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Nordmark, Staffan
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Bolling, A., Lidström, M., Hjort, M., Nordmark, S., Sehammar, H., Sjögren, L., . . . Sörensen, G. (2012). Improving the realism in the VTI driving simulators: Shake final report. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the realism in the VTI driving simulators: Shake final report
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2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet (VTI) har tre avancerade körsimulatorer med rörelsesystem. Syftet med detta projekt var att utveckla och implementera nya modeller för grafik, vibrationer och buller, allt i syfte att öka realismen för föraren i simulatorn. Vidare skulle en valideringsstudie genomföras. Inom ramen för projektet uppnåddes följande:

  • Utveckling av ett nytt grafiskt programpaket
  • •Förbättring av modellerna för vibrationer på grund av däck/väg
  • •Förbättring av rörelsesystemet genom förskjutning av rotationscentrum
  • •Förbättring av modulen för buller, genom återskapande av däck- och vägbuller.
  • •Synkronisering mellan vägytans grafiska presentation, buller och vibrationer .

Modellernas validitet testades i VTI:s simulator III. Statistisk testning av skillnader mellan verklig bil och simulator indikerade absolut validitet för subjektiva bedömningar av vägytans jämnhet och tysthet och för det objektiva måttet hastighet, med undantag av områden där hastighetsgränsen ändrades. I dessa områden erhölls endast relativ validitet eftersom både accelerationer och retardationer var snabbare i simulatorn än i verklig bil. Relativ validitet indikerades också för det subjektiva måttet generell komfort. Resultaten från de olika valideringarna visar att förbättringarna har varit framgångsrika och föraren i simulatorn kan nu se, höra och känna ojämnheter i vägbanan exakt när hjulen träffar dessa. Fortfarande återstår dock många möjligheter till ytterligare förbättringar i simulatormodellerna.

Abstract [en]

The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has three advanced moving base driving simulators. The aim of this project was to develop and implement new models concerning vibration, noise and graphics in order to improve the realism in the simulators. Moreover, a validation study was to be conducted.

Within the frame of the project the following were achieved:

  • improvement of the tyre/road vibration models,
  • •improvement of the motion system by changing the rotation centre,
  • •improvement of the noise module facilitating reproduction of noise from tyre/road,
  • •synchronization of the impressions from graphics, noise and vibrations caused by the road surface.

The validity of the models was tested in the VTI Simulator III. Statistical testing of differences between the car and the simulator indicated absolute validity for the subjective ratings of evenness and noise level and the objective measure speed, with the exception of areas surrounding speed limit signs where only relative validity was found. Relative validity was also indicated for the variable overall comfort. The results from the different validations show that the improvements have been successful and the driver in the simulator can now see, hear and feel the sensation of any road surface irregularities exactly when the wheels hit that part of the road. However, several improvements in the simulator models can still be desired.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2012. p. 59
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 744A
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Simulation, Technique, Improvement, Model (not math), Vibration, Noise, Körsimulatorer, Simulering, Teknik, Förbättring, Modeller, Vibrationer, Buller
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1853 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
Bolling, A., Jansson, J., Genell, A., Hjort, M., Lidström, M., Nordmark, S., . . . Ögren, M. (2010). SHAKE - an approach for realistic simulation of rough roads in a moving base driving simulator. In: Trends in driving simulation design and experiments: proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010. Paper presented at Driving Simulation Conference, DSC, Paris 9-10 September 2010 (pp. 135-143). Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SHAKE - an approach for realistic simulation of rough roads in a moving base driving simulator
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2010 (English)In: Trends in driving simulation design and experiments: proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010, Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 135-143Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With today’s advanced measurement equipment for measuring roads, it is possible to measure road geometry at high precision within a large span of wavelengths. Detailed information about the roads longitudinal and lateral profile, including macro texture, would in theory be sufficient for a realistic reproduction of road induced vibration and noise in a driving simulator. Especially, it would be possible to create a direct connection between the visual information of the road condition and the ride experience, which would increase the level of realism in the simulation. VTI has during three years performed an internal project called SHAKE with the aim to develop and implement models in VTI driving simulator III that use measured road data for generating realistic vibrations and audible road noise connected to the visual impression presented on the projection screen. This has indeed resulted in an more realistic driving experience, and a validation study with test persons driving both in the simulator and in the field has been undertaken. The OpenDRIVE standard is used as a framework for describing the road properties (e.g. visual, vibrations and noise). For this purpose some augumentations to the OpenDRIVE standard had to be made. This paper describes the technical implementations in the driving simulator, along with results from test drives on the implemented road sections

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS, 2010
Series
Actes, ISSN 0769-0266 ; A126
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Simulation, Surfacing, Riding quality, Evenness, Rutting (wheel), Cracking, Method, Körsimulatorer, Simulering, Beläggningar, Åkkvalitet, Jämnhet, Spårbildning, Sprickbildning, Metoder
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-222 (URN)978-2-85782-685-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference, DSC, Paris 9-10 September 2010
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
Jansson, J., Matstoms, P., Nordmark, S. & Sehammar, H. (2008). Förutsättningar för en avancerad körsimulator i Göteborg. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förutsättningar för en avancerad körsimulator i Göteborg
2008 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving simulators play an important role in many fields of research and development. In vehicle industry simulators are used as powerful tools for product development, often with focus on HMI, active safety and vehicle dynamics. In a prestudie, financed by Test Site Sweden, VTI has investigated the possibilities to establish and run an advanced, world-class driving simulatorin Gothenburg, characterized by: - a possibility to use and shift between personal car and lorry cabins - at least 180 degree horizontal view - an advance moving base, with solid mechanical properties, allowing linear movements in x- and y-direction, combined with titling for the simulation of static acceleration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2008. p. 28
Series
VTI notat ; 17-2008
Keywords
Simulator, Planning, Research institute
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology; 00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 01 Road: Organization and administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-535 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, S. (1994). Driving simulators, trends and experiences: Paper prepared for RTS' 94 "Driving Simulation" Conference, January 11-14, 1994, Palais des Congres Porte Maillot, Paris, France. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving simulators, trends and experiences: Paper prepared for RTS' 94 "Driving Simulation" Conference, January 11-14, 1994, Palais des Congres Porte Maillot, Paris, France
1994 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut., VTI särtryck 204, 1994. p. 9
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X ; 204
Keywords
English, Driving simulator, Development, Design, Use, Program, Vision, Visual display, Mathematical model, Sweden, Conference, France
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3435 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
Nordmark, S. (1992). The new Trygg Hansa truckdriving simulator: An advanced tool for research and training. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI särtryck 187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The new Trygg Hansa truckdriving simulator: An advanced tool for research and training
1992 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI särtryck 187, 1992
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Driving simulator, Heavy vehicle, Car, Vibration, Driver, Behaviour, Design, Vision, Test, Equipment, Sweden, Movement, Conference, Japan, Mathematical model
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle design and construction; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Driver training and road user education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3237 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Nordmark, S. (1990). The VTI driving simulator: Trends and experiences. : Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI rapport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The VTI driving simulator: Trends and experiences
1990 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI rapport, 1990
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030
Keywords
English, Sweden, Conference, Simulation, Driving, Construction, Technology, Driver, Behaviour, Dynamics, Vehicle
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5984 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Nordmark, S. (1989). LIBELLA som jämnhetsmätare: En utvärdering. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI meddelande 592
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LIBELLA som jämnhetsmätare: En utvärdering
1989 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI meddelande 592, 1989
Series
VTI meddelande, ISSN 0347-6049
Keywords
Swedish, Sweden, Profilometer, Classification, Evenness, Measurement, Equipment, Evaluation, Simulation
Research subject
Road: Highway design, Road: Surfacing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-2824 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Törnros, J., Jansson, H., Laurell, H., Lidström, M., Moren, B., Nordmark, S. & Palmkvist, G. (1988). The VTI driving simulator: Driver performance applications (Reprint from: Simulation in traffic systems - human aspects. Workshop, June 3-4, 1988, Bremen. Commission of the European Communities). Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI särtryck 122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The VTI driving simulator: Driver performance applications (Reprint from: Simulation in traffic systems - human aspects. Workshop, June 3-4, 1988, Bremen. Commission of the European Communities)
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1988 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI särtryck 122, 1988
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, NKT, Driving simulator, Design, Movement, Rotation, Lateral, Acceleration, Vision, Television, Interior, Sound, Sweden, Performance, Use, Driver, Driving aptitude, Fatigue (human)
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle design and construction; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-2692 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-07-13
Laurell, H., Lidström, M., Moren, B. & Nordmark, S. (1987). The use of simulators for studies of driver performance. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut. VTI Särtryck 115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of simulators for studies of driver performance
1987 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut. VTI Särtryck 115, 1987
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Driving, Simulation, Driver, Reaction, Use, Behaviour, Equipment, Vehicle handling, Vision, Vibration, Sweden, Conference, France
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle design and construction; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-3000 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
Nordmark, S., Jansson, H., Lidström, M. & Palmkvist, G. (1986). A moving base driving simulator with wide angle visual system: prepared for the TRB conference session on "Simulation and instrumentation for the 80s", 64th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, 14-18 January 1985, Washington D.C.. Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI Särtryck 106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A moving base driving simulator with wide angle visual system: prepared for the TRB conference session on "Simulation and instrumentation for the 80s", 64th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, 14-18 January 1985, Washington D.C.
1986 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut., VTI Särtryck 106, 1986. p. 29
Series
VTI särtryck, ISSN 1102-626X
Keywords
English, Driving simulator, Vision, Width, Angle, Television, Performance, In situ, Moving, Vehicle handling, Conference, Sweden, USA
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-2452 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-07-13Bibliographically approved
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