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Sandberg, Ulf
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Vieira, T., Sandberg, U. & Erlingsson, S. (2019). Acoustical performance of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces. Applied Acoustics, 153, 30-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical performance of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces
2019 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 153, p. 30-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to excessively high noise levels is a relevant health problem in Europe and road traffic noise is the most widespread noise source. When considering cold climate countries, the available scientific literature on noise emission properties of winter tyres is still very limited. In order to contribute into filling this knowledge gap, this paper investigates the acoustical performance of different types of tyres, with focus on winter tyres, on different road surfaces, at different speeds, and with different states of wear. The results indicate that studded winter tyres have, indeed, an increased noise level at frequencies between 315 Hz and 10 kHz, having a significantly different response especially at frequencies higher than 4 kHz. The acoustical response also depends on the tyre type when comparing different road surfaces, as a result of conflicting vibrational and aerodynamic noise generation mechanisms. Additionally, the relationship between labelled and measured values was explored, however, no statistically significant relationship was found between them (and labelling is not applied for studded tyres). A frequency spectrum correction was attempted based on previous measurements on an ISO track, which reduced the difference between measured and labelled values, however, further investigation is still required to properly understand differences between label and road measurements, where the label is determined on a test track with a special, smooth surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Studded tyre, Winter, Tyre, Noise, Measurement, Frequency, Spectrum, Acoustics
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 93 Road: Vehicles and the environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13718 (URN)10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.03.025 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064087138 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T. & Sandberg, U. (2019). Close Proximity (CPX) Round Robin test: Comparison of results from four different CPX trailers measuring noise properties of 10 Swedish road surfaces. In: INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID: 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering. Paper presented at 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID, 16 June 2019 through 19 June 2019. SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE ACUSTICA - Spanish Acoustical Society, SEA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Close Proximity (CPX) Round Robin test: Comparison of results from four different CPX trailers measuring noise properties of 10 Swedish road surfaces
2019 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID: 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE ACUSTICA - Spanish Acoustical Society, SEA , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The publication in 2017 of ISO documents 11819-2 (CPX method) and 11819-3 (reference tyres) has made it possible to conduct measurements of noise properties of road surfaces in a standard and reproducible way. However, it is still not well-known what differences one may expect between different CPX equipment. A comparison of CPX trailers in the Netherlands in 2017 gave very positive results, but only two road surfaces were used, and all measurements were made close in time. In practical measurements, more variations in CPX equipment occurs and measurements on a certain test surface cannot take place on a certain day or even week. This study used four CPX trailers, of different designs, and the measurements were made over a time period of 90 days; something that may well happen whenever an authority or organization orders a CPX measurement. In this paper the test equipment and tested road surfaces are described, and the first measurement results are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE ACUSTICA - Spanish Acoustical Society, SEA, 2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14936 (URN)2-s2.0-85077699572 (Scopus ID)9788487985317 (ISBN)
Conference
48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID, 16 June 2019 through 19 June 2019
Available from: 2020-01-22 Created: 2020-01-22 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T., Sandberg, U. & Erlingsson, S. (2019). Negative texture, positive for the environment: effects of horizontal grinding of asphalt pavements. International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative texture, positive for the environment: effects of horizontal grinding of asphalt pavements
2019 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pavement surface having deflections from a plane mostly directed downwards in valleys is said to have a “negative texture”, in contrast to a “positive texture” dominated by peaks. Negative textures are typical of porous asphalt pavements, but another way to achieve this feature is to grind off the peaks of the surface. This paper explores the effects of grinding off texture peaks in the horizontal plane on a number of Swedish asphalt pavements in order to reduce noise and rolling resistance. Noise measurements were made to evaluate the ground-off surfaces versus the original surfaces, and, in most cases, also rolling resistance, texture and friction were also evaluated. It was found that grinding led to a more negative texture, tyre/road noise reductions up to 3 dB and tyre/road rolling resistance reductions up to 15%. It is concluded that horizontal grinding provides a maintenance operation with a significant potential for reduction of noise and rolling resistance, without sacrificing friction, though with limited longevity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2019
Keywords
Surface texture, Grinding, Horizontal, Noise control, Rolling resistance, Friction
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
30 Road: Highway design, 33 Road: Surfacing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13886 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2019.1610476 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065057324 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Ran, M., Zhou, X., Xiao, S., Vieira, T. & Sandberg, U. (2019). Pavement enveloped texture profile calculation and it's impact on pavement skid resistance. Chang'an Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Chang'an University (Natural Science Edition), 39(5), 11-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pavement enveloped texture profile calculation and it's impact on pavement skid resistance
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2019 (English)In: Chang'an Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Chang'an University (Natural Science Edition), ISSN 1671-8879, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To analyze tire-road contact characteristics and the effect of the contact on pavement skid resistance, the two-dimensional discrete data of the road texture profile was measured using the road surface tester, and the enveloped profile was calculated using the indentor method in MATLAB. Based on the enveloped profile, texture parameters such as mean profile depth (MPD), macro texture indices calculated with texture level (LMa), and mega texture indices calculated with texture level (LMe) were calculated, and comparisons were made between these and the original profile. Then, the correlation between the friction value (longitudinal friction coefficient, LFC), and the calculated texture parameters considering the original and enveloped texture profiles were analyzed. The results show that the calculated texture parameters with the enveloped profile have a high correlation with those calculated with the original profile, the determination coefficient R2 is higher than 0.85. The calculated MPD value with the enveloped profile shows a significant decrease, compared to that calculated with the original profile, and the larger the original MPD value, the greater the decrease in the envelope contour MPD value. The calculated texture level indices with the enveloped profile are also reduced when compared to the original. The decline rate of LMa is about 10% higher than LMe. The variable parameter S from the indentor method has a significant impact on the enveloped texture parameters, texture parameters with a smaller S show a higher decline. The determination coefficients between friction value LFC and calculated pavement texture parameters with the enveloped profile improved significantly compared with the original, with an increase of approximately 35% in MPD and 23% in LMa. The research results can provide a reference for studying the effect of tire-road contact characteristics on road performance. 2 tabs, 14 figs, 27 refs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Editorial Department of Journal of Chang'an University (Natural Science Edition), 2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14903 (URN)10.19721/j.cnki.1671-8879.2019.05.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075289270 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-23 Created: 2020-01-23 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
Vieira, T., Lundberg, J., Genell, A., Sandberg, U., Blomqvist, G., Gustafsson, M., . . . Erlingsson, S. (2019). Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019: . Paper presented at 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, 7 July 2019 through 11 July 2019. Canadian Acoustical Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, Canadian Acoustical Association , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One possible solution to reduce noise resulting from tyre-pavement interaction is to use a porous pavement surface. A porous surface will reduce noise by decreasing air pressure gradients in the tyre-pavement contact as well as by decreasing the acoustical impedance of the road surface and reducing the horn effect. While reducing noise, other functional aspects of a pavement such as abrasion wear which impacts on air pollution through generation and suspension of particles, friction and rolling resistance need to be addressed. This paper analyses the acoustical behaviour of a Double Layered Porous Asphalt (DLPA), applied in the city of Linköping, Sweden, as a solution to mitigate noise, compared to a non-porous Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement used as reference. The analysis is based on Close Proximity noise measurements, both in absolute value and as frequency spectra, acoustical homogeneity over the surface length and sound absorption measurements. The acoustic analysis is combined with analyses of air quality measurements of PM10 (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm) from two Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measurement stations placed near each different pavement section. The initial results indicate that the porous pavement results in a noise reduction of up to 5 dB for light vehicles, and up to 4 dB for heavy vehicles. So far, the DPLA shows approximately 52 % lower PM10 concentrations than the SMA. It should be noted that PM10 is influenced also by meteorological conditions, like humidity, background sources as well as vehicle properties, e.g. use of studded tyres, and that some of the observed decrease can be due to other aspects than porosity e.g. road surface moisture and wind direction. In conclusion, the use of a porous pavement shows promising results from both acoustical and air quality aspects, given the initial, short term results

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canadian Acoustical Association, 2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14292 (URN)2-s2.0-85073001670 (Scopus ID)9781999181000 (ISBN)
Conference
26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, 7 July 2019 through 11 July 2019
Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, U. (2019). Time-integrated noise reduction of low noise pavements: Giving fair credit to the most efficient pavements in the long term. In: INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID: 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering. Paper presented at 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID, 16 June 2019 through 19 June 2019. SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE ACUSTICA - Spanish Acoustical Society, SEA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-integrated noise reduction of low noise pavements: Giving fair credit to the most efficient pavements in the long term
2019 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID: 48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE ACUSTICA - Spanish Acoustical Society, SEA , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The efficiency in reducing road traffic noise of a pavement is often expressed as “noise reduction” when the pavement is in new condition. Far too often, the longevity of the noise reduction is neglected. But what the noise exposed residents along the road perceive is the noise during its life-cycle. Especially porous asphalt pavements change its properties substantially with time. Moreover, the speed of this change depends on the construction. For example, single-layer porous pavements mostly get clogged earlier than double-layer porous pavements, given a certain air voids and maximum aggregate size; something which is due to the much greater air voids volume under the surface for the double-layer version. When evaluating overall performance over the life-cycle, therefore, it is important to consider the noise reduction year by year over the lifetime. The author argues that fair descriptors of the acoustic efficiency of low noise pavements are the “Time-integrated noise reduction (TINR)” and the “Time-averaged noise reduction (TANR)”. In the paper, some examples from measurements as well as hypothetical examples are presented. Using this descriptor, it is shown that single-layer porous pavements often come out far less efficient than double-layer pavements; and the latter often offer better cost-benefit ratios. It is also suggested how one should average noise properties of different wheel tracks, lanes, and directions of highways and motorways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SOCIEDAD ESPANOLA DE ACUSTICA - Spanish Acoustical Society, SEA, 2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-14935 (URN)2-s2.0-85077714502 (Scopus ID)9788487985317 (ISBN)
Conference
48th International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2019 MADRID, 16 June 2019 through 19 June 2019
Available from: 2020-01-22 Created: 2020-01-22 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, U., Mioduszewski, P. & Vieira, T. (2018). Acoustic lifecycle study of the double-layer porous asphalt on E4 in Huskvarna, Sweden. In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering. Paper presented at 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018. Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic lifecycle study of the double-layer porous asphalt on E4 in Huskvarna, Sweden
2018 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In 2010 a double-layer porous asphalt concrete (DPAC) pavement was constructed on the E4 motorway through the Swedish city Huskvarna. Earlier experience in Sweden indicated that it was feasible to obtain a high initial noise reduction but due to the widespread use of studded tires in winter, clogging and ravelling created losses of around 2 dB per year, with an expected acoustical lifetime of only 3 years. However, the improved pavement in Huskvarna finally exceeded lifetime and durability expectations by at least 100 %. The first two years, noise reduction fell from the initial 7-8 dB just marginally, compared to an average-age SMA 16 pavement. Now after its 7th year, the pavement had reached its acoustical end of life, with an average noise reduction loss of 0.5 dB per year. This is considered as a break-through for low noise pavements exposed to the winter climate in Sweden and road traffic with most light vehicles equipped with studded tires. This paper presents results of annual noise measurements using the CPX method over the entire lifetime on the DPAC compared to the reference set of SMA 16 pavements. This includes the effects of grinding, cleaning and rejuvenation trials on certain test sections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2018
Keywords
Surfacing, Porous asphalt, Noise, Decrease, Motorway, Measurement, Life cycle, Experimental road
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
30 Road: Highway design, 33 Road: Surfacing; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 15 Road: Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13549 (URN)2-s2.0-85059362566 (Scopus ID)
Conference
47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-14Bibliographically approved
Bühlmann, E., Egger, S., Mioduszewski, P. & Sandberg, U. (2018). An in-depth look at the tire rubber hardness influence on tire/road noise measurements. In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering. Paper presented at 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018. Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An in-depth look at the tire rubber hardness influence on tire/road noise measurements
2018 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When assessing the acoustic quality of a road pavement with the close-proximity (CPX) or the on-board sound intensity (OBSI) method, the rubber hardness of the reference tire substantially affects the measurement. Practical experience shows that measurement tires can get significantly harder within a single measurement season. This is why one would like to normalize measurements to a reference rubber hardness. The recently published technical specification defining the reference tires for CPX measurements (ISO/TS 11819-3), therefore, includes a new correction for tire rubber hardness. Early experiences with this new correction procedure raised questions about its accuracy. This paper takes an in-depth look on the influence of tire rubber hardness on CPX measurements for both reference tires P1 and H1. It analyses existing and new data and summarizes the research from several scientific contributions on this topic. It provides evidence that the effect of rubber hardness is tire specific and that separate correction factors for the P1 and the H1 tires lead to accuracy gains and improved repeatability and reproducibility of the method. The study concludes by proposing a revised tire-specific approach for the tire rubber hardness correction of CPX measurement results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2018
Keywords
Noise, Pavement, Measurement, Tyre, Rubber, Hardness, Correction, Accuracy, Repeatability, Reproducibility
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13556 (URN)2-s2.0-85059429214 (Scopus ID)
Conference
47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, U., Kharrazi, S. & Mioduszewski, P. (2018). Comparison Of Noise Emission Of HCT And Classic Vehicle Combinations For Timber Transportation In Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 15th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicule Transport Technology: HVTT 15, Oct 2018, ROTTERDAM, Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison Of Noise Emission Of HCT And Classic Vehicle Combinations For Timber Transportation In Sweden
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

By means of a special simulation tool, the noise emission of a high-capacity heavy vehicle (11 axles) was compared to that of a classic heavy vehicle (a truck-dolly-semitrailer with 8 axles). The two cases are designated “Extended vehicle” versus “Classic vehicle” in this study, having total lengths of 34 and 25 m, respectively. The Classic vehicle represents the most common articulated heavy vehicle configuration for transport of timber and other goods in Sweden. Tyres were assumed to be typical of each axle and their noise emission values were taken from a recent study. Noise from the propulsion unit were assumed to just meet the present maximum legal levels. It was found that noise emission from the Extended vehicle is approx. 1.5 dB higher than for Classic vehicle, as max. A-weighted level per vehicle passage, but as the number of vehicles in traffic is lower for a certain transportation volume, the resulting road traffic noise exposure in terms of A-weighted equivalent level LAeq is similar. Consequently, noise emission is not a factor that gives either vehicle type a clear advantage over the other.

Keywords
Longer and heavier vehicle, Noise, Timber, Freight transport, Calculation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 93 Road: Vehicles and the environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13574 (URN)
Conference
15th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicule Transport Technology: HVTT 15, Oct 2018, ROTTERDAM, Netherlands
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Skov, R. S., Bendtsen, H. & Sandberg, U. (2018). NordTyre: Noise reduction potential in nordic countries by introduction of EU tyre label. In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering. Paper presented at 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018. Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NordTyre: Noise reduction potential in nordic countries by introduction of EU tyre label
2018 (English)In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The NordTyre project was initiated to investigate the effects of EU tyre label regulation Reg (EC) No1222/2009 on labelling of tyre noise in the Nordic countries. 31 passenger car tyres were tested on 30 Nordic road surfaces in Denmark, Norway and Sweden using the CPX method. A main result is a bad correlation between the measured noise levels and the noise labels of the tyres. The tyre label measurements are made with the Coast-By method (CB), which differs from the CPX method. Further, 30 truck tyres were tested by the CB method on four different pavements. The results of testing both passenger car and truck tyres shows that the noise performance on typical Nordic rougher-textured SMA road surfaces is remarkably different compared to the smoother ISO test surface used for noise type approval. Based on these results, noise scenarios of the effect of using a combination of less noisy tyres and road surfaces have been analysed against the background of national noise mappings in Denmark and Norway. The results of the calculations show that there is a general noise reducing potential and an estimated potential to reduce the Number of Highly Annoyed people from roads by 13 % in Denmark and 19 % in Norway.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2018
Keywords
Tyre, Noise, Specifications, Test, Correlation (math, stat), Sound level, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Surfacing
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 93 Road: Vehicles and the environment; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13550 (URN)2-s2.0-85059378280 (Scopus ID)
Conference
47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2018, 26 August 2018 through 29 August 2018
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-14Bibliographically approved
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