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  • Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hellman, FredrikSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.Haraldsson, MattiasSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 20192019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI arrangerade Transportforum 9–10 januari 2019 i Linköping Konsert & Kongress. En konferens, som är störst i sitt slag i Norden och som 2019 innehöll 90 sessioner med en stor variation mellan ämnen. Temat för 2019 års inledande session var elektrifiering – möjligheter och utmaningar att nå klimatmålen.

  • Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

  • Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Prognosmodell för framtida resurs- och kompetensbehov inom järnvägsbranschen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the 2018–2029 National Plan for the Transport System, SEK 125 billion are to be set aside for the operation, maintenance and reinvestments of state railways during that period. This is an increase of about 40 percent compared with the corresponding plan for 2014–2025. Increased funding implies a greater volume of activities and indications have been received from players in the railway industry that all the resources and competences required to carry out planned railway, underground and tramway projects are not available. The Swedish Transport Administration therefore initiated a work process to produce a practical and useful forecast model that would predict the future resource and competence needs of the entire railway industry. Considering the complex structure of the railway industry, the wide variety of areas of activity and all the data (which was gathered manually for this project) needed for a forecast model, it transpired that the work task could not be completed within the framework of the project.

    The purpose of the project and this report has therefore been limited to suggesting a structure for the forecast model and, by using examples of four types of project - replacement of switches, replacement of tracks, building of passing loops, and the extension of double tracks - showing how the demand for resources and competences can be forecast. No analysis has been made of the supply side, that is, the current availability of manpower, retirements and study programmes. The reason for this is because there are no statistics that can be readily used to specify these parameters specifically for all the occupational groups and areas of activity of the railway industry. Because of this, the drafted version of the forecast model cannot be linked to the supply side and therefore it cannot show which occupational groups are expected to have a surplus or deficit of resources and competences.

  • Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägdamm: små partiklar - stora problem : en kunskapsöversikt2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inandningsbara partiklar i vår omgivningsluft är ett av våra svåraste föroreningsproblem. Partiklarna har många källor, som till exempel trafikavgaser, slitagepartiklar, utsläpp från uppvärmning och industrier och långtransporterade föroreningar från kontinenten. I Sverige infördes 2005 en miljökvalitetsnorm med syfte att reglera halterna av dessa partiklar. Mätningar visar att normen överträds rejält i trafikintensiva väg- och gatumiljöer främst under vinter och vår. Orsaken är i huvudsak slitagepartiklar från vägbana, däck och bromsar, det vill säga vägdamm. Det mesta av vägdammet bildas då våra dubbdäck sliter på beläggningen, men det härrör även från vintersandningen. Är vägdammet farligt? Vad består det av? Vilka faktorer påverkar dammbildningen? Vilka åtgärder kan tänkas vara effektiva för att minska höga dammhalter? Frågorna är många och forskningen inom området livlig. Denna skrift ger en överblick över problemområdet vägdamm och kunskapsläget kring hur man kan komma tillrätta med problemet.

  • Arvidsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jansson, Samuel
    Tetra Chemicals Europe.
    Effekt av dammbindningsmedel: en laboratoriestudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride have been evaluated in combination with four different fine materials (granite, amphibolite, meta greywacke and naturally occurring silt), which are used for gravel road maintenance. Aqueous solutions of the two salts have been added to the fine material where after rain and drying has been simulated under laboratory conditions. Evaluation has been performed in terms of residual amount of salt after rain simulation, and SEM and optical microscopy on the fine material after drying, respectively

    It has been difficult to draw any conclusions that would yield new information from the tests. The methodology developed was not able to show agglomeration in the fine fraction of the gravel road material and it was not possible to provide recommendations regarding the dosage of dust binding agents.

    The tests show that calcium chloride is more efficient in retaining moisture than magnesium chloride when the comparison is based on the amount of flakes used.

    Agglomeration could not be proven despite several repeated tests.

    The chemical properties did not differ significantly, the salts behaved similarly and according to earlier known data.

    Differences in the origin of rock material was negligible compared with the effects of the salts.

    The added salt was for the most part (with a minimum of 80%) leached out during the rain simulation. No differences between calcium chloride and magnesium chloride or between the different fine materials were observed in terms of leaching. A small difference between leaching of cations and anions was recorded where the cations were retained in the fine material. This might be an ion-exchange effect.

    Analysis with SEM and optical microscopy did not yield any significant differences between the different combinations of salt and fine materials, respectively.

    During drying of the fine material it was observed that calcium chloride, calculated as commercial product, could absorb more water than magnesium chloride. This effect persisted also after the rain simulation.

    The experimental method that was developed during the study did not give any, previously not known, differences between the different salts and fine materials. Probably the system has been simplified to such an extent that relevant parameters were removed or do not reflect real field conditions.

  • Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Bullerskydd med hastighetsdämpande egenskaper2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to demonstrate that a successively denser interval of vertical markings on noise barriers near the road can slow down the mean speed. The concept has the potential to be a cost-efficient alternative or complement to road markings and road signs.

    The method for investigation was a field experiment to measure the speed before, during, and after the time period when the test markings were mounted.

    The results showed no effect of the test markings. It is possible that another type of traffic environment is needed than the type studied in the current field experiment in order to affect the drivers to slow down.

  • Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Godstågs avvikande hastighet: analys av förekomst, orsaker och konsekvenser2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It happens that freight trains deviate from the times of the timetable on their transport route between arrival and end station and there are several reasons that this happens. Examples of the consequences of disruptions occurring include low punctuality, general capacity problems, reprioritization of the freight train and delayed delivery to the end customer.

    The aim of this project was to develop a method for analysing the existence of freight trains that deviate from the set timetable, as well as the reason for it. The results presented in the report are based solely on data from the Swedish Transport Administration’s database Lupp.

    From a limited material (four freight trains over two years), it was difficult to find clear cause-and-effect relationships between different factors. However, some conclusions from the project may be interesting to highlight. In 2015, the punctuality of the four freight trains upon departure from the Hallsberg marshalling yard was about 60 percent and about 50 percent upon arrival at the Malmö goods station. Scheduled stops at some stations between Hallsberg and Malmö are not always used. Disruptions linked to the causes “infrastructure" and “railway companies” together account for between 60 percent and 70 percent of the total number of disruptions.

  • Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Kalman, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Cruz Del Aguila, Fernando
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Friktions- och texturutveckling på nya beläggningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new pavement should be and be perceived as safe by road users, regardless of the road condition. It is therefore important that the road has a satisfactory level of friction already when the road is opened. There is limited documented knowledge of how the road change in the beginning after a paving performance.

    The purpose of this project is to determine how friction changes during the first period after road pavement is laid and traffic is permitted. The ambition is to determine if new road sections have reduced friction and provide recommendations for when a friction measurement is to be performed, and how warning signs should be displayed in connection with the pavement work. The study plan has been to follow different objects with frequent friction and texture measurements from just before the stretch is opened for traffic until the levels have stabilised.

    Initially, friction is high, and then decreases with the amount of traffic. After 1-3 weeks the lowest value was reached and then the friction increased or stabilized. Common to all investigated stretches, there are major changes in texture levels from the first vehicle and then a decreasing textural level until a stable level is reached after 1-3 weeks.

  • Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trötthet i samband med bilkörning: översättning till svenska av avhandlingen Sleepiness at the wheel2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sömniga förare är en viktig orsak till trafikolyckor. Syftet med denna avhandling är att förmedla ny kunskap om sömnighet och risken för olyckor på vägarna genom att undersöka försämrad körförmåga kopplad till sömnighet hos förare. Motmedel kommer också att lyftas fram. Avhandlingen börjar med ett avsnitt om dödsfall och skador som ett folkhälsoproblem och hur sömnighet hos förare inverkar på trafikolyckor. Därefter följer att avsnitt som beskriver sömn, trötthet och grundläggande reglering av sömn och uppvaknande. Nästa avsnitt handlar om sömnighetsrelaterade trafikolyckors orsaker och kännetecken. Avslutningsvis diskuteras några motmedel mot sömnighet.