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Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Andersson, A., Andersson Hultgren, J., Leandertz, R., Johansson, M., Betnér, S., Jakobson, O. & Rolff, F. (2017). SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture. Linköping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: , 2017. p. 59
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2016-2
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Simulation, Vehicle, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11684 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2017-10-13Bibliographically approved
Peters, B., Selander, H., Stave, C., Andersson Hultgren, J. & Jansson, A. (2016). Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.3. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.3
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Utvärdering av simulatorbaserad träning för äldre bilförare i Sverige
Abstract [en]

Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

Abstract [sv]

Förmågan att kunna bedöma sin körförmåga korrekt kan vara avgörande för en säker mobilitet på äldre dagar. Överskattning kan leda till en ökad risk och underskattning kan leda till obefogade mobilitetsinskränkningar. En före/efter interventionsstudie genomfördes med syfte att förbättra äldre bilförares förmåga att bedöma sin egen körförmåga. Syftet var inte att förbättra körförmågan i sig utan förmågan att bedöma sig själv, det vill säga att bli bättre kalibrerad. Således utvecklades och utvärderades ett simulatorbaserat träningsprogram med en grupp på 36 äldre förare. Simulatorsjuka (illamående), gjorde dock att endast 21 förare kunde genomföra studien i sin helhet. Deltagarna fick vid upprepade tillfällen bedöma sin körförmåga genom att svara på frågan ”Hur bra tycker du att du körde? (1 = mycket dåligt till 5 = mycket bra). En erfaren arbetsterapeut (specialiserad i att bedöma körförmåga) gjorde expertbedömningar av körningarna med samma skala som en referens på korrekt bedömd körförmåga.

Återkoppling kan vara ett effektivt verktyg för förändring, detta verktyg ville vi utvärdera i vår studie. Således, fick deltagarna återkoppling i form av en lista på vilka fel de hade gjort efter varje övning (t.ex. glömde använda körriktningsvisare, körde för fort). Återkoppling kunde också ges som information om vad som var rätt (t.ex. lämnade företräde till fotgängare, höll rätt hastighet). Således delades gruppen i två grupper en (n=11) som bara fick veta vilka fel de hade gjort och en (n=10) som även fick veta vad de hade gjort rätt. Träningen genomfördes vid tre olika tillfällen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2016. p. 38
Series
VTI notat ; 32A-2016
Keywords
Old people, Driver, Driving (veh), Driving aptitude, Skill (road user), Personality, Attitude (psychol), Questionnaire, Simulator (driving), Test method
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-11395 (URN)
Note

Deliverable 2.4.3. of the Safe Move project (Safe Mobility for Older Drivers). A collaborative project carried out between VTI, Mobilitetscenter and Volvo Cars in Sweden and IFSTTAR, CNRS, INSERM, University of Bordeaux, University of Caen, University Claude Bernard Lyon, OKTAL, Continental, Peugeot and Citroën in France.

Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-16 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Andersson, A., Andersson Hultgren, J., Leandertz, R., Johansson, M., Eriksson, S. & Jakobson, O. (2015). A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA. In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition. Paper presented at Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany. (pp. 123-130).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

Keywords
Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-8281 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany.
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2016-08-26Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, L., Palmqvist, L., Andersson Hultgren, J., Blissing, B. & Nordin, S. (2015). Performance and presence with head-movement produced motion parallax in simulated driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 34, 54-64, Article ID 839.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance and presence with head-movement produced motion parallax in simulated driving
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2015 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 34, p. 54-64, article id 839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driving simulator studies can reveal relevant and valid aspects of driving behavior, but underestimation of distance and speed can negatively affect the driver's performance, such as in performance of overtaking. One possible explanation for the underestimation of distance and speed is that two-dimensional projection of the visual scene disrupts the monocular-based illusory depth because of conflicting binocular and monocular information of depth. A possible solution might involve the strengthening of the monocular information so that the binocular information becomes less potent.

In the present study, we used an advanced high-fidelity driving simulator to investigate whether adding the visual depth information of motion parallax from head movement affects sense of presence, judgment of distance and speed, and performance measures coupled with overtaking. The simulations included two types of driving scenario in which one was urban and the other was rural. The main results show no effect of this head-movement produced motion parallax on sense of presence, head movement, time to collision, distance judgment, or speed judgment.

However, the results show an effect on lateral positioning. When initiating the overtaking maneuver there is a lateral positioning farther away from the road center as effect of the motion parallax in both types of scenario, which can be interpreted as indicating use of naturally occurring information that change behavior at overtaking. Nevertheless, only showing tendencies of effects, absent is any clear additional impact of this motion parallax in the simulated driving.

Keywords
Simulator (driving), Driver, Judgement (road user), Cognition, Speed, Vision, Moving, Overtaking
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-9272 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2015.07.013 (DOI)000362917500005 ()2-s2.0-84939247188 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Larsson, A. F., Kircher, K. & Andersson Hultgren, J. (2014). Learning from experience: Familiarity with ACC and responding to a cut-in situation in automated driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 27, 229-237
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning from experience: Familiarity with ACC and responding to a cut-in situation in automated driving
2014 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 27, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Response times to risky events have been seen to increase with the use of adaptive cruise control (ACC). It has been unclear whether driver experience with ACC mediates this increase. We compare driving in a cut-in event in a simulator both with and without system support, studying ACC as well as ACC with automatic steering. 31 participants were tested in a repeated-measures design, 10 novices and 21 previously experienced with ACC. There was no difference between responding to ACC with and without automatic steering for either group. As expected, we found an increase in response times when driving with system support for both ACC-experienced drivers and ACC-novices. However, this effect was significantly lower for those previously experienced with ACC. This indicates that there is an element of learning involved not only in knowing about system limitations, but also in responding to potential hazards

Keywords
Adaptive cruise control, Experience (human), Impact study, Simulator (driving), Reaction time
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7909 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2014.05.008 (DOI)000347758400004 ()2-s2.0-84915813258 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-05-28 Created: 2015-05-28 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Thorslund, B., Jansson, J., Peters, B., Andersson Hultgren, J. & Brännström, M. (2014). Principle Other Vehicle Warning. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Principle Other Vehicle Warning
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The only possibility for a driver to avoid a collision may sometimes be to issue a warning to another driver. Connecting the horn and the headlight to an already existing sensor system could be a cost effective solution. This report covers the implementation and evaluation of such an automated warning system in a driving simulator at VTI. In this test 24 drivers with normal hearing and 24 with moderate hearing loss experienced five critical events in which four different warning signals were evaluated; sound, light, and a combination of sound and light, and no warning (as reference). A visual distraction task was used to distract the drivers and create critical situations. The results were consistent. A combined sound and light warning significantly increased cautious driving behaviour and also lead to the highest perceived criticality of the situations. With the combined warning the driver’s attention was effectively drawn from the visual distraction task. Drivers were generally positive towards the warning system, and most positive towards the combined warning presenting light and sound signals. Drivers were able to distinguish between warnings (at critical events) and greetings (at non-critical events) suggesting that the tested additional use of horn and headlight would not affect reactions to non-critical warnings or greetings. Hearing loss was associated with worse performance on the visual distraction task and less perceived realism of the driving simulator. But it was not associated with effects on any driving behaviour measures or of warning modalities. This result suggests that the evaluated system should work also for drivers with moderate hearing loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2014. p. 35
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2014-2
Keywords
Warning, Outside, Headlamp, Horn, Driver, Cognition, Behaviour, Hearing, Disabled person, Simulator (driving), Test
National Category
Applied Psychology Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6906 (URN)
Available from: 2014-05-27 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2014-10-03Bibliographically approved
Kircher, K., Larsson, A. F. & Andersson Hultgren, J. (2014). Tactical driving behaviour with different levels of automation. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 15(1), 158-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tactical driving behaviour with different levels of automation
2014 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 158-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigated how different types of automation affect tactical driving behavior, depending on trust in the system. Previous research indicates that drivers wait for automation to act, delegating the monitoring of traffic situations. This would be especially true for those who have more trust in automation. Behavioral and gaze data from 30 participants driving an advanced simulator were recorded in four driving conditions, namely, manual driving, intentional car following, adaptive cruise control (ACC), and ACC with adaptive steering. Measures of trust in the systems were recorded with a questionnaire.

Three fairly common traffic events requiring a driver response were analyzed. Trust in automation was high among the participants, and no associations between trust levels and behavior could be found. Drivers seem to make informed choices on when to let the automation handle a situation and when to switch it off manually or via the vehicle controls. If drivers did not expect the system to be able to handle the situation, they usually resumed control before the automation reached its limits. If the automation was expected to be able to deal with the situation, control was usually not resumed. In addition, situations were dealt with in a tactically different manner with automation than without. Controlling the car with automation systems is thus accepted by drivers as being a different undertaking than driving in manual mode.

Keywords
Driver assistance system, Driver, Acceptability, Attitude (psychol), Simulator (driving), Driver, Behaviour, Eye movement
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7904 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2013.2277725 (DOI)000331292300015 ()2-s2.0-84894048800 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2015-05-28 Created: 2015-05-28 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Hjort, M., Kharrazi, S., Eriksson, O., Hjälmdahl, M. & Andersson Hultgren, J. (2014). Validating on-the-limit properties of a driving simulator. In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings: . Paper presented at Driving Simulation Conference 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validating on-the-limit properties of a driving simulator
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2014 (English)In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper describes a validation model for both subjective and objective comparison of on-the-limit properties of a driving simulator. VTI moving base driving simulator, SIM III, has been used with three different versions of VTI’s vehicle model, for validation toward field tests involving double lane change manoeuvres. Methods for handling evaluation suggested in the literature were adapted to our circumstances. The results are encouraging, although we found some limitations with respect to the objective evaluations that need to be addressed in future studies.

Keywords
Simulator (driving), Evaluation (assessment), Vehicle handling
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7090 (URN)
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference 2014
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2016-08-22Bibliographically approved
Jansson, J., Andersson Hultgren, J., Thorslund, B. & Bränström, M. (2013). Driver reactions to horn and headlight warnings in critical situations: A simulator study. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013. Paper presented at 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents. Beijing, China (RS4C 2013). 15-17 May 2013.. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver reactions to horn and headlight warnings in critical situations: A simulator study
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a driving simulator study on driving behavior in a critical head-on collision scenario. The study aims at providing basic understanding of driver responses to headlight and horn warning coming from another vehicle a time critical situation. In total, 48 participants drove 30 km. During the drive participants performed a secondary task, announced by a vibration in the seat. At the time of the secondary task the own vehicle was directed into the opposing lane where oncoming simulated vehicles issued a light and/or sound warnings to get the drivers attention. An additional purpose of the study was to examine if the warning coming from the other vehicle has a different effect on persons with a hearing loss. A possible application for this type of warnings is the implementation of a system for automatic activation. Systems for automatic activation of brakes and steering are currently entering the market. These systems use proximity sensors to monitor the state of surrounding road users. Depending on the specific situation the effort/possibility to avoid or mitigate an accident may differ significantly between the principle road users of a pending collision, e.g. one road user (1) may easily avoid a collision while another (2) may not be able to do so. The only possibility for the second road user (2) to avoid a collision in such a situation is to issue a warning to the first (1), so that he/she may take evasive actions. Connecting the horn and the headlight to already existing sensor system, for automatic warning activation, is a cost effective means to provide such a warning. The warnings, could of course, also be triggered manually by the driver.

The results indicate that a driver who receives a warning from the oncoming vehicle responds faster to avoid the pending frontal collision. The most effective warning was the combination of horn and headlight. A majority of the participants where positive to the notion of an automated system to provide this type of warning (n=41). No significant difference in the behavior between the groups with and without hearing loss was found in this study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Driver, Behaviour, Headlamp, Warning, Horn, driving simulator, horn sound, Headlight, warning system, Head on collision
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-225 (URN)
Conference
16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents. Beijing, China (RS4C 2013). 15-17 May 2013.
Projects
Principal other vehicle warning
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2015-01-15Bibliographically approved
Andersson Hultgren, J., Blissing, B. & Jansson, J. (2012). Effects of motion parallax in driving simulators. In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe 2012: . Paper presented at Driving Simulation Conference. Paris, France, September 6-7, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of motion parallax in driving simulators
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe 2012, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Motion parallax due to the driver’s head movement have been implemented and tested in VTI Driving Simulator III. An advanced camera-based system was used to track the head movements of the driver. The output from the tracking system was fed to the simulation software, which used low-pass filtering and a forward prediction algorithm to calculate an offset. The offset was then used by the graphics software to display the correct image to the driver.

The effects of driving with motion parallax in the simulator were also observed by an initial study. During the experiment, the subjects caught up with several slower vehicles which forced the driver to make an overtaking maneuver. Oncoming traffic forced the subject to search for a suitable gap for overtaking. The study also included a speed perception test. The results from the study showed no difference in lateral positioning when running behind a slower vehicle nor in speed perception with and without motion parallax.

Keywords
Simulator (driving), Head, Movement, Moving, Calculation, Software, Vision, driving simulator, motion parallax, depth cues, distance perception, speed perception
National Category
Computer Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-226 (URN)
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference. Paris, France, September 6-7, 2012
Available from: 2013-10-22 Created: 2013-10-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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