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Thorslund, Birgitta
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Thorslund, B., Nygårdhs, S., Malicka, A. N., Black, A. A., Hickson, L. & Wood, J. M. (2019). Exploring older adults hearing and vision and driving: The Swedish study. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 64, 274-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring older adults hearing and vision and driving: The Swedish study
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2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 64, p. 274-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate the self-reported driving abilities and use of visual and hearing aids for driving, among older adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment (HI), vision impairment (VI) and dual sensory impairment (DSI). Visual processing related to driving performance was also assessed to provide a laboratory-based index of driving ability and safety. The research examined the associations between self-reported and clinically measured vision and hearing, and how they related to the level of comfort in various driving situations and the use of hearing and vision aids (spectacles) when driving.

Method: Participants included 109 older adults (58 women, 51 men) aged over 60 years (M age = 69.5 years (SD = 5.25), age range: 60–87) who held a valid driver's license. Following attendance at the testing session that involved clinical measures of vision and hearing and an assessment of visual processing abilities, the participants were categorized into four groups according to their hearing and vision abilities: no visual or hearing impairment (NI), corrected visual impairment (CVI), hearing impairment (HI), and corrected visual impairment combined with hearing impairment (CVHI). All participants filled in a questionnaire covering subjective measures of vision, hearing, driving habits, and use of vision and hearing aids.

Results and Conclusion: There was a strong association between most of the subjective and objective measures of both hearing and vision, which indicates that participants in this study were aware of their abilities to some extent. Better hearing and vision measures were associated with higher level of comfort in several traffic situations. The results also show that spectacles are used more than hearing aids when driving (95% versus 57% of the time respectively). In addition, both the measured and the experienced benefits of hearing aids were significantly associated with the amount of hearing aid use when driving. The findings of this study provide the basis for larger scale studies to explore the impact of hearing and visual impairment on driving and the use of vision and hearing aids and should also include participants who have visual impairment even with their optimal optical correction to fully explore these effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14051 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.04.011 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066236492 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Thorslund, B. & Kircher, K. (2019). How to improve the interaction between cyclists and truck drivers. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 11(2), 81-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to improve the interaction between cyclists and truck drivers
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Society, ISSN 1756-2538, E-ISSN 1756-2546, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 81-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of user needs of truck drivers and cyclists regarding future warning systems designed to decrease incidents and collisions between them. Two focus groups were carried out and the inclusion criterion for truck drivers was to have much experience of driving in the city centre. Inclusion criteria for bicyclists were to ride their bike almost every day in city traffic and to either be experienced and aware of traffic rules (group 1) or around 15-16 years of age and not having started to take driving lessons (group 2). It can be concluded that both truck drivers and cyclists are frustrated about the current situation and the risks that they perceive have strong evidence in the literature. Possible ways to improve the situation are, in order of priority, improved visibility of cyclists, education of cyclists, more warnings on trucks and improved infrastructure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2019
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14947 (URN)2-s2.0-85075591118 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-22 Created: 2020-01-22 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Lidestam, B. & Thorslund, B. (2019). Visual perception of speed in drivers with ADHD. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 11(2), 125-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual perception of speed in drivers with ADHD
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Society, ISSN 1756-2538, E-ISSN 1756-2546, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effects of ADHD on driving speed were studied in a driving simulator with only visual motion cues, by comparing drivers with ADHD diagnosis (n = 36) to drivers from a normal student population (n = 28). Their task was to repeatedly accelerate to own preferred speed for a total of 26 trials (2 baseline, 24 experimental trials). Field of view (1, 3, 5, and 7 monitors) and virtual road markings (on, off) were manipulated. These eight experimental conditions were presented three times each (replicates). Overall mean speed did not differ between groups, but the ADHD group was less affected by the extra motion cues. Also, whereas the control group lowered their speed between replicates, the ADHD group did not. The combined results suggest that for ADHD drivers, speed perception is more of a rule-based skill and more based on attention, whereas the normal student population perceives speed more effortlessly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2019
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14934 (URN)2-s2.0-85075606427 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-22 Created: 2020-01-22 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Thorslund, B. & Lidestam, B. (2018). Effects of ADHD on driver attention and speed, evaluated in a driving simulator. In: : . Paper presented at 18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of ADHD on driver attention and speed, evaluated in a driving simulator
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been considered to have a 3–4 times higher crash risk than control drivers without ADHD. A core issue which has not been properly dealt with is the role of comorbid diagnoses which frequently appear together with ADHD, especially Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), sometimes generically referred to as “conduct problems”. The increased crash risk associated with ADHD diagnosis presented in the literature is often based on studies performed with participants with more than one diagnosis. This means that the comorbidity may be high and, consequently, the effect of ADHD on traffic safety may be overestimated. This has been shown in a meta-analysis presenting a relative risk of 1.30 instead.

The existing research on drivers with ADHD is unsatisfying when it comes to methodology, specifically concerning inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants. This has led to a misunderstanding of the driving ability for people with ADHD, which has been cited and spread in the literature for two decades. People with ADHD diagnosis might suffer from this misinterpretation and the specific effects of ADHD on driving behavior remain unclear. There is a potential for better control for confounding factors, for exposure (mileage) and for comorbidity, especially CD and ODD.

The aim of this study was to examine differences in driving behavior between experienced drivers with and without ADHD, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018
Research subject
X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12948 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Thorslund, B., Nygårdhs, S., Malicka, A., Black, A., Hickson, L. & Wood, J. (2018). Exploring older adults hearing and vision and driving: the Swedish study. In: : . Paper presented at 18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring older adults hearing and vision and driving: the Swedish study
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aims of this study were to evaluate self-reported driving abilities and self-reported use of visual and hearing aids for driving, among older adults with varying degrees of Hearing Impairment (HI), Vision Impairment (VIA measure of visual processing related to driving performance was also assessed. The following research questions were examined: How are self-reported and clinically measured declines in sensory and cognitive skills associated with: Each other, Level of comfort in various driving situations, and Use of hearing and vision aids when driving.

Participants included 109 older adults (58 women, 51 men) aged over 60 years (Mage = 69.5 years (SD=5.25), age range: 60—87) holding a valid driver’s license. Tests of vision, hearing and visual processing were performed to collect objective data. All participants filled in a questionnaire covering subjective measures of vision, hearing, driving habits, and use of vision and hearing aids. Correlations were made to examine the relations between objective and subjective measures

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018
Research subject
X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12937 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Rosberg, T. & Thorslund, B. (2018). Förstudie tågsimulering och ERTMS. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förstudie tågsimulering och ERTMS
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I förstudien inventeras FoI frågor inom området tågsimulering och ERTMS. VTI är FoI utförare och arbetet sker på uppdrag och i samverkan med Trafikverket. Det finns ett behov av ökad kunskap om ERTMS, samt metoder kopplat till ERTMS utifrån simulering, projektering och teknikutveckling. I förstudien har FoI området tågsimulering och ERTMS definierats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 19
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14104 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Dols, J. F., Peters, B. & Thorslund, B. (2018). Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs. In: : . Paper presented at 18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The legal reference in the field of driving license in the EU is currently the 2006/126/EC Directive, which stipulates that driving licenses shall be granted only to those who meet medical requirements and pass a driving test. This Directive has recently been updated with the Directive EU 2015/653. Actually, there is a lack of knowledge in the application of validated procedures for assessing (potential) drivers of adapted vehicles. The objective of this paper it is to present experimental results of driving assessment procedures developed for assessing drivers with impairments –both motor and sensory-. This assessment is based on performing a series of practical tests in a static test rig and a low-cost driving simulator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12913 (URN)
Conference
18th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C 2018), Jeju Island, South Korea, May 16-18, 2018
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-05 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Thorslund, B., Strand, N. & Dukic Willstrand, T. (2017). Attitudes among older drivers towards medical assessment at renewal of driving license in Sweden. European Transport Research Review, 9(2), Article ID 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attitudes among older drivers towards medical assessment at renewal of driving license in Sweden
2017 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aim was to examine attitudes among older adults in Sweden as regards a possible legislation for medical assessment at license renewal depending on their health status (vision and hearing) and gender.

Methods: A questionnaire study measuring attitudes towards medical assessments at license renewal and an examination of vision, hearing, and cognitive abilities was conducted by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. 109 participants older than 60 years participated in the study (58 women, 51 men). They were categorized into four groups according to their health status: (1) without any visual or hearing impairment, (2) visual impairment, (3) hearing impairment, and (4) visual and hearing impairment. All data collection was performed in a driving assessment situation.

Results: The answers showed positive attitudes towards recurring vision test (94% positive) and recurring medical assessments (93% positive). A majority wanted to include tests of visual acuity, contrast vision, and visual field. The most common choice was a starting point of 70 years and an interval of 2–3 years. Gender effects showing that woman were more positive towards some assessment and shorter time intervals between them was revealed. No significant effect of hearing or vision decline was found. Better results on cognitive tests was associated with positive attitudes towards medical testing.

Conclusions: The participants were positive towards medical assessments at license renewal, indicating that there is an acceptance in the population for such legislation. Even short intervals such as every two or three years were accepted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2017
Keywords
Driving licence, Old people, Attitude (psychol), Legislation, Health, Vision, Cognition, Hearing, Questionnaire
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 845 Road: Traffic law enforcement; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11754 (URN)10.1007/s12544-017-0231-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85015853333 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Hjälmdahl, M., Krupenia, S. & Thorslund, B. (2017). Driver behaviour and driver experience of partial and fully automated truck platooning: a simulator study. European Transport Research Review, 9(1), Article ID 8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver behaviour and driver experience of partial and fully automated truck platooning: a simulator study
2017 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper builds our knowledge of truck driver behaviour in and experience of automated truck platooning, focusing on the effect of partially and fully automated truck platoons on driver workload, trust, acceptance, performance, and sleepiness.

Twenty-four male drivers experienced three conditions in a truck driving simulator, i.e., baseline, partial automation, and full automation: the baseline condition was driving with standard cruise control; partial automation was automated longitudinal control ten metres behind the truck in front, with the driver having to steer; and full automation was automated longitudinal and lateral control. Each condition was simulated in three situations: light traffic, heavy traffic, and heavy traffic plus fog.

The experiment demonstrated that automation affects workload. For all workload measures, partial automation produced higher workload than did the full-automation or baseline condition. The two measures capturing trust were consistent and indicated that trust was highest under the baseline condition, with little difference between partial and full automation. Driver acceptance of both levels of automation was lower than acceptance of baseline. Drivers rated their situation awareness higher for both partial and full automation than for baseline, although both levels of automation led to higher sleepiness.

The challenge when implementing truck platooning is to develop a system, including human–machine interaction (HMI), that does not overburden the driver, properly addresses driver sleepiness, and satisfies current legislation. The system also must be trusted and accepted by drivers. To achieve this, the development of well-designed HMI will be crucial.

Keywords
Lorry, Driver, Platooning (electronic), Autonomous vehicle, Simulator (driving), Mental load, Attitude (psychol), Attention, Fatigue (human)
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11713 (URN)10.1007/s12544-017-0222-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85013439686 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-15 Created: 2017-03-15 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Lidström, M., Peters, B., Rosberg, T. & Thorslund, B. (2017). Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Development of a freight train model for the VTI train simulator
Abstract [sv]

Genom höjda hastigheter för godståg finns möjligheter till en högre prioritering av trafikslaget hos tågtrafikledningen, vilket i sig är en kapacitetsvinst och bör ge upphov till bättre flöden och högre kapacitet på det svenska järnvägsnätet (framför allt på stambanorna). Simulatorer är ett effektivt och säkert sätt att undersöka effekter av förändringar på både förarbeteende och kapacitet.

Syftet med det här projektet var att skapa kapacitetshöjande möjligheter och åtgärder genom att ta fram en loktågssimulator och undersöka möjliga användningsområden för denna. Målet med projektet var att få fram en loktågssimulator, bestående av ett lok och ett antal vagnar, som kan användas i studier för att öka kapaciteten genom till exempel optimerad hastighet, och därmed förändrade bromsprofiler, för loktåg. Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet.

Projektet genomfördes i tre successiva etapper. I den första etappen genomfördes en förstudie med lokförare, operatörer och problemägare, som gav forskarna en förståelse för förarmiljön. Här samlades även in en del av det underlag som krävdes för utveckling av loktågsimulatorn. I den andra etappen utvecklades en simulator för loktåg (mjukvara och hårdvara). Etapp tre var en valideringsstudie tillsammans med lokförare.

Ett förarbord av modellen Traxx köptes in från en tysk tillverkare. Fordonsmodellen utvecklades från en enstaka enhet, Reginamodell (motorvagnståg), till en kombination av flera enheter. Loktåget i simulatorn består av ett eller flera draglok samt ett antal vagnar med en total längd på maximalt 750 meter. Som draglok används ett lok av modellen Traxx. För varje enhet, lok och vagn, krävs data över enheten: längd, vikt, last, broms-, rull- och luftmotstånd. För lok tillkommer dessutom information om ljud, drivning, broms (återmatande elbroms samt konventionell pneumatisk broms (P-broms)), hyttutrustning med mera. För närvarande finns bansträckningen mellan Falköping–Jönköping–Forserum färdigmodellerad och kommer användas för loktågskörning med ATC. Modellen är konfigurerbar utifrån ett lok (Traxx) och i nuläget fyra olika vagnar. Dessa kan kopplas samman i olika kombinationer.

Några användningsområden som diskuterades redan vid projektstart var dels de som naturligt kan kopplas till följder av längre och tyngre tåg, dels de idéer som uppkom som följd av den utrustning som köptes in. Vid Trafikverkets vintermöte genomfördes en workshop där ytterligare användningsområden diskuterades. Några av dessa handlar om utbildning,energieffektiv körning eller projektering. Utbildning och vissa typer av studier går att göra med den nu existerande loktågsmodellen, medan andra kräver antingen validering av parametrar eller viss vidareutveckling av modellen.

Projektet har levererat kunskap i form av nya testmetoder, denna forskningsrapport och en produkt i form av en loktågssimulator samt mjukvaruplattform för ytterligare testverksamhet. Projektet har även levererat en nationell resurs i form av simulatormjukvara. Mjukvaran har lagt grunden för en kostnadseffektiv testverksamhet inom loktågsdomänen. En loktågssimulering (simulering av loktåg) har tagits fram, vilken kommer att vara värdefull som ett demonstrationsverktyg samt för utbildning, träning och projektering.

Abstract [en]

Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2017
Series
VTI notat ; 26-2017
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Train, Simulation, Method, Mathematical model, Calculation, Technique, Braking, Freight train, Locomotive
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
J00 Railway: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, J02 Railway: Vehicles
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12483 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-07 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
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