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Linder, A., Hjort, M. & Svensson, M. (2023). Dummy Kinematics Assessment: Evaluation of a Combined Gyro and Accelerometer Set-up. In: 2023 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2023 IRCOBI Conference. Held 13 – 15 September 2023 in Cambridge, United Kingdom (pp. 230-231). International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI), Article ID IRC-23-31.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dummy Kinematics Assessment: Evaluation of a Combined Gyro and Accelerometer Set-up
2023 (English)In: 2023 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI) , 2023, p. 230-231, article id IRC-23-31Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Crash test dummy kinematics is commonly obtained from high-speed video recordings or other opticalmethods. The present study evaluates a cost-efficient sensor system combining gyros and accelerometers toderive the kinematics of different parts of a dummy. This evaluation was done on the newly designed humansurrogates, the Seat Evaluation Tools (SET) 50F and 50M, developed for low severity rear impacts and hereequipped with gyros at four locations

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI), 2023
Series
IRCOBI conference proceedings, ISSN 2235-3151
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20010 (URN)2-s2.0-85175170516 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2023 IRCOBI Conference. Held 13 – 15 September 2023 in Cambridge, United Kingdom
Available from: 2023-11-16 Created: 2023-11-16 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Leo, C., Fredriksson, A., Grumert, E., Linder, A., Schachner, M., Tidborg, F. & Klug, C. (2023). Holistic pedestrian safety assessment for average males and females. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, Article ID 1199949.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holistic pedestrian safety assessment for average males and females
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, article id 1199949Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: An integrated assessment framework that enables holistic safety evaluations addressing vulnerable road users (VRU) is introduced and applied in the current study. The developed method enables consideration of both active and passive safety measures and distributions of real-world crash scenario parameters.

Methods: The likelihood of a specific virtual testing scenario occurring in real life has been derived from accident databases scaled to European level. Based on pre-crash simulations, it is determined how likely it is that scenarios could be avoided by a specific Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) system. For the unavoidable cases, probabilities for specific collision scenarios are determined, and the injury risk for these is determined, subsequently, from in-crash simulations with the VIVA+ Human Body Models combined with the created metamodel for an average male and female model. The integrated assessment framework was applied for the holistic assessment of car-related pedestrian protection using a generic car model to assess the safety benefits of a generic AEB system combined with current passive safety structures.

Results: In total, 61,914 virtual testing scenarios have been derived from the different car-pedestrian cases based on real-world crash scenario parameters. Considering the occurrence probability of the virtual testing scenarios, by implementing an AEB, a total crash risk reduction of 81.70% was achieved based on pre-crash simulations. It was shown that 50 in-crash simulations per load case are sufficient to create a metamodel for injury prediction. For the in-crash simulations with the generic vehicle, it was also shown that the injury risk can be reduced by implementing an AEB, as compared to the baseline scenarios. Moreover, as seen in the unavoidable cases, the injury risk for the average male and female is the same for brain injuries and femoral shaft fractures. The average male has a higher risk of skull fractures and fractures of more than three ribs compared to the average female. The average female has a higher risk of proximal femoral fractures than the average male.

Conclusions: A novel methodology was developed which allows for movement away from the exclusive use of standard-load case assessments, thus helping to bridge the gap between active and passive safety evaluations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19893 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2023.1199949 (DOI)001057828400001 ()37670838 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85169671177 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-11 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Klug, C., Bützer, D., Iraeus, J., John, J., Keller, A., Kowalik, M., . . . Linder, A. (2023). How much does the injury risk between average female and average male anthropometry differ?: A simulation study with open source tools for virtual crash safety assessments. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 193, Article ID 107328.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How much does the injury risk between average female and average male anthropometry differ?: A simulation study with open source tools for virtual crash safety assessments
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2023 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 193, article id 107328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Differences in injury risk between females and males are often reported in field data analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in kinematics and injury risks between average female and male anthropometry in two exemplary use cases. A simulation study comprising the newly introduced VIVA+ human body models (HBM) was performed for two use cases. The first use case relates to whiplash associated disorders sustained in rear impacts and the second to femur fractures in pedestrians impacted by passenger cars as field data indicates that females have higher injury risk compared to males in these scenarios.

Detailed seat models and a generic vehicle exterior were used to simulate crash scenarios close to those currently tested in consumer information tests. In the evaluations with one of the vehicle seats and one car shape the injury risks were equal for both models. However, the risk of the average female HBM for whiplash associated disorders was 1.5 times higher compared to the average male HBM for the rear impacts in the other seat and 10 times higher for proximal femur fractures in the pedestrian impacts for one of the two evaluated vehicle shapes..

Further work is needed to fully understand trends observed in the field and to derive appropriate countermeasures, which can be performed with the open source tools introduced in the current study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20005 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2023.107328 (DOI)001093244300001 ()2-s2.0-85173877348 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 768960
Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Linder, A., Heinzl, P., Iraeus, J., John, J. D., Keller, A., Klug, C., . . . Xu, J. C. (2023). Open-Source Tools for Road User Safety Abessment from the VIRTUAL Project. In: Luís de Picado Santos; Jorge Pinho de Sousa; Elisabete Arsenio (Ed.), TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena: . Paper presented at Transport Research Arena (TRA), Lisboa, Portugal, 14-17 November, 2022 (pp. 423-430). Elsevier, 72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open-Source Tools for Road User Safety Abessment from the VIRTUAL Project
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2023 (English)In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena / [ed] Luís de Picado Santos; Jorge Pinho de Sousa; Elisabete Arsenio, Elsevier, 2023, Vol. 72, p. 423-430Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the abessment of road user and vehicle occupant safety, physical testing is limited to a few scenarios. Virtual testing (VT) offers an opportunity to advance transport safety by introducing additional test cases. The objective of the VIRTUAL project is to provide tools such as finite element models, guidelines and a corresponding platform to foster the uptake of VT. A VT platform, OpenVT, has been established and provides open-source human body models (HBMs) of both an average female and male, seated and standing, as well as a seat, generic vehicle and tram front models. The tool chain from virtual to physical testing has been illustrated in the low severity impact case where the seat evaluation tool was developed. The newly established organisation OVTO will run the OpenVT platform in the future and govern the evolution of the results of the VIRTUAL project after its completion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457, E-ISSN 2352-1465
Keywords
Finite Element Human Body Models, Open Source, Road Transport, Vehicle Safety, Virtual Testing, Vulnerable Road Users
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-20187 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2023.11.423 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182952823 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Transport Research Arena (TRA), Lisboa, Portugal, 14-17 November, 2022
Projects
VIRTUAL
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 768960
Available from: 2024-02-01 Created: 2024-02-01 Last updated: 2024-02-08Bibliographically approved
Xu, J. C., Silvano, A. P., Nusia, J., Krašna, S., Keller, A., Klug, C., . . . Linder, A. (2022). A biomechanical quantification of an effective balance recovery strategy in free-standing females and males using OpenSim. In: Proceedings of Science: . Paper presented at 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2021, 12 July 2021 through 23 July 2021 (pp. 335-336). Sissa Medialab Srl
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biomechanical quantification of an effective balance recovery strategy in free-standing females and males using OpenSim
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2022, p. 335-336Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sissa Medialab Srl, 2022
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18659 (URN)2-s2.0-85127559854 (Scopus ID)
Conference
37th International Cosmic Ray Conference, ICRC 2021, 12 July 2021 through 23 July 2021
Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
Genzel, J., Carlsson, A., Linder, A., Pipkorn, B. & Svensson, M. (2022). An Open-Source Finite Element Model of a Generic Car Seat: Development and Validation for Low-Severity Rear Impact Evaluations. In: 2022 IRCOBI Conference proceedings: . Paper presented at 2022 IRCOBI Conference, 14 – 16 September 2022 – Porto, Portugal (pp. 229-242). IRCOBI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Open-Source Finite Element Model of a Generic Car Seat: Development and Validation for Low-Severity Rear Impact Evaluations
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2022 (English)In: 2022 IRCOBI Conference proceedings, IRCOBI , 2022, p. 229-242Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A Finite Element model of a generic Laboratory Seat was developed to replicate a physical counterpart used in rear-impact volunteer tests. The Laboratory Seat has a simplified design, developed to facilitate replication in computational models. The seat has a flat rigid base and the seatback consists of four horizontal panels attached to side posts by coil springs. The seat model was validated with results from component tests and sled tests, including the Anthropomorphic Test Device, BioRID II.

An initial test series was carried out to generate data for component validation: the first set of tests to characterise the coil spring properties; and the second set comprising Impactor Tests on Head Restraint Foam to assess the head restraint material properties.

For system level validation, sled tests were conducted both with the empty Laboratory Seat and with the BioRID II. The BioRID II tests were conducted in conjunction with an earlier volunteer test study.

Both the component and the sled tests were reproduced in a virtual environment. Good agreement was achieved between the mechanical tests and the computational simulations.

The seat model is freely available to use: https://openvt.eu/fem/open-access-laboratory-seat-model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IRCOBI, 2022
Series
IRCOBI Conference proceedings, E-ISSN 2235-3151 ; 2022
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18936 (URN)
Conference
2022 IRCOBI Conference, 14 – 16 September 2022 – Porto, Portugal
Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2022-09-21Bibliographically approved
Karemyr, M., Pettersson, T., Svensson, M. & Linder, A. (2022). Seat Evaluation Tools (SETs): Development of prototype concepts of the SETs of an average female and male for low severity rear impact crash testing. Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seat Evaluation Tools (SETs): Development of prototype concepts of the SETs of an average female and male for low severity rear impact crash testing
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Sätesutvärderingsverktyg (SET) : Utveckling av prototypkoncept för SET gällande genomsnittlig kvinna och man för provning av upphinnandekollision vid låg fart
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study has been to develop new Seat Evaluation Tools (SET)s with the geometries of an average female (50F) and male (50M) as seated car occupants, based on data from humanshape.org. The SETs have been designed to evaluate the occupant protection performances of car seats in a low severity rear impact.

Focus areas have been the motion of the spine, neck and shoulders to enable a human-like interaction with the car seat. Improvements have been made to previous designs of the neck spring and damper system, and a new solution for shoulder flexibility has been implemented. Soft body materials have been used to facilitate the motion of the torso, and a 3D thoracic and lumbar spine design has been developed.

Two physical prototypes, SET v0.1 50F and 50M, have been developed and all drawings and CAD models have been made available under open-source license on the OpenVT platform (https://openvt.eu/). The prototypes have been run in initial dynamic tests and the results have been compared to previous volunteer tests.

This work was carried out within the EU-funded project, VIRTUAL.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna studie har varit att utveckla nya sätesutvärderingsverktyg, Seat Evaluation Tools (SET), med geometrierna för en genomsnittlig kvinna (50F) och man (50M) som sittande fordonspassagerare, baserade på data från humanshape.org. SET har utformats för att utvärdera fordonssätets skyddsprestanda vid en upphinnandekollision i låg hastighet.

Fokusområden har varit rörelsen i ryggrad, nacke och skuldror för att ge en människolik interaktion med fordonssätet. Förbättringar har gjorts utifrån tidigare lösningar för dämpning av nacken och ett nytt koncept för skuldrans rörlighet har implementerats. Mjuka material har använts för att underlätta torsons rörlighet och en bröst- och ländrygg med rörlighet i tre dimensioner har utvecklats.

Två fysiska prototyper, SET v0.1 50F och 50M, har utvecklats och samtliga ritningar och CAD-modeller finns tillgängliga genom OpenVT-plattformen (https://openvt.eu/). Prototyperna har testats i krockprov och resultaten har jämförts med tidigare voluntärtester.

Arbetet har varit en del av det EU-finansierade projektet VIRTUAL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022. p. 82
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 1147A
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19117 (URN)
Projects
VIRTUAL (Open Access Virtual Testing Protocols for Enhanced Road User Safety)
Available from: 2022-11-09 Created: 2022-11-09 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Linder, A., Bützer, D., Keller, A., Klug, C., Wijnen, W. & Schmitt, K.-U. (2022). The VIRTUAL project: Open source human body models and tools for virtual crash safety assessment. In: Road Safety on Five Continents – RS5C. Proceedings: . Paper presented at 19th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C). Grapevine, Texas, USA. Held October 10–12, 2022 (pp. 20-22). Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The VIRTUAL project: Open source human body models and tools for virtual crash safety assessment
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2022 (English)In: Road Safety on Five Continents – RS5C. Proceedings, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022, p. 20-22Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the assessment of road user and vehicle occupant safety, physical testing is limited to a few scenarios. To advance transport safety, it is vital to further develop the test procedures and, for example, to consider additional impact conditions. Virtual Testing (VT) offers an opportunity to introduce such additional scenarios and thus to broaden our safety assessment. 

The current standards in testing consider very few anthropometries, and population inhomogeneity is not appropriately represented. Future safety assessment procedures should thus aim for a more inclusive approach to better embrace diversity of all road users. VT is likely the most feasible technique to assess safety performance in a multitude of impact configurations. VT incorporating evaluation through advanced Human Body Models (HBMs) has not only the potential to expand the 21 current safety assessment with respect to population diversity, but also allows for additional test scenarios and additional injury mechanisms. VT provides a far wider range of occupant specific characteristics than is, and would ever be, viable in physical testing. 

The VIRTUAL project strives to contribute to the development of VT in the crash safety assessment area. It will develop and provide models and procedures needed to conduct VT in scenarios addressing vehicle occupant and vulnerable road users (VRU) safety. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
X RSXC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19105 (URN)
Conference
19th International Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C). Grapevine, Texas, USA. Held October 10–12, 2022
Available from: 2022-11-07 Created: 2022-11-07 Last updated: 2022-11-07Bibliographically approved
Lackner, C., Heinzl, P., Rizzi, M. C., Leo, C., Schachner, M., Pokorny, P., . . . Klug, C. (2022). Tram to Pedestrian Collisions: Priorities and Potentials. Frontiers in Future Transportation, 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tram to Pedestrian Collisions: Priorities and Potentials
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Future Transportation, E-ISSN 2673-5210, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To improve mobility in cities in line with environmental goals, in urban traffic, trams represent an increasingly important means of transport. Due to the close interaction with other road users, this makes collisions with trams fairly frequent. This study has investigated accidents between trams and vulnerable road users resulting in personal injury, aimed at identifying priorities for simulating collisions between trams and pedestrians to assess passive safety measures. Tram accident data collection established throughout Europe from multiple sources and with varying degree of details, have been combined and analysed. These analyses comprise risk assessments per km-driven and general tram accident partner and site type evaluations, with more detailed analyses on accident site distance to the closest tram stop and injured body regions, respectively. In total, 7,535 tram-pedestrian accident resulting in 8,802 pedestrian injuries, collected in the year 2000–2021, was analysed. Accident risk ranges from 0.934 accidents per number of tram (million) km-driven, for slight injuries to 0.063 for fatal injuries. Pedestrians represent a large proportion of tram accident collision partners, especially for severe and fatal accidents. In accidents between trams and pedestrians, 3% of reported injuries are fatal, 23% severe and 74% minor. Generally, low-speed accidents close to tram stops often leading to minor injuries were observed to be of significant importance (<20m to the GPS location of a stop). Analysis of accidents was done bases on gender of the pedestrian showing overall similar involvements in accident with slight difference for various age groups and sites. Regardless of injury severity, the most frequently injured body region in accidents involving a tram is the head. Likewise, injuries sustained to the thorax, especially for higher injury severities are of high relevance, followed by injuries to the lower extremities. Based on this study, recommendations for developing reasonable tram-pedestrian accident scenarios for virtual testing can be derived for further optimisation of pedestrian safety of trams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-19488 (URN)10.3389/ffutr.2022.913887 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 768960
Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-01-27Bibliographically approved
Xu, J. C., Silvano, A. P., Nusia, J., Krašna, S., Keller, A., Klug, C., . . . Linder, A. (2021). A biomechanical quantification of an effective balance recovery strategy in free-standing females and males using OpenSim. In: Conference proceedings International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI: . Paper presented at 2021 International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI 2021, 8 September 2021 through 10 September 2021 (pp. 335-336). International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biomechanical quantification of an effective balance recovery strategy in free-standing females and males using OpenSim
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2021 (English)In: Conference proceedings International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI, International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury , 2021, p. 335-336Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2021
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-18662 (URN)2-s2.0-85127428530 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2021 International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI 2021, 8 September 2021 through 10 September 2021
Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2022-10-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6868-5673

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