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  • Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Warg, Jennifer
    Are commuter train timetables consistent with passengers’ valuations of waiting times and in-vehicle crowding?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many models have been developed and used to analyse the costs and benefits of transport investments. Similar tools can also be used for transport operation planning and capacity allocation. An example of such use is the assessment of commuter train operations and service frequency. In this study, we analyse the societally optimal frequency for commuter train services. The aim is to reveal the implicit valuation (by the public transport agency) of the waiting time and the in-vehicle crowding in the commuting system. We use an analytic CBA model to formulate the societal costs of a certain service frequency and analyse the societally optimal frequencies during peak and off-peak hours. Comparing the optimal and the actual frequencies allows to reveal the implicit valuations of waiting time and crowding. Using relevant data from the commuter train services in Stockholm on a typical working day in September 2015 (e.g., OD matrix, cost parameters), we perform a numerical analysis on certain lines and directions. We find the societally optimal frequency and the implicit valuation of waiting time and crowding. The results suggest that the public transport agency in Stockholm (i.e., SL) adopted service frequencies that are generally slightly higher than societally optimum which can be explained by a higher implicit valuation of waiting time and crowding. We also find that the optimal frequencies are more sensitive to the waiting time valuation rather than that of crowding.

  • Kuttah, Dina K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Events of the Joint Swedish-Japanese Workshop on “Modern Technologies in Pavement Engineering” Held at VTI in Linköping on the 19th and 20th of November 2019: A post workshop report2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The exchange of national practices and lesson learnt constituted the core part of the workshops.

    As part of the international cooperation activities, the pavement technology division at VTI hosted two days’ workshop that brought together key stakeholders across Japan to share knowledge, discuss achievements, challenges and lessons arising from new technologies used in pavement engineering. The workshop took place on the 19th and 20th of November 2019 at the VTI’s head office in Linköping.

    Representatives from Taisei Rotec Corporation; Nichireki Co. LTD; Nippo Co.; MAEDA Road Construction Co.; SEIKITOKYU KOGYO Co., LTD; FUKUDA Road Construction Co., LTD; Fine Road Consultant Co., Ltd; TOA Road Construction; Obayashi Road Co., Ltd;Tairiku Construction; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region; Hokkaido University of Science; Kitami Institute of Technology, Fukuoka University, and VTI have attended the activities of the workshop and shared their experiences on the efforts spent in their countries to develop new methods, equipment, approaches and specifications used in roads construction, testing and maintenance. The full lists of participants from Japan and Sweden are given in appendices A-I and A-II respectively. The workshop program included presentations, exhibiting the Mobile Mapping System, visiting to the VTI’s Heavy Vehicle and Circular Road Simulator, Driving Road Simulator, Material Testing Laboratory and the Infra Culvert in Vallastaden. Appendices B-I and B-II show the first- and second-days’ workshop schedule, respectively.

  • Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Collander, Cristoffer
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Annika, Nilsson
    Att sänka cyklisters hastighet på cykelbanor: acceptans, konsekvenser och förutsättningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to increase the knowledge of how speed-reducing measures on cycle paths can be used and what effects they might have. Literature reviews and interviews were conducted to gather current knowledge. Field studies were performed, including speed measurements, to study the possible effect of a signposted speed limit to 20 km/h and roadside interviews to investigate cyclists' acceptance of different types of speed reducing measures on cycle paths. It was found that the signposted speed limit did not result in a speed reduction, partly because most bicycles lack speedometers. The interviews showed that cyclists are skeptical of speed-reducing measures because they often pose a safety risk. In this context, it is important to distinguish between space-mean-speed and time-mean-speed. The average time-mean-speed of cyclists is usually around 20 km/h with few cycling faster than 30 km/h. The space-mean-speed, which includes stops and waiting times, is usually lower. To achieve the transport policy goals of good accessibility and increased cycling, cyclists should be offered a high space-mean-speed. Examples of situations where it may be justified to reduce the time-mean-speed of cyclists are at locations with poor visibility, in connection with road works, on cycle paths passing schools or at pedestrian crossings. Firm objects, speed-bumps or sharp curves in the cycle path should not be used as speed-reducing measures, since they contribute to higher accident and injury risk. In Swedish traffic regulations, the speed of cyclists is already regulated by rules that are general to all vehicles and roads. Signposting a lower speed limit than 30 km/h is not possible according to current regulations, but lower speed can be recommended using instructions signs. Knowledge of road safety effects of cyclists' speed is limited. Previous research indicates, in some cases, that "high speed" may have contributed to bicycle accidents that occurred, however without defining the actual speed, while other studies could not find any relationship.

  • Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Noise reducing asphalt pavements: a literature review on requirements, evaluating methods and recent developments2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for using asphalt pavements with noise-reducing properties is high. Recent experience of the durability of functional performance of this type of pavement in Sweden have been mixed. Hence, there are still needs for improvements until this type of pavement before it could be widely used in Sweden. This report is a summary of the existing knowledge about asphalt pavements with noise reducing properties and is expected to be used as a basis for future studies in vision of improving the quality of noise reducing asphalt pavements exposed to extreme weather and traffic conditions.

    The report contains five major sections which addresses the followings: Introduction of the existing noise reducing pavement types; the current standard and non-standard test methods used for evaluating this type of pavement; the existing guidelines and standards regarding noise reducing asphalt pavements in different countries; summary of the recent developments and studies conducted on this topic; and finally the recommendations for research in vision of improving the durability of noise reducing asphalt pavements the risks for premature failures.

  • Nordin, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Jämförelse mellan okulär bedömning och fysikalisk mätning av vägmarkeringars funktion2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consistency between ocular inspection and physical measurement of dry road marking retroreflectivity. Such subjective inspection is the basis for decision of maintenance of road markings, but is it good enough?

    In order to get an objective measure on the performance of the road marking a mobile equipment called RMT has been used at the same time as the ocular revision. The measurements were made without the entrepreneurs’ knowledge. All measurements were carried out in three regions in Central Sweden. The subjective and objective measurements were compared with information from the Road Administration data base on road markings called LINA. Only parts of the roads where data from both ocular inspection and physical measurement were included in the analysis.