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Linder, A. & Svedberg, W. (2019). Review of average sized male and female occupant models in European regulatory safety assessment tests and European laws: Gaps and bridging suggestions. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 127, 156-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of average sized male and female occupant models in European regulatory safety assessment tests and European laws: Gaps and bridging suggestions
2019 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 127, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part comprised reviewing how men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. This part also contains an overview of some differences between females and males that may influence dynamic responses in a crash. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests has been suggested. The second part was to reflect on these issues from a specific critical legal perspective, that is from a Gender Legal Studies point of view, focusing on the European legal framework that governs the tests of adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. Since the beginning of the 1970s legal scholars have shown in several areas of law that there is a gap between superior legislation and practice, but also between gender equality as a superior legal principle and subordinate legal rules that govern safety requirements. The same pattern can be discerned in the area of Transportation Law.

The results of the review of the ECE regulations shows that the average sized male represents the adult population and that the average sized female has been excluded from regulations assessing the protection of adult vehicle occupants. The fundamental values, on which the Union is founded, including the overarching goals of the Union, seem to be rendered invisible in the laws and critically impact the safety of women in everyday life. According to the gender system theory, the interests and priorities of men are continuing to shape the law. Consequently, the law neglecting the safety of women on roads has implications on the development of society. The lack of legal provisions that demand female crash test dummies representing the female part of the population, means that there is no incentive for car manufacturers, authorities or other stakeholders to develop test methods and female crash test dummies in ways that promote political objectives expressed in legal form, i.e., the legal values expressed in general provisions and principles stated in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, such as gender equality between women and men as well as non-discrimination This study highlights the undeniable gap between the legal framework and legal requirements with regard to occupant safety for the whole adult population. It would be attainable to bridge this particular gender gap by providing equal representation for the female part of the population with regard to vehicle safety, as that males benefit from.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Man, Woman, Standardization, Impact test (crash), Legislation, Anthropometric dummy, Dimension
National Category
Gender Studies
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13719 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2019.02.030 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062966545 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Linder, A. & Svensson, M. Y. (2019). Road safety: the average male as a norm in vehicle occupant crash safety assessment. ISR. Interdisciplinary science review, 44(2), 140-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road safety: the average male as a norm in vehicle occupant crash safety assessment
2019 (English)In: ISR. Interdisciplinary science review, ISSN 0308-0188, E-ISSN 1743-2790, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 140-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review addresses how women and men are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Injury statistics show that protection in the event of a crash is lower for females than males. Still, vehicle crash safety assessment for adult occupants is only using the average sized male to represent the entire adult population, while the average sized female is not represented. In order to enable car manufacturers and road safety regulators to safeguard that females benefit equally from crash safety measures as males, it is necessary to develop new dedicated occupant models. These new models must represent the female part of the population, i.e. crash test dummies and human body models representing the average female. New female models would, together with their male equivalents, make it possible to identify the vehicle occupant safety systems which provide the best safety features for both females and males.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14022 (URN)10.1080/03080188.2019.1603870 (DOI)000470328000004 ()2-s2.0-85066484289 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Linder, A., Sörensen, G. & Silvano, A. P. (2018). Anti-lock Braking System on Bicycles: A pilot study on influence on stability. In: Conference proceedings International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI: . Paper presented at 2018 International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury Asia Conference, IRCOBI Asia 2018, 25 April 2018 through 27 April 2018 (pp. 47-48). International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-lock Braking System on Bicycles: A pilot study on influence on stability
2018 (English)In: Conference proceedings International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI, International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury , 2018, p. 47-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2018
Keywords
Bicycle, Anti locking device, Brake, Stability
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13541 (URN)2-s2.0-85057814013 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2018 International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury Asia Conference, IRCOBI Asia 2018, 25 April 2018 through 27 April 2018
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Linder, A. & Svedberg, W. (2018). Occupant safety assessment in European regulatory tests: review of occupant models, gaps and suggestion for bridging any gaps. In: : . Paper presented at 18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupant safety assessment in European regulatory tests: review of occupant models, gaps and suggestion for bridging any gaps
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part was to review how adult men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests was suggested. The second part of the aim, described as emancipatory knowledge of interest, included highlighting the values declared in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred as "the Treaties"). This means that the purpose of the knowledge is to recognize the legal values of equality between women and men, as well as non-discrimination on which the Union is founded, article 2 of the Treaty on European Union. as expressed in the above-mentioned Treaties. In addition to that to contribute to women's and men's liberation and to the development of society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018
Research subject
X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12886 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Östh, J., Mendoza-Vazquez, M., Sato, F., Svensson, M. Y., Linder, A. & Brolin, K. (2017). A female head–neck model for rear impact simulations. Journal of Biomechanics, 51, 49-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A female head–neck model for rear impact simulations
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 51, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males.

In this study, a finite element head and neck model of a 50th percentile female was validated in rear impacts. A previously validated ligamentous cervical spine model was complemented with a rigid body head, soft tissues and muscles. In both physiological flexion-extension motions and simulated rear impacts, the kinematic response at segment level was comparable to that of human subjects.

Evaluation of ligament stress levels in simulations with varied initial cervical curvature revealed that if an individual assumes a more lordotic posture than the neutral, a higher risk of WAD might occur in rear impact. The female head and neck model, together with a kinematical whole body model which is under development, addresses a need for tools for assessment of automotive protection systems for the group which is at the highest risk to sustain WAD.

Keywords
Woman, Neck, Mathematical model, Finite element method, Rear end collision, Injury
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 85 Road: Personal injuries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11433 (URN)10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.11.066 (DOI)2-s2.0-85006942259 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Linder, A., Holmqvist, K. & Svensson, M. Y. (2017). Average male and female virtual dummy model (BioRID and EvaRID) simulations with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration. Paper presented at 17th International Conference Road Safety On Five Continents (RS5C 2016), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 17-19 May 2016. Accident Analysis and Prevention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Average male and female virtual dummy model (BioRID and EvaRID) simulations with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration
2017 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. These injuries are sustained in all impact directions, however they are most common in rear impacts. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury. Furthermore, some recently developed anti-whiplash systems have revealed they provide less protection for females than males. The protection of both males and females should be addresses equally when designing and evaluating vehicle safety systems to ensure maximum safety for everyone. This is currently not the case. The norm for crash test dummies representing humans in crash test laboratories is an average male. The female part of the population is not represented in tests performed by consumer information organisations such as NCAP or in regulatory tests due to the absence of a physical dummy representing an average female.

Recently, the world first virtual model of an average female crash test dummy was developed. In this study, simulations were run with both this model and an average male dummy model, seated in a simplified model of a vehicle seat. The results of the simulations were compared to earlier published results from simulations run in the same test set-up with a vehicle concepts seat. The three crash pulse severities of the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test were applied. The motion of the neck, head and upper torso were analysed in addition to the accelerations and the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). Furthermore, the response of the virtual models was compared to the response of volunteers as well as the average male model, to that of the response of a physical dummy model. Simulations with the virtual male and female dummy models revealed differences in dynamic response related to the crash severity, as well as between the two dummies in the two different seat models. For the comparison of the response of the virtual models to the response of the volunteers and the physical dummy model, the peak angular motion of the first thoracic vertebra as found in the volunteer tests and mimicked by the physical dummy were not of the same magnitude in the virtual models.

The results of the study highlight the need for an extended test matrix that includes an average female dummy model to evaluate the level of occupant protection different seats provide in vehicle crashes. This would provide developers with an additional tool to ensure that both male and female occupants receive satisfactory protection and promote seat concepts that provide the best possible protection for the whole adult population. This study shows that using the mathematical models available today can provide insights suitable for future testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
Keywords
Anthropometric dummy, Cervical vertebrae, Injury, Man, Woman, Rear end collision, Collision test (veh), Simulation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 913 Road: Vehicle interior safety; X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11912 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.029 (DOI)28622848 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020662948 (Scopus ID)
Conference
17th International Conference Road Safety On Five Continents (RS5C 2016), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 17-19 May 2016
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Ekström, C. & Linder, A. (2017). Fatally injured cyclists in Sweden 2005–2015: analysis of accident circumstances, injuries and suggestions for safety improvements. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatally injured cyclists in Sweden 2005–2015: analysis of accident circumstances, injuries and suggestions for safety improvements
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Omkomna cyklister i Sverige 2005–2015 : analys av omständigheter och skador vid olyckor samt förslag på förbättringar av säkerheten
Abstract [en]

Cycling is part of the sustainable transport system and plans are in place to increase this part of the transport system in Sweden, Europe as well as globally. Improving the safety for this group of roadusers is of great importance. The aim of this study was to identify patterns among fatally injured cyclists in Sweden, in order to suggest general safety improvements or improvements addressing different groups of cyclists as well as specific traffic conditions.

The information was sourced from the in-depth study database of fatalities as well as the joint register for police and hospital injury and accident data, STRADA, in Sweden. Data was analysed and interpreted for an 11 year period from 2005–2015. The in-depth study of the fatalities provided details about the accidents and individuals involved in the accident and the information was retrieved by parameter values, in free text description and documents in the database. STRADA was used to sort official data within the in-depth study, assigning codes for accident type, complementing parameters and additional parameters.

A total of 271 fatalities were identified and analysed where the majority of the accidents occurred during spring–autumn. Male fatalities accounted for two-thirds of the studied cases and in ages above 40, male fatalities are twice as many as female fatalities. Fatalities in Motor vehicle accidents are distributed in all age groups, while in the Single bike and Other bike category, there were no children and only a few young adults reported.

Abstract [sv]

Cykling är en del av det hållbara transportsystemet och det finns planer för att utöka denna grupp i transportsystemet i Sverige, Europa samt globalt. Förbättringar av säkerheten för denna trafikantgrupp är därför av stor betydelse. Syftet med denna studie var att identifiera mönster bland dödligt skadade cyklister i Sverige, för att kunna föreslå allmänna säkerhetsförbättringar eller förbättringar som riktar sig till särskilda grupper av cyklister eller särskilda trafikförhållanden.

Studien grundar sig på information ur Trafikverkets djupstudiedatabas samt det gemensamma registret för polis och sjukhus gällande skador och olycksdata i Sverige, STRADA. Data över en 11 år lång period 2005–2015 analyserades och tolkades. Djupstudiedatabasen ger detaljerad information om olyckan och inblandade individer och både parametervärden, fritext beskrivningar och dokument ur databasen har använts. STRADA har använts för att sortera ut de officiella olyckorna ur djupstudiedatabasen, tilldela koder för olyckstyper samt för komplettering av saknade parametrar.

Sammanlagt 271 dödsfall identifierades och analyserades, där majoriteten av olyckorna inträffade under perioden vår-höst. Två tredjedelar av de undersökta dödsfallen var män och i åldrarna över 40 var män dubbelt så många som kvinnor bland dödsfallen. Dödsfall i olyckskategorin Motorfordon förekommer i alla åldersgrupper, medan det i kategorin Singel och övriga cykelolyckor inte fanns några barn och endast ett fåtal unga vuxna rapporterade.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2017. p. 45
Series
VTI notat ; 5A-2017
Keywords
Accident, Fatality, Cyclist, Statistics, Crash helmet, Use, Drunkenness, Bicycle, Age, Man, Woman, Injury
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 81 Road: Accidents; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 811 Road: Accident statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11749 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-04 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Silvano, A. P. & Linder, A. (2017). Traffic safety for cyclists in roundabouts: geometry, traffic, and priority rules: A literature review. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic safety for cyclists in roundabouts: geometry, traffic, and priority rules: A literature review
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Trafiksäkerhet för cyklister på cirkulationsplatser: utformningen, trafiken och företrädesreglerna
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to carry out a literature review of roundabout geometric characteristics and traffic management regulations addressing the safety for cyclists. The literature review examined articles from 1990 until 2017. An article was considered relevant as follows:

  • Investigation of the relationship between roundabout geometric design and cyclist accidents (2 articles)
  • Investigation of the relationship between roundabout geometric design and cyclist operation/interaction with other traffic, i.e., motorised vehicles (4 articles)
  • Investigation of any safety impacts of the conversion of intersections into roundabouts for cyclists (9 articles)
  • Psychological/behavioural studies of cycling at roundabouts (5 articles)

The results show that the impact on cyclist safety is not as clear as for motorised vehicles with some studies showing a deterioration for cyclists (Jensen, 2013; 2016; Daniels et al. 2008; 2009). The cycle facility type (e.g., mixed traffic, cycle lane, and cycle path) and the priority rules have the potential to increase safety for cyclists. For example, the priority rules vary among different countries and within some countries.

From the literature, which priority rules provide the safest cycling environment remain unclear in terms of number of accidents and injury severity. The identified priority strategies are: (i) cyclists always yield to vehicles, (ii) shared yielding responsibility, (iii) vehicles always yield to cyclists, and (iv) an alternate solution ‘with’ and ‘without’ priority based on special characteristics (e.g., presence of vulnerable road users, geographic location). Furthermore, cycle lanes are the most unsafe cycle facility compared to mixed traffic or cycle paths. Likewise, coloured cycle lanes at roundabouts are less safe than non-coloured cycle lanes (Jensen, 2016). On the other hand, it is recommended that cyclists should ride in front of or behind vehicles in mixed traffic at single-lane roundabouts and in the middle of the lane, and should not ride parallel with vehicles (Cumming, 2012).

Some research directions are highlighted. The impact of the different priority rules needs further investigation in terms of number of accidents and injury severity. Some questions to study include: (i) what the best priority strategy is; (ii) what special road markings should be used; (iii) what the best distance is to place the cycle path from the circulatory roadway. Another research direction is to establish the impact on cyclist safety of cycle lanes at roundabouts. Finally, the impact on traffic safety, by cycling in the middle of the lane, needs further investigation as well.

Abstract [sv]

Denna studie är en litteraturgenomgång av cirkulationsplatsers geometriska egenskaper och trafikförordningars inverkan på cyklisters säkerhet. Litteraturgenomgången granskade artiklar från 1990 fram till 2017. En artikel ansågs relevant enligt följande:

  • undersökning av förhållandet mellan cirkulationsplatsers geometriska egenskaper och cykelolyckor (2 artiklar)
  • undersökning av förhållandet mellan cirkulationsplatsers geometriska konstruktion och cykelinteraktion med annan trafik, det vill säga motorfordon (4 artiklar)
  • undersökning av säkerhetseffekterna av omvandlingen av korsningar till cirkulationsplatser för cyklister (9 artiklar)
  • psykologiska/beteende-studier om att cykla i cirkulationsplatser (5 artiklar)

Resultaten visar att inverkan på cykelsäkerhet inte är lika tydlig som för motordrivna fordon, med några studier som visar en försämring för cyklister (Jensen, 2013; Jensen, 2016; Daniels et al 2008; 2009). Infrastrukturen för cykelvägar (till exempel blandad trafik, cykelfält, och cykelbana) och de prioriterade reglerna har potential att öka säkerheten för cyklister. Till exempel varierar de prioriterade reglerna mellan olika länder och inom länder. Från litteraturen förblir det oklart vilken prioritetregel som ger den säkraste cykelmiljön i fråga om antalet olyckor och skadornas svårhetsgrad. De identifierade prioriterade strategierna är: (i) cyklister ger alltid företräde för fordon, (ii) delat företrädesansvar, (iii) fordon ger alltid företräde för cyklister, och (iv) Alternativ lösning ”med” och ”utan” prioritet baserat på speciella egenskaper (till exempel förekomst av oskyddade trafikanter, geografiskt område). Dessutom ger cykelfält den mest osäkra cykelmiljön jämfört med blandad trafik eller cykelbanor, samt färgade cykelfält vid rondeller som är mindre säkra än ofärgade cykelfält (Jensen, 2016). Å andra sidan, förordas cyklister i blandad trafik på enfältiga cirkulationsplatser att cykla framför eller bakom fordon och att de inte bör cykla parallellt med fordon (Cumming, 2012).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2017. p. 35
Series
VTI notat ; 31A-2017
Keywords
Roundabout, Cyclist crossing, Geometric design, Accident, Risk, Priority (traffic), Mixed traffic
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 821 Road: Junctions and traffic safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12535 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-30 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Osth, J., Brolin, K., Svensson, M. Y. & Linder, A. (2016). A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 138(6), Article ID 061005.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads
2016 (English)In: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, ISSN 0148-0731, E-ISSN 1528-8951, Vol. 138, no 6, article id 061005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model.

Keywords
Cervical vertebrae, Mathematical model, Injury, Finite element method, Woman, Biomechanics
National Category
Medical Engineering Applied Mechanics
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 85 Road: Personal injuries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10753 (URN)10.1115/1.4032966 (DOI)000378259500005 ()26974520 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84971554424 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-07-13 Created: 2016-07-13 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Östh, J., Mendoza-Vazquez, M., Svensson, M. Y., Linder, A. & Brolin, K. (2016). Development of a 50th percentile female human body model. In: 2016 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury: . Paper presented at 2016 International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI 2016, 14 September 2016 through 16 September 2016 (pp. 573-575).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a 50th percentile female human body model
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2016 (English)In: 2016 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2016, p. 573-575Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Injury, Neck, Cervical vertebrae, Woman, Impact test (veh), Rear end collision, Anthropometric dummy
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 85 Road: Personal injuries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11375 (URN)2-s2.0-84996837245 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2016 International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI 2016, 14 September 2016 through 16 September 2016
Available from: 2016-12-09 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6868-5673

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