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Aramrattana, M., Patel, R. H., Englund, C., Härri, J., Jansson, J. & Bonnet, C. (2018). Evaluating Model Mismatch Impacting CACC Controllers in Mixed. In: Proceedings IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium: . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2018, 26 September 2018 through 30 September 2018 (pp. 1867-1872). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Model Mismatch Impacting CACC Controllers in Mixed
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 1867-1872Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

At early market penetration, automated vehicles will share the road with legacy vehicles. For a safe transportation system, automated vehicle controllers therefore need to estimate the behavior of the legacy vehicles. However, mismatches between the estimated and real human behaviors can lead to inefficient control inputs, and even collisions in the worst case. In this paper, we propose a framework for evaluating the impact of model mismatch by interfacing a controller under test with a driving simulator. As a proof- of-concept, an algorithm based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) is evaluated in a braking scenario. We show how model mismatch between estimated and real human behavior can lead to a decrease in avoided collisions by almost 46%, and an increase in discomfort by almost 91%. Model mismatch is therefore non-negligible and the proposed framework is a unique method to evaluate them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Autonomous vehicle, Driver, Behaviour, Mathematical model, Estimation, Accident prevention, Braking, Method, Evaluation (assessment)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13370 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2018.8500479 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056772722 (Scopus ID)9781538644522 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2018, 26 September 2018 through 30 September 2018
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2017). A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework-consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators-for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Automation, Driving, Simulation, Traffic, Transport network, Test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12428 (URN)2-s2.0-85028624553 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-27 Created: 2017-09-27 Last updated: 2017-09-29Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2017). A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework—consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators—for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kidlington: Pergamon Press, 2017
Keywords
Intelligent transport system, Platooning (electronic), Evaluation (assessment), Simulator (driving), Simulation, Traffic, Network (traffic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12687 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2017.08.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85028624553 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Vehicle ICT Innovation Methodology (VICTIg)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Englund, C., Jansson, J., Larsson, T. & Nåbo, A. (2017). Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations. In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero): . Paper presented at 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-Zero’17), Nara, Japan, 18-22 September, 2017. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Article ID 20174621.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero), Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan , 2017, article id 20174621Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function, which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road space utilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are not desired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especially from non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining the safety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performs the cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers using time to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks are always high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6 seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, 2017
Keywords
Cooperative ITS, Autonomous driving, Lane changing, Safety, Traffic mixture, Simulation, Adaptive cruise control, Platooning (electronic)
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12684 (URN)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-Zero’17), Nara, Japan, 18-22 September, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Englund, C., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2017). Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios. In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC): . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Kanagawa, Japan, 16-19 October, 2017 (pp. 315-320).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2017, p. 315-320Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

Keywords
Cooperative ITS, Autonomous driving, Traffic mixture, Simulation, Adaptive cruise control, Platooning (electronic)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12685 (URN)10.1109/ITSC.2017.8317806 (DOI)978-1-5386-1525-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Kanagawa, Japan, 16-19 October, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-07-24Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2016). Cooperative Driving Simulation. In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016: . Paper presented at DSC 2016 Europe, Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, 7-9 sept, 2016, Paris, France (pp. 123-132).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Driving Simulation
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

Keywords
Intelligent transport system, Platooning (electronic), Simulator (driving), Simulation, Traffic, Network (traffic)
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12688 (URN)
Conference
DSC 2016 Europe, Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, 7-9 sept, 2016, Paris, France
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Nåbo, A. (2016). Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems. In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16): . Paper presented at 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16) (pp. 255-258). New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Cooperative intelligent transport system, Technology, Development, Network (traffic)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10736 (URN)10.1145/2901378.2901397 (DOI)978-1-4503-3742-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16)
Projects
VICTIgSAFER-VICTIg
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Aramrattana, M., Larsson, T., Jansson, J. & Englund, C. (2015). Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings: . Paper presented at IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2015, 28 June 2015 through 1 July 2015 (pp. 144-149).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation
2015 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2015, p. 144-149Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency.

Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

Keywords
Electronics, Software, Automation, Vehicle, Autonomous vehicle, Safety, Behaviour
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-9271 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2015.7225677 (DOI)2-s2.0-84951010000 (Scopus ID)9781467372664 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2015, 28 June 2015 through 1 July 2015
Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Jansson, J., Sandin, J., Augusto, B., Fischer, M., Blissing, B. & Källgren, L. (2014). Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV. In: Andras Kemeny (Ed.), New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings. Paper presented at Driving simulation conference 2014 (pp. 4.1-4.7). Paris
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV
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2014 (English)In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Paris, 2014, p. 4.1-4.7Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The VTI simulator IV (Sim IV) is the fourth advanced driving simulator designed and built at The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The simulator, taken into operation 2011, has an 8 degrees of freedom (DoF) moving base, a field of view (FoV) of 180 degrees and features a system for rapid cabin exchange. With a budget of roughly 2,4 M euro; Sim IV was developed to provide VTI’s newly established Gothenburg office with advanced driving simulation capability, and to be a cost efficient complement to the Sim II and Sim III facilities in VTI’s Linköping office. This paper describes the design and technical performance of the facility. A brief summary of results and experience from validation studies for the first three years of operation is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris: , 2014
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Design (overall design), Characteristics
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7062 (URN)
Conference
Driving simulation conference 2014
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
Thorslund, B., Jansson, J., Peters, B., Andersson Hultgren, J. & Brännström, M. (2014). Principle Other Vehicle Warning. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Principle Other Vehicle Warning
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The only possibility for a driver to avoid a collision may sometimes be to issue a warning to another driver. Connecting the horn and the headlight to an already existing sensor system could be a cost effective solution. This report covers the implementation and evaluation of such an automated warning system in a driving simulator at VTI. In this test 24 drivers with normal hearing and 24 with moderate hearing loss experienced five critical events in which four different warning signals were evaluated; sound, light, and a combination of sound and light, and no warning (as reference). A visual distraction task was used to distract the drivers and create critical situations. The results were consistent. A combined sound and light warning significantly increased cautious driving behaviour and also lead to the highest perceived criticality of the situations. With the combined warning the driver’s attention was effectively drawn from the visual distraction task. Drivers were generally positive towards the warning system, and most positive towards the combined warning presenting light and sound signals. Drivers were able to distinguish between warnings (at critical events) and greetings (at non-critical events) suggesting that the tested additional use of horn and headlight would not affect reactions to non-critical warnings or greetings. Hearing loss was associated with worse performance on the visual distraction task and less perceived realism of the driving simulator. But it was not associated with effects on any driving behaviour measures or of warning modalities. This result suggests that the evaluated system should work also for drivers with moderate hearing loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2014. p. 35
Series
ViP publication: ViP - Virtual Prototyping and Assessment by Simulation ; 2014-2
Keywords
Warning, Outside, Headlamp, Horn, Driver, Cognition, Behaviour, Hearing, Disabled person, Simulator (driving), Test
National Category
Applied Psychology Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6906 (URN)
Available from: 2014-05-27 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2014-10-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0822-5701

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