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  • Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Ecologize.
    Antonson, Hans
    KMV forum AB.
    Hållbara turistresor i transportplaneringen: Analys och utvecklingsförslag2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics show that tourism in Sweden is increasing, thus increasing its importance for the overall economy, exports and employment. However, tourism is also associated with environmental and other effects, for example from tourist travel. The objective of this study was to investigate how tourist travel and sustainable tourist travel are included in infrastructure planning and to identify potential development needs. The studies focus on regional and local planning, but also the national planning is addressed, and the need for coordination and cooperation in the planning is discussed. Two substudies, a document analysis and an interview study were conducted in four destinations (case studies) with different characteristics. These are Kiruna, Åre, Sälen and Vimmerby / Astrid Lindgren’s World. The study is part of a larger project, which is also published in a synthesis report.

    The overall picture emerging from the interviews is a relatively fragmented planning. Many different perspectives and objectives need to be addressed in regional and local planning, but the level of knowledge in planning and access to or application of different planning support does not correspond to the needs. Several interviewees highlight “åtgärdsvalsstudier” as a good model for the development of grounds for decisions and priorities, and for cooperation between actors. Complemented with clearer central governance and support regarding priorities between different types of goals and objectives, for example sustainability, this may be a good model for further development of planning for including broader and additional perspectives, for example sustainability and tourism.

    Further examples of identified development needs are clearer and explicit responsibility for tourism and sustainability in national planning, further development of processes, routines, information and communication in coordinated planning as well as better knowledge regarding the application of guidelines and tools in planning.

  • Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Wahl, Charlotte
    Sweco.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Sweco.
    Adell, Emelie
    Trivector.
    Intressent- och behovsanalys för resvaneundersökningar: resultat från intervjuer och enkätundersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, national travel surveys are regularly carried out by Transport Analysis, a governmental agency. However, in the last decade travel survey studies have suffered with problems such as high rate of non-response, coverage, costs and reporting burden. Therefore, this project is underway aimed at investigating and proposing new methods for data collection on people’s mobility. The project is divided into five deliverables (work packages – WP), of which this report is the second one (WP2). The purpose is to carry out an analysis of stakeholders’ needs regarding future requirements of travel surveys. This includes identifying the questions that travel surveys can answer.

    Telephone interviews have been conducted with 20 stakeholder representatives and internet-based questionnaires were sent to 142 respondents (response 81 persons, response rate 57 percent). The stakeholders’ representatives were classified into three types of organizations: public sector, research organizations and other actors. Based on their own experience, an analysis has been conducted regarding what is requested from the national travel survey. The analysis show that key aspects of today’s and tomorrow’s travel survey users include (i) mode choice, (ii) trip purpose, (iii) how travel behavior changes over time, and (iv) how different groups travel. To be able to answer these questions, both individual and travel information are required.

  • Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kriterier för vägbelysning på statlig väg i och i anslutning till mindre tätorter på landsbygd: Resultat från litteraturstudie, intervjuer och projektmöte2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the prevailing road lighting guidelines, roads and streets in urban areas should be equipped with road lighting, while roads outside of urban areas normally do not need to be equipped with road lighting. Vägar och gators utformning (VGU) contains guidelines that are mandatory for public roads but advisory for municipality roads and streets. The need of road lighting on public roads outside of urban areas has been discussed between the road authorities, i.e. the Swedish Transport Administration and the municipalities.

    The aim of this study is to produce a proposal of new criteria for use of road lighting on public roads in and in connection to smaller populated areas in the countryside. This has mainly been done by a literature review of guidelines and research studies about road users’ needs and the effect of road lighting, as well as through interviews with persons responsible for road lighting in Swedish municipalities. A list containing possible criteria was compiled and discussed at a meeting with the project group for the project “Kriterier för belysning på statlig väg”, which is a group with common members from Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and Swedish Transport Administration. The participants at the meeting found the following criteria interesting to apply.

    A public road on the countryside should be equipped with road lighting if:

    1. the road runs through an urban area
    2. there is a local plan where there is mixed traffic on a national arterial road
    3. there are establishments and services that generate vulnerable road users close by the road, e.g. schools, churches, community centers, gymnasiums, health care centers, museums, train stations, ferry quays or similar
    4. there are passages for pedestrians and cyclists or speed reducing measures along the road
    5. there are commuter stops, including train and boat
    6. prevailing requirements on AADT in VGU are fulfilled.
  • Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Hastighetsflödessamband för svenska typvägar: Förslag till reviderade samband baserat på trafikmätningar från 2012–20152017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed-flow relationships are an important part of the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) model for evaluation of effects of road facilities (the EVA model). This report present suggestions for new speed-flow relationships for motorways (MV), low standard motorways (4F), oncoming lane separated highways with grade separated intersections (MML), oncoming separated highways with at grade intersections (MLV), and two-lane highways. The suggestions are based on data from measurements using the Swedish Transport Administration’s traffic measurement system TMS in combination with model calculations. The TMS data have, for each road category, been quality checked, processed and analysed. The data material is presented as speed-flow diagrams for passenger cars, buses and trucks without trailer, and trucks with trailers. A comparison of the current speed-flow relationships and the TMS-measurements was then conducted for each road category, and if needed a suggestion for a revision was presented. The most significant changes from last revision from 2013 are: average free flow speed for trucks without trailer have in general increased for all road types except two lane highways for which the speed has decreased; average free flow speed for trucks with trailers have in general decreased; and the average speed on two lane highways have in general decreased

  • Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    State of preparedness for climate change adaptation in operations and maintenance of transport infrastructure in eight Swedish municipalities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the preparedness for climate change adaptation (CCA) of transport infrastructure in eight municipalities in Sweden. The study focused on municipal officials’ role in organizing and implementing CCA measures. The interviews were done in 2011. Many respondents confused CCA with climate change mitigation. Three of the municipalities had performed vulnerability analyses but apart from that, well-documented decision support in long-term adaptation was largely lacking. Adaptation measures were often based on day-to-day problems and recently experienced weather incidents. Strategic work with long-term CCA seemed to be largely lacking. The placing of the responsibility for CCA in the municipal organization was often unclear. Six of the respondents found there were no actual hindrances to their work with CCA and no conflicts with other municipal aims. However, several responses indicated budgetary competition with environmental aims or other societal strivings. The planning and implementation of CCA measures seemed to be highly dependent on individual officials, their engagement, their passivity/activity regarding this issue, their defined responsibility and the boundaries for their current position in the municipality organization. 

  • Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Cyklisters interaktion med extrautrustning, infrastrukturen och andra trafikanter: En semi-kontrollerad fältstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How cyclists interact with the infrastructure, and how they integrate the handling of additional tasks, is dependent on the surrounding traffic situation and the cyclists’ characteristics. To study these relationships, a semi-controlled field study was conducted with 41 cyclists, who belonged to different cyclist groups with respect to their usual travel speed during transport trips. Speed, gaze direction and tactical behaviour like choice of path and the interaction with incoming text messages was logged, while the cyclists travelled along a six kilometre long route in the inner city of Linköping. Interviews and think aloud protocols, as well as video recordings from different perspectives were employed as well.

    It was common that the cyclists ignored incoming text messages, a third was answered directly while cycling. The texting while cycling did not lead to attentional decrements, because the cyclists adapted their interaction with the telephone to the prevailing traffic situation. The interaction with the phone did not differ substantially between cyclist groups. However, the design of the infrastructure affected the cyclist groups differently, where faster cyclists were delayed more in cases where the infrastructure necessitated stops regardless of the traffic situation, while comfort cyclists were the group delayed most in a roundabout that was difficult to interpret. Cycling on the pavement was common, and it mainly reflects the insecurity experienced in mixed traffic with cars. It is important to consider the different needs of different cyclist types when planning the road infrastructure, to avoid irritation, insecurity and conflicts.

  • Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

  • Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Trafiksimulering av E20 Ribbingsberg–Vara: En simuleringsstudie av framkomlighet för en mötesfri utformning av E202017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The part of road E20 between Ribbingsberg and Vara in Sweden will be converted from a two-lane rural road with speed limit 80 kilometers per hour into an oncoming separated highway with speed limit 100 kilometer per hour. The suggested design of the oncoming separated highway includes sections of 1+1 and 2+2 lanes with varying lengths between 1.6 and 3.2 kilometers. Due to the current high level of traffic demand in combination with high levels of trucks, the traffic performance at the suggested design could be questioned. In order to evaluate traffic performance, a traffic simulation study has been performed for the peak hour during a typical weekday. The study includes three different scenarios of traffic demand, representing levels of year 2015, 2025 and 2045. Simulations are performed using the microscopic simulation model RuTSim (Rural road Traffic Simulator), developed by VTI and customized for rural traffic. The model is calibrated using measurements from the actual road stretch in combination with data from the adjacent oncoming separated highway with speed limit 100 kilometers per hour between Vara and Skara. Simulation of year 2045 generates average speed for cars of 94 kilometers per hour. Sensitivity analysis of limited overtaking willingness results in average speed as minimum 92 kilometers per hour.

    This means that the traffic performance fulfills the condition according to Trafikverkets former requirement that the average speed for cars should not be less than 10 kilometers per hour below the speed limit (100 kilometer per hour). The share of constrained vehicles also supports the conclusion of a design with satisfying traffic performance. It should though be mentioned that the lengths of the twolane segments within the suggested design exceeds the recommendations according to Trafikverket