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Algurén, B. & Rizzi, M. C. (2022). In-depth understanding of single bicycle crashes in Sweden: Crash characteristics, injury types and health outcomes differentiated by gender and age-groups. Journal of Transport and Health, 24, Article ID 101320.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-depth understanding of single bicycle crashes in Sweden: Crash characteristics, injury types and health outcomes differentiated by gender and age-groups
2022 (English)In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 24, article id 101320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: To study in-depth characteristics of single bicycle crashes and type of injuries considering gender and age differences. Methods: Hospital reported bicycle crashes identified in the Swedish national database STRADA were combined with self-reported detailed information regarding crash circumstances and injury outcomes. Gender and age-group differences were investigated using univariate statistics and Pearson Chi- Square test. Results: A total of 616 cyclists injured in single bicycle crashes between 2013 and 2017 were included. Participants (49% women) had a mean age of 58 years (ranged 15–89 years), most rode a comfort bike (54%) and cycled several times a week (81%). The most common crash type was skidding on ice or snow (26%). This crash type was significantly more common among women than men (30% versus 21%). Women more than twice as often lost balance at low or no speed (13% versus 5%). While men's injuries were located more than twice as often at shoulder and upper arm (28% versus 11%), women injured more than four times as often the lower leg and ankle (30% versus 7%). Differences regarding age-groups could be observed as an exponential increase of hip and upper leg injuries with increased age (9, 19 and 38%). Older cyclists were more often injured while losing balance at no or low speed and while getting on or off the bicycle. Conclusions: Concrete countermeasures to prevent injuries in single bicycle crashes can be suggested and directed to different target groups, i.e. women or men or younger or elderly. © 2021

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2022
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-17689 (URN)10.1016/j.jth.2021.101320 (DOI)2-s2.0-85122059469 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-24 Created: 2022-03-24 Last updated: 2022-03-24Bibliographically approved
Rizzi, M. C. & Strandroth, J. (2022). Olika skademått som beskriver hälsoförlust till följd av trafikolyckor: hur påverkas prioriteringar i trafiksäkerhetsarbetet?. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Olika skademått som beskriver hälsoförlust till följd av trafikolyckor: hur påverkas prioriteringar i trafiksäkerhetsarbetet?
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Injury measures describing health loss from traffic crashes : how is the prioritization of traffic safety work affected?
Abstract [sv]

Målstyrning är en grundläggande del av trafiksäkerhetsarbetet och hur målet definieras har en direkt koppling till vilka strategier som används för att nå målen. I Sveriges målstyrning är det antalet omkomna och allvarligt skadade personer som följs upp. Som allvarligt skadad definieras den som i samband med en vägtrafikolycka fått en skada som ger minst en procents permanent medicinsk invaliditet. 

Syftet med denna rapport har varit att öka förståelsen för hur trafiksäkerhetsarbetets prioriteringar gällande allvarligt skadade skulle påverkas om man använde andra skademått än medicinsk invaliditet. I rapporten jämförs måtten PMI 1+ (grunden till dagens definition för allvarligt skadad), och PMI 10+ (mycket allvarligt skadad) med funktionsjusterade levnadsår (YLD) enligt DALY och MAIS 3+ som är den EU-gemensamma definitionen för svårt skadad. 

Data som ligger till grund för beräkningarna består av alla skadade personer rapporterade i Strada sjukvård under 2018 och 2019, totalt 63 587 personer. Jämförelser görs mellan de olika skademåtten avseende skillnader i risk för olika trafikantgrupper, fördelning av åldersgrupper, olyckstyper, trafikmiljöer och skadefördelning. 

Resultaten visar bland annat att skademåtten PMI 1+, PMI 10+ och MAIS 3+ ger en liknande bild över fördelningen av vilka som skadas, och i vilka olyckor och trafikmiljöer, men att storleks[1]ordningen på antalet skadade skiljer sig åt. Bland dessa skademått är den största gruppen skadade cyklister i tättbebyggt område (eller fotgängare i fallolyckor om dessa inkluderas). Om YLD används skulle istället den största delen av hälsoförlusterna komma från personer som skadats i personbil utanför tätort.

Abstract [en]

Management by objectives is a fundamental part of road safety. How the goal is defined has a direct connection to which strategies are used to reach the set goals. In Sweden, the target is defined as the number of fatalities and seriously injured in the road transport system. A seriously injured is defined as someone who, in connection with a road traffic crash, has suffered an injury that results in at least one percent permanent medical impairment. 

The aim of this study was to increase the understanding on how priorities in road safety would be affected if other injury measures than medical disability would be used. The report compares the measures PMI 1+ (the basis of today’s definition of seriously injured), and PMI 10+ with disability adjusted life years (YLD) according to DALY and MAIS 3+, which is the definition of severely injured used in the EU. 

The data that forms the basis of the calculations consists of all injured persons reported in the Swedish national accident database, Strada, during 2018 and 2019, a total of 63,587 persons. Comparisons are made between the different injury measures regarding differences in risk for different road user groups, distribution of age groups, accident types, traffic environments and injury distribution. 

The results show that the injury measures PMI 1+, PMI 10+ and MAIS 3+ provides a similar picture of the distribution of who is injured, and in which crashes and traffic environments, but that the order of magnitude of the number of injured differ. Among these injury measures, the largest group of injured are cyclists in urban areas (or pedestrians in fall accidents if these are included). If YLD is used, the largest part of health losses would instead come from people who were injured in passenger cars outside urban areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022. p. 33
Series
VTI resultat ; 2022:4
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19081 (URN)
Available from: 2022-10-17 Created: 2022-10-17 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J., Henriksson, P. & Rizzi, M. C. (2022). Oskyddade trafikanters inblandning i olyckor och deras skadeutfall: en jämförande studie mellan fotgängare, cyklister, mopedister och motorcyklister. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oskyddade trafikanters inblandning i olyckor och deras skadeutfall: en jämförande studie mellan fotgängare, cyklister, mopedister och motorcyklister
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Vulnerable road users involvement in accidents and their injury outcome : a comparative study between pedestrians, cyclists, mopedists and motorcyclists.
Abstract [sv]

I tidigare arbete för säker gång-, cykel- och mopedtrafik har faktaunderlag tagits fram för olyckor och skador. Det finns en stor efterfrågan på uppdaterade analyser samt att utvidga innehållet till mopedister och motorcyklister. Syftet är dels att se över klassificeringsmetoden, dels att öka kunskapen om oskyddade trafikanters inblandning i olyckor och deras skador. 

Olycksunderlaget är hämtat från olycksdatabasen Strada, främst från sjukvården, för åren 2014–2019. Resvanedata är hämtade från den nationella resvaneundersökningen RVU Sverige 2011–2016. Måttet allvarligt skadad används och med det menas att personen bedöms få en framtida medicinsk invaliditet på minst en procent. 

Under aktuell sexårsperiod blev 19 042 fotgängare, 11 195 cyklister, 1 325 mopedister och 1 393 motorcyklister allvarligt skadade. En majoritet av dessa var singelolyckor. Fotgängare bestod av en övervägande del kvinnor i åldern 45 år och äldre. För cyklister var det något fler män som skadades allvarligt och åldersgruppen 10–14 år hade högst andel allvarligt skadade. De allvarligt skadade mopedisterna bestod av en övervägande del män och över hälften var i åldern 15–17 år. Nio av tio allvarligt skadade motorcyklister var män och de flesta var i åldern 25–64 år. Oavsett trafikantgrupp var det vanligaste ärendet fritid vid skadetillfället. Halka var bland den vanligaste uppgivna orsaken, mellan 30–60 procent, där snö/is var vanligast för fotgängare, snö/is och löst grus för cyklister och löst grus för mopedister och motorcyklister. Ojämnt/hål och gropar var också något som var vanligt, mellan 9 och 17 procent beroende på trafikantkategori. För cyklister, mopedister och motorcyklister var följande angivna orsak vanlig för singelolyckor utöver halka: 

• Väjt för annan trafikant, mellan 6–11 procent, 

• inbromsning 6–22 procent, 

• svängt/kurva 9–30 procent. 

Risken att skadas allvarligt per resa är högst bland motorcyklister och per en miljon kilometer var det mopedister.

Abstract [en]

In previous traffic safety work of pedestrian, bicycle and moped traffic, facts have been developed for accidents and injuries. There is a great demand for updated analyses and to extend the content to include mopedists and motorcyclists. The purpose is to increase knowledge about vulnerable road users' involvement in accidents and their injuries. 

The study is based on injured road users registered by the accident database Strada, and mainly from the health care, for the years 2014–2019. The travel data is based on the National Travel Survey, for the years 2011–2016. A seriously injured person is classified as having a Risk of Permanent Medical Impairment of at least 1% or more. 

During the current six-year period, 19,042 pedestrians, 11,195 cyclists, 1,325 mopedists and 1,393 motorcyclists were seriously injured. A vast majority of these were single accidents. Pedestrians consisted of most women aged 45 and older. For cyclists, slightly more men were seriously injured, and the age group 10–14 years had the highest proportion. The severely injured mopedists consisted of a majority of men and over half were aged 15–17. Nine out of ten seriously injured motorcyclists were men, and most were aged 25–64. Regardless of the road user group, the most common case was “leisure” at the time of injury. The most common cause was slippery road (30–60%), and snow/ice was most common for pedestrians, snow/ice and loose grit for cyclists and loose grit for mopedists and motorcyclists. Uneven surface/potholes were also common, between 9 and 17 percent depending on the road user category. The risk of being seriously injured per trip is highest among motorcyclists, and per one million kilometers it was mopedists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022. p. 191
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1133
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18774 (URN)
Available from: 2022-06-15 Created: 2022-06-15 Last updated: 2022-11-01Bibliographically approved
Rizzi, M. C., Mäkitalo, M. & Henriksson, P. (2022). Snabbcykelstråk i planeringen och praktiken: erfarenheter från Sverige, Norge och Danmark. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Snabbcykelstråk i planeringen och praktiken: erfarenheter från Sverige, Norge och Danmark
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med studien har varit att ge en övergripande bild av vilka utmaningar, kunskapsluckor och behov som transportaktörer i Sverige, Norge och Danmark möter i hanteringen av snabbcykelstråk. Fokus har varit på hur tjänstemän från dessa tre länder med ansvar eller engagemang i snabbcykelstråk upplever planering, utformning, drift och underhåll samt utvärdering av stråken. I rapporten lyfts områden där det upplevs saknas stöd eller kunskap, samt likheter och skillnader mellan länderna.

En webbenkät med efterföljande intervjuer har använts som datainsamlingsmetod. Webbenkäten sändes till 40 personer i Sverige, Norge och Danmark som på olika sätt arbetar med snabbcykelstråk. Svar inkom från 25 personer. Av dessa valdes sju personer ut för att genomföra en efterföljande intervju.

Förutsättningarna att arbeta med snabbcykelstråk skiljer sig mellan länderna, till exempel med hänsyn till väghållaransvar och finansieringsmöjligheter, men även inom länderna kan förutsättningar skilja sig. Det tycks finnas ett behov av nationell samordning kring snabbcykelstråk, samtidigt som man inte ville se några ”tvingande regler” kring utformning. I Sverige efterlyser man särskilt en samordning kring skyltning av snabbcykelstråk, något som redan finns i Danmark. Det upplevdes svårare att planera för snabbcykelstråk jämfört med annan cykelinfrastruktur och det finns aspekter av snabbcykelstråk som skiljer sig från annan cykelinfrastruktur, som till exempel högre krav på utformning, underhåll och säkerhet, samt högre krav på samarbete och samordning. Utvärdering av snabbcykelstråken är något man arbetar med lokalt, och det finns ingen sammanställd systematisk kunskap kring de modeller eller metoder som används för utvärdering. Informationsutbyte mellan olika aktörer i Sverige, Norge och Danmark skulle kunna öka kunskapen och ge nya infallsvinklar hur planering och genomförande av snabbcykelvägar kan förbättras.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study was to provide an overall picture of challenges, knowledge gaps and needs actors in transport in Sweden, Norway and Denmark face in the management of cycle highways. Focus has been on how officials from these countries, with responsibility or involvement in cycle highways, experience planning, design, operation and maintenance as well as evaluation of cycle highways. The report highlights challenges and knowledge gaps related to cycle highways, as well as exploring similarities and differences between the countries. 

A web survey with subsequent interviews was used as method for data collection. The web survey was sent to 40 people in Sweden, Norway and Denmark who work in transport and in different ways related to cycle highways. A total of 25 individuals responded to the survey. Of these, seven were selected to conduct a subsequent interview. 

The conditions for cycle highways differ between the countries, for example with regard to road maintenance and funding. Also within the countries the conditions may differ. There seems to be a need for national coordination around cycle highways, but no need for "mandatory rules" regarding their design. In Sweden there is a need for coordination around signage for cycle highways, something that already exists in Denmark. Experiences from the web survey and subsequent interviews showed that it was more difficult to plan for cycle highways compared to other bicycle infrastructure. Further, there are aspects of cycle highways that differ from other bicycle infrastructure, such as higher requirements for design, maintenance and safety, and higher demands for cooperation and coordination. Evaluation was carried out at local level and there was no systematic knowledge about the models or methods used for evaluation. Sharing of knowledge between the countries can increase knowledge and contribute to improve the planning and building of cycle highways

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022
Series
VTI PM ; 2022:3
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18541 (URN)
Available from: 2022-04-29 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2022-06-10Bibliographically approved
Lackner, C., Heinzl, P., Rizzi, M. C., Leo, C., Schachner, M., Pokorny, P., . . . Klug, C. (2022). Tram to Pedestrian Collisions: Priorities and Potentials. Frontiers in Future Transportation, 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tram to Pedestrian Collisions: Priorities and Potentials
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Future Transportation, E-ISSN 2673-5210, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To improve mobility in cities in line with environmental goals, in urban traffic, trams represent an increasingly important means of transport. Due to the close interaction with other road users, this makes collisions with trams fairly frequent. This study has investigated accidents between trams and vulnerable road users resulting in personal injury, aimed at identifying priorities for simulating collisions between trams and pedestrians to assess passive safety measures. Tram accident data collection established throughout Europe from multiple sources and with varying degree of details, have been combined and analysed. These analyses comprise risk assessments per km-driven and general tram accident partner and site type evaluations, with more detailed analyses on accident site distance to the closest tram stop and injured body regions, respectively. In total, 7,535 tram-pedestrian accident resulting in 8,802 pedestrian injuries, collected in the year 2000–2021, was analysed. Accident risk ranges from 0.934 accidents per number of tram (million) km-driven, for slight injuries to 0.063 for fatal injuries. Pedestrians represent a large proportion of tram accident collision partners, especially for severe and fatal accidents. In accidents between trams and pedestrians, 3% of reported injuries are fatal, 23% severe and 74% minor. Generally, low-speed accidents close to tram stops often leading to minor injuries were observed to be of significant importance (<20m to the GPS location of a stop). Analysis of accidents was done bases on gender of the pedestrian showing overall similar involvements in accident with slight difference for various age groups and sites. Regardless of injury severity, the most frequently injured body region in accidents involving a tram is the head. Likewise, injuries sustained to the thorax, especially for higher injury severities are of high relevance, followed by injuries to the lower extremities. Based on this study, recommendations for developing reasonable tram-pedestrian accident scenarios for virtual testing can be derived for further optimisation of pedestrian safety of trams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19488 (URN)10.3389/ffutr.2022.913887 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 768960
Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-01-27Bibliographically approved
Leo, C., Rizzi, M. C., Bos, N. M., Davidse, R. J., Linder, A., Tomasch, E. & Klug, C. (2021). Are There Any Significant Differences in Terms of Age and Sex in Pedestrian and Cyclist Accidents?. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 9, Article ID 677952.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are There Any Significant Differences in Terms of Age and Sex in Pedestrian and Cyclist Accidents?
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 9, article id 677952Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study has analyzed sex-specific differences in pedestrian and cyclist accidents involving passenger cars. The most frequently injured body regions, types of injuries, which show sex-specific differences and the general accident parameters of females and males were compared. Accident data from three different European countries (Austria, Netherlands, Sweden) were analyzed. The current analysis shows that for both, females and males, pedestrian and cyclist injuries are sustained mainly to the body regions head, thorax, upper extremities and lower extremities. The results show that the odds for sustaining skeletal injuries to the lower extremities (incl. pelvis) in females are significantly higher. It was observed in all datasets, that the odds of females being involved in a rural accident or an accident at night are lower than for males. Elderly pedestrian and cyclist (>= 60YO) tend to sustain more severe injuries (AIS2+ and AIS3+) than younger pedestrian and cyclists (<60YO) in some of the datasets. The findings of this study highlight the differences in males and females in both, accident scenarios and sustained injuries. Further investigations are needed to distinguish between gender- and sex-specific differences causing the different injury patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-16794 (URN)10.3389/fbioe.2021.677952 (DOI)000658308800001 ()34109167 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85107451995 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-30 Created: 2021-06-30 Last updated: 2022-04-04Bibliographically approved
Rizzi, M. C., Rizzi, M., Kullgren, A. & Alguren, B. (2020). The potential of different countermeasures to prevent injuries with high risk of health loss among bicyclists in Sweden. Traffic Injury Prevention, 21(3), 215-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential of different countermeasures to prevent injuries with high risk of health loss among bicyclists in Sweden
2020 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: As bicyclists account for the largest share of serious injuries in Sweden, focus to improve safety for bicyclists is needed. While knowledge about fatal bicycle crashes is rather extensive, the number of studies that have investigated non-fatal injuries is still rather limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential of different countermeasures to reduce crashes resulting in injuries with high risk of health-loss among cyclists in Sweden. A further aim was to describe the residual-that is, crashes that were not considered to be addressed by the analyzed countermeasures.

Methods: A sample of individuals with specific injury diagnoses was drawn from the Swedish national crash database Strada. A survey form was used to collect additional information about the crash and the health-related outcomes. The potential of countermeasures currently included in the Swedish Safety Performance Indicators, as well as of countermeasures that could be described as "existing but not fully implemented" was assessed. The overall potential of all countermeasures assessed was calculated, giving a grand total without double counting. Cases that were considered not to be addressed by any of the countermeasures included (i.e., the residual crashes) were described in more detail.

Results: The current Swedish Safety Performance Indicators that relate to safe cycling addressed 22% of crashes. Improved maintenance by deicing and removal of snow from bicycle infrastructure was found to have the highest potential (8%), followed by improved crashworthiness of passenger cars (5%) and safer bicycle crossings (4%). The potential for existing but not fully implemented safety improvements was 56%. The greatest potential was found for Autonomous Emergency Braking with cyclist detection for passenger cars (12%), followed by studded winter tyres for bicycles (12%), and improved maintenance on non-bicycle infrastructure (11%). In total, taking double counting into consideration, all safety improvements could address 64% of all crashes. Among the residual crashes, the majority (69%) were single bicycle crashes of which most were related to wheel locking during braking and losing balance at low speed or stationary.

Conclusions: Compared with fatal crashes that involve a majority of bicycle-car crashes, the crashes leading to health-loss are mostly single bicycle crashes. Therefore, innovation and development of additional countermeasures to improve safety for bicyclists should focus on single bicycle crashes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-15192 (URN)10.1080/15389588.2020.1730827 (DOI)000519722200001 ()32167786 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081953158 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-27 Created: 2020-05-27 Last updated: 2022-03-29Bibliographically approved
Linder, A., Davidse, R. J., Iraeus, J., John, J. D., Keller, A., Klug, C., . . . Schmitt, K.-U. (2020). VIRTUAL - a European approach to foster the uptake of virtual testing in vehicle safety assessment. In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020: . Paper presented at 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland. (Conference canceled).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VIRTUAL - a European approach to foster the uptake of virtual testing in vehicle safety assessment
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2020 (English)In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the assessment of road user and vehicle occupant safety, physical testing is limited to a few scenarios. To advance transport safety it is vital to include more relevant scenarios. Virtual Testing offers an opportunity to introduce additional test scenarios. The objectives of the VIRTUAL project, described in this paper, include: Identifying impact scenarios relevant for the future, providing tools such as models, guidelines, and a corresponding platform to foster the uptake of virtual testing. The safety of standing passengers on public transport has been reviewed, scenarios for Vulnerable Road User testing have been identified and new seated positions for future vehicles have been described. In addition, a virtual testing platform has been established on which human body models are provided. The platform follows the open access approach, complements other approaches and does not just provide the models, but also guidelines on how to implement new scenarios in test procedures.

National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-15313 (URN)
Conference
8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland. (Conference canceled)
Available from: 2020-06-15 Created: 2020-06-15 Last updated: 2020-06-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1155-3519

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