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Wiklund, Mats
Publications (10 of 44) Show all publications
Eriksson, J., Lindborg, E., Adell, E., Holmström, A., Silvano, A. P., Nilsson, A., . . . Dahlberg, L. (2018). New Ways of Collecting Individual Travel Information: Evaluation of data collection and recruitment methods. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Ways of Collecting Individual Travel Information: Evaluation of data collection and recruitment methods
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall purpose of the project is to conduct a demonstration study that shows how two data collection methods that have been developed to collect travel survey data perform in the field, and how they perform compared with traditional TS (i.e., postal questionnaires and/or telephone interviews). The project is also intended to provide a better understanding of the ways in which different recruitment methods of respondents can be used so that future TS can be more cost effective.

The two collection methods tested consist of a mobile app and an online questionnaire with a map to assist the respondents to identify travel destinations. Three recruitment methods were used, i.e., recruitment via random sampling, a web panel, and crowdsourcing. The portion of the random sample that received an online questionnaire was divided into two groups. Half the group was given no incentive, while the other half received a gift card worth SEK 100 after answering the questioner. Those who were recruited via a web panel and were to use the mobile app were rewarded in the form of a gift card worth SEK 100 if, at minimum, they made corrections to trips made on one day registered in the mobile app. A nonresponse analysis was performed of the random sample for both the online questionnaire and the mobile app. Cost estimates for each collection method and recruitment method were also performed, as were uncertainty estimates.

Overall, the study shows that the mobile app registered significantly more trips per respondent than did the online questionnaire, while the distances travelled were comparable. There are several possible interpretations of this. One is that people who responded to the online questionnaire either forget about and/or combined short trips (particularly trips made for the purposes of leisure or shopping, and using the travel modes walking and car). One presumable explanation for this is that it is easier to confirm/correct the trips that the mobile app suggests than it is to recall and enter all trips in an online questionnaire. Another possible interpretation is that people responding to different data collection methods have different travel patterns. Yet another explanation is connected to technique issues regarding the different data collection methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2018. p. 99
Series
VTI PM
Keywords
Travel survey, Questionnaire, Website, Mobile app, Data acquisition, Method, Incentive (reward)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 11 Road: Personal transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13097 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-28 Created: 2018-05-28 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Antonson, H., Ahlström, C., Wiklund, M., Blomqvist, G. & Mårdh, S. (2013). Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(8), 874-880
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study
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2013 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords
Safety fence, Behaviour, Simulator (Driving), Stress (Psychol), Driver
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Road: Highway design, Road: Safety devices; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-269 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2013.777958 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-15Bibliographically approved
Vadeby, A., Wiklund, M. & Forward, S. (2011). Car drivers’ perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 706-713
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Car drivers’ perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems
2011 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 706-713Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver’s variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers.

Keywords
Electronic stability program, Driver, Behaviour, Risk, Knowledge
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7113 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2010.10.015 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-09-17 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Forsman, Å., Hrelja, R., Henriksson, P. & Wiklund, M. (2011). Co-operation between police and social treatment services offering treatment to drink and drug drivers: experience in Sweden. Traffic Injury Prevention, 12(1), 9-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-operation between police and social treatment services offering treatment to drink and drug drivers: experience in Sweden
2011 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To describe and analyze a measure that has been introduced in Sweden with the objective of quickly offering treatment for the alcohol or drug problems suspected drink or drug drivers may have. The goal of the measure is that every suspected drink or drug driver shall, as soon as apprehended by the police, be offered contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service, which can offer a consultation and, if needed, suitable treatment.

Method: Interviews and questionnaire surveys, as well as forms that describe the treatment received by each individual case.

Results: About 20 percent of all those who receive the offer from the police accept contact with the social services or the care and treatment service, and approximately 40 percent of these also attend the consultation. There is a favorable fundamental attitude to the method among the participating authorities. However, some shortcomings in application are revealed. One example concerns drug drivers who are offered contact with the social services or the care and treatment service to a considerably lesser extent than drink drivers. Another neglected group are the people who are at first suspected of drink driving but are later found to have an alcohol concentration below the legal limit. Compared with those who have an alcohol concentration above the legal limit, this group is offered contact to a lesser extent and also have a lower propensity to accept the offer.

Conclusions: The results indicate a strong support for the method from involved authorities, but participation could be improved by giving more attention to neglected groups.

Keywords
Drugs, Drunkeness, Driver
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Alcohol and drugs
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6600 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2010.532255 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-01-03 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ihs, A., Gustafsson, M., Eriksson, O., Wiklund, M. & Sjögren, L. (2011). Road user effect models: the influence of rut depth on traffic safety. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Road user effect models: the influence of rut depth on traffic safety
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2011 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det saknas idag tillfredsställande effektmodeller för beräkning av konsekvenser och kostnader för trafikanterna av olika underhållsstrategier. Det största problemet identifierat av Trafikverken/Vägverken i Finland, Sverige, Norge och Estland är sambandet mellan vägytans tillstånd och olyckor, effekten av den viktigaste tillståndsparametern spårdjup för trafikantkostnaderna, liksom betydelsen av trafikantkostnaderna/- effekterna för ett vägnät som är i ett huvudsakligen gott tillstånd. Detta är problem som måste lösas för att bättre kunna rättfärdiga budgettilldelningen för vägunderhåll. VTI har därför i uppdrag på finska Trafikverket och med finansiering även från de övriga Trafikverken/Vägverken, genomfört en studie för att avgöra hur spårdjup påverkar olycksrisken för trafikanter. Separata analyser har gjorts för data från Sverige, Finland respektive Norge. Det antogs att olycksrisken också beror på andra vägtillståndsvariabler, t.ex. längsgående ojämnhet, textur, tvärfall, geografiskt läge (land), fordonsflöde, klimat, väderförhållanden etc. En modellansats valdes som skulle kunna hantera påverkan av alla dessa övriga vägtillståndsvariabler, samt eventuella interaktioner mellan dessa, på olycksrisken. Det antogs vidare att förhållandet mellan olycksrisk och spårdjup inte nödvändigtvis är en linjär funktion, varför spårdjup delades upp i ett antal kategorier. Det beslutades också att separata ekvationer skulle härledas för olika hastighets- och ÅDT (Årsmedeldygnstrafiken)-klasser. Spårdjupskategorier samt hastighets- och ÅDT-klasser valdes för att matcha varje lands strategier för underhåll. Den övergripande slutsatsen av analysen är att data inte ger stöd för några allmänna regler i en underhållsplan. Det finns inga resultat från studien som säger att djupare spår generellt tenderar att öka olycksrisken. Det finns heller inga resultat som säger att spår har samma påverkan på olycksrisken i olika ÅDT-klasser vid en given hastighet eller vice versa. Det tycks finnas en ökad risk vid spårdjup ? ca 15 mm i högsta hastighetsklassen, men resultaten skiljer sig åt mellan olika ÅDT-klasser och inte är lika i angränsande hastighetsklasser, vilket gör resultaten svåra att förstå och mindre användbara för att ange regler för underhåll. För norska data erhölls inte samma resultat i den högsta hastighetsklassen (> =90 km/tim), denna skiljer sig dock från de svenska och finska högsta hastighetsklasserna (> =110 km/tim-vägar respektive motorväg)

Abstract [en]

There are currently no satisfactory effect models for calculating the consequences and costs for road users of different maintenance strategies. The main problems identified by the Transport/Road Administrations in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Estonia, are the relationship between road surface condition and accidents, the effect of the most important state parameter rut depth on road user costs, as well as the role of road-user costs/effects of a road network that is mostly in good condition. These are problems that must be resolved in order to better justify budget allocation for road maintenance. VTI has therefore on commission by the Finnish Transport Administration and with funding from the other Transport/Road Administrations conducted a study to determine the influence of rut depth effects on the accident risk of road users. Separate analyses were made of data from Sweden, Finland and Norway, respectively. It was assumed that the accident risk also depends on other road condition variables, such as longitudinal unevenness, texture, cross slope, geographic location (country), vehicle flow, climate, weather, etc. A model approach was chosen that could address the impact of all these other road condition variables, and the possible interactions between them, on the accident risk. It was assumed that the relationship between accident risk and rut depth is not necessarily a linear function, why rut depth was divided into several categories. It was also agreed that separate equations should be derived for different speed and AADT (Annual average daily traffic) classes. Rut depth categories, as well as speed and AADT classes were chosen to match each country's strategies for maintenance. The overall conclusion of the analysis is that the data does not support any general rules for a maintenance scheme. There are no results to show that deeper ruts generally tend to increase the accident risk. Nor are there results that show that ruts have the same influence on the accident risk for different AADT classes at a given speed or vice versa. There seems to be at increased risk for ruts ? about 15 mm in the highest speed class, but the results differ between AADT classes and are not similar in adjacent speed classes, making the results difficult to understand and less useful to specify the rules for maintenance. For the Norwegian data this trend can not be seen in the highest speed class (> = 90 km/h), but then this speed class differs from the Swedish and Finnish highest speed classes (> = 110 km/h roads and motorways, respectively).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2011. p. 44
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 731A
Keywords
Rutting (wheel), Depth, Impact study, Accident, Risk, Surfacing, Mathematical model, Statistics, Analysis (math), Spårbildning, Djup, Effektstudier, Olyckor, Risk, Beläggningar, Matematiska modeller, Statistik, Analys (matematisk)
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Accident risk; Road: Highway design, Road: Surfacing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1812 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
Wiklund, M., Simonsson, L., Forsman, Å., Hallberg, Ö. & Johansson, Ö. (2011). Trafiksäkerhet och konjunktur: modellansatser och litteraturstudie. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trafiksäkerhet och konjunktur: modellansatser och litteraturstudie
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2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Traffic safety and the economic situation : model approaches and a litterature survey
Abstract [sv]

Detta projekt har omfattat två delstudier. Syftet med den första har varit att undersöka vilka typer av olyckor som är mest känsliga för ekonomisk konjunktur och vilka trafikantgrupper som är inblandade. Syftet med den andra studien har varit att titta på vissa tillstånd, såsom andel tung trafik, andel ungdomar bland körkortsinnehavare, trafikarbete uppdelat på åldersgrupper, etcetera, och se hur dessa samvarierardels med konjunkturen, dels med utfallet i dödade och skadade. I denna rapport ges en översikt över de statistiska metoder andra forskare använt och vilka mått på det ekonomiska läget de tagit in i sina modeller. Det visade sig att arbetslöshet var den vanligaste ekonomiska förklaringsvariabeln där en ökning av arbetslösheten indikerar en nedgång av antalet trafikdödade. En del av nedgången i antalet trafikdödade förklaras av att unga förare minskar sitt bilåkande, detta gällde särskilt för lågkonjunkturen i början av 1990-talet. Det finns ändå kvar en effekt av arbetslöshet som inte förklaras av unga förares bilåkande. Ett försök att jämföra dödsolyckor där föraren visat prov på olämpligt beteende, såsom hastighetsöverträdelse, ej använt bilbälte eller drogpåverkan, i en period av lågkonjunktur jämfört med perioder av högkonjunktur påvisade en ibland oväntad likhet. Sett till det absoluta antalet dödsolyckor tycks en del riskbenägna bilförare ha försvunnit från trafiken eller ändrat sitt beteende i och med lågkonjunkturen. Dock har även antalet dödsolyckor med mer försiktiga bilförare minskat i motsvarande grad. Orsaken till att andelen dödsolyckor med riskbenägna respektive med mer försiktiga bilförare är oförändrad är dock oklar.

Abstract [en]

This project includes two subprojects. The objective of the first subproject has been to investigate which types of accidents are most sensitive to the state of the market and which road user groups are involved. The objective of the second subproject was to study certain conditions, such as percentage of heavy vehicles, percentage of young driving licence holders, vehicle milage per age group, etc., and to see how these covary with the state of the market as well as with the resulting number of killed and injured road users.

An overview of the statistical methods that other researchers have used and which measures of the state of the market they have included in their models is given in this report. It was concluded that unemployment was the most common economic variable, where an increase in unemployment indicates a decrease in the number of killed road users. It was then shown that part of the reduction in the number of fatalities is explained by young drivers' reducing their car use. This applies particulary to the regression in the early 1990s. There is, however, still a remaining effect of unemployment that cannot be explained by young drivers car use. An attempt to compare fatal accidents where the driver behavior has been inappropriate, such as speeding, not using safety belt or being under the influence of drugs, before and in a recession revealed a sometimes surprising similarity. In absolute numbers it seems that some risk-taking drivers may have dropped out of the traffic or changed behaviour in the recession. The number of fatal accidents with more careful drivers has however decreased by a similar degree. Why the number of fatal accidents with risk-taking and more careful drivers decreased by a similar amount, in a relative sense, is not clear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2011. p. 71
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 704
Keywords
Accident rate, Fatality, Economics, Market, Statistics, Analysis (math), Correlation (math, stat), Trend (stat), Mathematical model, Driver, Recently qualified driver, Vehicle kilometer, Olyckstal, Dödlighet, Ekonomi, Marknad, Statistik, Analys (matematisk), Korrelation, Trend, Matematiska modeller, Förare, Nyblivna körkortsinnehavare, Fordonskilometer
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents; 00 Road: General works, surveys, comprehensive works, 02 Road: Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1790 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Henriksson, P., Loukopoulos, P. & Wiklund, M. (2011). Utvärdering av kurser för förare av sportmotorcyklar: kursdeltagarnas behållning och effekten på försäkringsrapporterade skador. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvärdering av kurser för förare av sportmotorcyklar: kursdeltagarnas behållning och effekten på försäkringsrapporterade skador
2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Evaluation of further training courses for riders of super-sport motorcycles : participant retention of course contents and effect on insurance reported claims
Abstract [sv]

VTI har utvärderat sporthojskurserna som Sveriges MotorCyklister erbjuder. Utvärderingen har skettgenom två delstudier. I den första delstudien genomfördes telefonintervjuer med personer som deltog ikurserna år 2007. Syftet med den kvalitativa delstudien var att utröna vilken behållning deltagarna hadeav kurserna, vilka lärdomar som dragits och hur syftet har tolkats.Den andra delstudien omfattade en uppföljning av försäkringsrapporterade skador (person- och/elleregendomsskador) under perioden 2007–2009. Två grupper jämfördes: de som deltagit i en avanceradSMC-kurs och de som inte deltagit i någon sådan kurs.Ur intervjustudien framkom att kursernas upplägg fick övervägande positiva omdömen. Körning på vägskiljer sig från bankörning, vilket gör att alla moment inte blir aktuella vid de hastigheter och omständighetersom förekommer i trafiken. Några förbättringsförslag fördes fram som handlade om att få merindividuell återkoppling, att använda videokameror och att få ut skriftligt material före kursstarten.Utifrån uppföljningen av försäkringsrapporterade skador konstaterades att ingen signifikant skillnadförelåg mellan dem som genomgått kurs/kurser och dem som inte gått en avancerad kurs i SMC:s regi.Någon trafiksäkerhetseffekt av SMC:s sporthojskurser gick inte att påvisa med hjälp av det tillgängligadatamaterialet.Fördelar och nackdelar med olika angreppssätt för att undersöka vilken effekt fortbildning har på trafiksäkerhetdiskuteras.

Abstract [en]

VTI has evaluated further training courses offered by the Swedish Motorcyclists Association (SMC) to riders of super-sport motorcycles. This was done through two substudies. In the first study, a series of telephone interviews were performed with persons who participated in the courses in 2007. The aim with this qualitative part of the study was to identify what respondents recalled from their participation in the courses, what they learned from them, and how the aims of the course have been interpreted.

The second study included a follow-up of insurance reported claims during the period 2007-2009. Two groups were compared: those who participated in SMC further training course and those who did not participate in any such course.

From the interview study, it was found that the course structure, i.e. practical exercises interleaved with discussions, received largely positive comments. Riding a motorcycle on public roads was seen as significantly different to riding on a designated track or course, which is why not all aspects of the further training course were viewed as relevant for speeds and circumstances that arise in normal traffic conditions. Some suggestions for improvement dealt with greater individual feedback, use of video cameras, and distribution of printed course material in advance.

According to the follow-up study of insurance reported claims, no significant difference existed between those who completed the course/courses and those who have not passed SMC further training course. Any traffic safety effect of the SMC's courses for sport motorcycle riders was thus not possible to detect by the available data material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2011. p. 35
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 727
Keywords
Advanced driver training, Motorcyclist, Safety, Evaluation (assessment), Accident rate, Fortbildning för förare, Motorcyklister, Säkerhet, Utvärdering, Olyckstal
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Driver training and road user education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1808 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-03-30Bibliographically approved
Sörensen, G. & Wiklund, M. (2011). Åtgärder för att minska hastighet förbi vägarbetsplatser: utvärdering baserad på tre fältförsök. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Åtgärder för att minska hastighet förbi vägarbetsplatser: utvärdering baserad på tre fältförsök
2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Measures to reduce speed past road-work zones : an investigation based on three field tests
Abstract [sv]

En kunskapssammanställning avseende nyare metoder för att öka säkerheten vid vägarbetsplatser hartidigare genomförts. Den resulterade i en lista med åtgärdsförslag. Vägverket har prioriterat utvärderingav flera av de föreslagna åtgärderna. Utvärderingar avseende tre av dessa åtgärder redovisas i dennarapport. - Intelligent kövarningssystem, - Variabla meddelandeskyltar (VMS) vid intermittent vägarbete, - Optiska hastighetslinjer. De tre åtgärderna har testats i samband med verkliga vägarbeten och alla tre åtgärderna har var och en påsitt sätt visat sig ha potential att öka säkerheten vid vägarbeten. I rapporten pekas på frågor som återståratt besvara samt ges flera förslag på alternativa utformningar.De optiska hastighetslinjerna var den åtgärd som var klart billigast att implementera, men åtgärdenfungerar bara vid barmark. För att kunna utnyttja metoden med optisk synvilla även vintertid föreslås ettförsök med skärmar som placeras ut med succesivt minskade avstånd på sträcka där hastighetssänkningeftersträvas.Positiva reaktioner avseende de testade åtgärderna och deras effekter har erhållits både från vägarbetareoch driftledare.

Abstract [en]

A state-of-the-art literature survey concerning the improvement of road-work safety has previously been carried out. A list of potential new measures was produced and several of these were prioritized, for further investigation, by the Swedish Road Administration. The investigations of three of these prioritized measures are documented in this report: - Intelligent congestion warning system, - Dynamic message sign (DMS), - Optical speed bars. The measures were tested in field at real road-works and all three measures, each in their own way, have the potential to increase traffic safety at road-work zones. In the report, questions that remain to be answered are highlighted and some alternative designs of the measures are proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2011. p. 54
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 698
Keywords
Work zone, Traffic control, Speed, Queue, Warning, Variable message sign, Carriageway marking, Average speed, Before and after study, Field (test), Method, Vägarbetsplatser, Trafikstyrning, Hastighet, Köer, Varning, Omställbara vägmärken, Vägmarkeringar, Medelhastighet, Före efter studier, Fältförsök, Metoder
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Road: Highway design, Road: Safety devices; Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic control and traffic information
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1784 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-03-17Bibliographically approved
Hjort, M., Wiklund, M. & Öberg, G. (2010). Bus accidents in wintertime. In: PIARC 2010 XIII International Winter Road Congress, February 8-11, 2010, Quebec, Canada: proceedings. Paper presented at Proceeding for the Piarc International Winter Road Congress in Québec 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bus accidents in wintertime
2010 (English)In: PIARC 2010 XIII International Winter Road Congress, February 8-11, 2010, Quebec, Canada: proceedings, 2010Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Buses in Sweden have a low accident risk. However, statistics from 1996 - 2002 indicate that the number of bus accidents in Sweden with personal injuries have been increasing by 4% yearly. Buses also have a higher percentage of accidents that occur on ice/snow covered roads than other vehicles. In Sweden passenger cars must be equipped with winter tyres during the winter period. There is no such regulation for heavy vehicles, and many buses are using summer tyres all around the year. The present project had the purpose of looking at the bus-winter problem in more detail, with the main focus on tyres. Four different studies were carried out: tyre tests, focus group discussions, driving simulator tests and an accident study. Here is given a short summary concerning methods and conclusions of each sub project.

Tyre tests on smooth ice did not show any significant difference between summer tyres and non-studded winter tyres, while studded tyres exhibits a better ice grip than non-studded tyres. Nor did driving simulator tests with driving on ice covered road under the influence of heavy wind from the side show a difference between summer tyres and non-studded winter tyres. Also in these tests studded tyres were superior to non-studded. Accident statistics indicate that buses with summer tyres on the steering axle and winter tyres on the drive axle have the lowest estimated accident risk, which is in accordance with the results in a previous study. The results are however not statistically significant due the low number of accidents. Three focus groups were carried out and the importance of the tyres for traffic safety during winter was discussed. It is however hard from the gathered discussion material to estimate just how important the tyres really are. The results do not warrant a winter tyre regulation for heavy vehicles, and a restriction of the use of studded tyres for buses would probably have negative consequences on traffic safety.

Keywords
Accident, Accident rate, Winter, Bus, Tyre, Slipperiness, Icy road, Laboratory (not an organization), Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-221 (URN)
Conference
Proceeding for the Piarc International Winter Road Congress in Québec 2010
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Niska, A., Nilsson, A., Wiklund, M., Ahlström, P., Björketun, U., Söderström, L. & Robertson, K. (2010). Metoder för skattning av gång- och cykeltrafik: kartläggning och kvalitetsbedömning. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metoder för skattning av gång- och cykeltrafik: kartläggning och kvalitetsbedömning
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2010 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten sammanställer behov av och tillvägagångssätt vid skattning av gång- respektive cykeltrafikensandel av resandet och innefattar en analys av befintligt dataunderlag i form av resvaneundersökningaroch flödesmätningar. I analysen jämförs olika metoder och betydelsen av skillnader mellan metoderna,för uppföljning av resandet med gång och cykel, diskuteras. Både metoden i sig med dess definitioneroch avgränsningar liksom dess kvalitet i genomförandets olika faser spelar roll. Detta får konsekvenservid jämförelse mellan olika platser, men även för uppföljning över tid.De flesta kommuner har någon typ av mål vad gäller cykeltrafiken medan målformuleringar för gångtrafikenär mer sällsynta. Att öka cyklandets andel av det totala resandet, är den vanligast förekommandemålformuleringen. Andelsmålet följs emellertid sällan upp, utan istället mäts oftast antalet cyklister ivissa punkter. Resvaneundersökningar och flödesmätningar mäter olika saker och kan leda till olikaslutsatser. Mätningarna kan visa att det cyklas som aldrig förr, medan resvaneundersökningar visar attcykelandelen minskar. Båda slutsatserna kan vara riktiga och speglar betydelsen av metoderna, men ävenav måtten (antal eller andel). Andelsmått beror av fler komponenter än gång- och cykeltrafiken i sig,framför allt det totala resandet. Därför är inte bara andelar intressant utan även andra mått, somexempelvis antal resor per person.

Abstract [en]

This report summarises the needs for, and the procedures applied in, estimating the share of total travel represented by pedestrian and cycle traffic, and comprises an analysis of existing data in the form of travel surveys and flow measurements. Different methods are compared, and the significance of the differences between the methods for monitoring pedestrian and cycle travel is discussed. Both the method as such with its definitions and limitations, and the quality of the various phases in its implementation, play a part. This has consequences in comparisons between different places and also for monitoring over time. Most local authorities have some type of target with regard to cycle traffic, while target formulations for pedestrian traffic are less frequent. To increase the cycling share of total travel is the most common target, however, seldom followed up, and the numbers of cyclists at certain points are measured instead. Travel surveys and traffic flow measurements measure different things, and may draw different conclusions. The measurements may show that people cycle more than ever before, while travel surveys show that the cycling share is decreasing. Both conclusions may be right, and they reflect the importance of the methods employed, and also of the units. The unit "share" is made up of more components than pedestrian and cycle traffic as such, and depends above all on the total travel. It is therefore not only the proportions that are of interest but, for example, also the number of journeys per person.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2010. p. 93
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 686
Keywords
Walking, Cycling, Traffic count, Data acquisition, Method, Estimation, Quality, Gång, Cykling, Trafikräkning, Datainsamling, Metoder, Skattning, Kvalitet
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 21 Road: Traffic measurement and traffic analysis; 10 Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, 113 Road: Cycling, walking and moped transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-1773 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
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