nature of future transport and its context. The analysis concludes that current Australasian road safety strategies are weak in some areas of content and do not address future challenges. Improvements are suggested to strengthen strategies' thoroughness and robustness, as well as ways that the strategies can be more resilient to future circumstances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AUSTRALASIAN COLL ROAD SAFETY, 2019
Keywords
Safety, Government (national), Planning, Policy, Forecast
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13595 (URN)000458365200005 ()
Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Hughes, B. P., Falkmer, T., Anund, A. & Black, M. H. (2019). The relevance of U.S. Strategic Highway Safety Plans in a future context. PLoS ONE, 14(10), Article ID e0223646.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relevance of U.S. Strategic Highway Safety Plans in a future context
2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 10, article id e0223646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While road safety in the United States (U.S.) has been continually improving since the 1970's, there are indications that these improvements are becoming increasingly difficult to sustain. Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) are prepared by States to guide road safety management, however assessing the appropriateness of these plans remains a significant challenge, especially for the future in which they are to be applied. This study developed a new methodology to assess SHSPs from the perspectives of comprehensive system-based safety management and relevant future issues that can be applied before SHSPs are implemented, thereby avoiding long periods after implementation before assessing the appropriateness of the plans. A rating scale was developed and applied to assess 48 U.S. SHSPs against two key criteria: 1. a comprehensive framework for road safety, and 2. the anticipated changing, difficult and unpredictable nature of future transport and its context. The analysis concluded that current SHSPs have good national oversight with several strengths but were weak in some areas of content and did not address future challenges. Improvements are suggested to strengthen the plans' thoroughness by being consistent with systems theory and practice, as well as ways that these SHSPs can be more resilient to future circumstances. Implementing the recommendations in this paper provides the opportunity to adopt a system-based safety management practice that has been successful in other hazardous industries. Doing so is expected to most efficiently and effectively continue the recent improvements to road safety, which is likely to be increasingly difficult otherwise. © 2019 Hughes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14291 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0223646 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072981728 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-23 Created: 2019-10-23 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved
Anund, A., Fors, C., Ihlström, J. & Kecklund, G. (2018). An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 114, 71-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers
2018 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers.

The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337. s; split shift 0.347. s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Fatigue (human), Bus, Driver, Working conditions, Test, In situ
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11886 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.005 (DOI)000428829800011 ()28506403 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019144045 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4790-7094

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