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  • Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • Odolinski, Kristofer
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Reforming a publicly owned monopoly: costs and incentives in railway maintenance2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway system is often considered to be an industry where a monopoly occurs “naturally”, which can explain the public ownership and the use of regulations. However, railways in Europe have been subject to reforms during the last three decades. The use of tendering has increased, which is a way of introducing competition for the market in absence of competition within the market. Still, contracting out services previously produced in-house places a heavy burden on the client, where contract design and its incentive structures can be decisive for the outcome of the reform.

    This dissertation provides empirical evidence on costs and incentives in a publicly owned monopoly that is subject to reforms, namely the provision of railway maintenance in Sweden.

    Essay 1 estimates the effect of exposing rail infrastructure maintenance to competitive tendering. The results show that this reform reduced maintenance costs in Sweden by around 11 per cent over the period 1999-2011, without any associated fall in the available measures of quality.

    Essay 2 estimates the relative cost efficiency between and within maintenance regions in Sweden. The results indicate considerable efficiency gaps together with economies of scale not being fully exploited.

    Essay 3 analyses the effect of incentive structures in railway maintenance contracts. An increase in the power of the incentive scheme reduces the number of infrastructure failures according to the results. In addition, the estimated effect of the performance incentive schemes suggests that more effort towards preventing train delays is made at the expense of preventing other failures.

    Essay 4 comprises an estimation of marginal costs of rail maintenance. The static model produces slightly lower marginal costs compared to previous estimates on Swedish data. The results from the dynamic model show that an increase in maintenance costs in year t - 1 predicts an increase in maintenance costs in year t. Indeed, there is an intertemporal effect that depends on the performed maintenance activities (governed by the contract design).

  • Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    K2.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.
    Variationer i beläggning i tid och rum för tre tåglinjer norr om Mälaren2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att redovisa beläggningsvariationer i tid och rum för att bedöma om det finns potential för att omfördela vardagsresor från de högst belagda tiderna och delsträckorna till mindre belagda, utan respektive med förändrad prissättning. Därför har särskild vikt lagts på att identifiera beläggningsmönster under vardagar.

    Vi har fått data från SJ om antal resenärer på delsträckor och utbud i form av antal sittplatser, för tre månader under 2015 och 2016. Data beskriver antal resande per avgång i båda riktningar under alla dagar, för tåglinjerna Hallsberg - Stockholm C och Västerås - Stockholm C, samt för linjen Göteborg - Stockholm C, via Hallsberg. Såvitt vi vet har en så här detaljerad redovisning av beläggningsvariationer i tågtrafik inte tidigare gjorts för Sverige.

    Medelbeläggningar för alla avgångstider på varje delsträcka redovisas i form av tabeller och diagram.

    Resultaten är att beläggningarna varierar starkt mellan avgångar under vardagar och måttligt mellan dagar. Resandet är dessutom större i riktning från Västerås mot Stockholm på morgonen än i motsatt riktning och omvänt på eftermiddagen. Detta stämmer väl med statistik över pendling i Mälardalen enligt Mälardalsrådet och ÅF 2016.

    De betydande och regelbundet återkommande beläggnings- och efterfrågevariationerna torde kunna användas för att bedöma om det redan med dagens prisstruktur, utan prisförändringar, finns förbättringspotential genom förändringar av avgångstider och utbud per avgång. En sådan differentiering skulle kunna innebära kapacitetsbesparingar och förbättrad företags- och samhällsekonomiskt resultat, inklusive hänsyn till resenärernas upplevelse av resans standard. Resultaten torde också kunna användas för att analysera det samhällsekonomiska värdet, för resenärernas standard och för finansiellt utfall av ökad prisdifferentiering, för olika tider och för olika delsträckor. Då bör variation av beläggningsgrad och av antal resor över dagen beaktas simultant. Skälet är att kapaciteten för en avgång ofta behöver dimensioneras med tanke på sammanhängande omlopp. I en prissättningsstudie måste såväl utbud per avgång, som variation av beläggningsgrad och av antal resor över dagen beaktas simultant.

    Dessa resultat kan ha stor betydelse i beräkningar av vilken kapacitet som är optimal och vilken prissättning som bör tillämpas på olika avgångar.

     

  • Lindgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lösningar för kollektivtrafik på landsbygd: det pågående arbetet i Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish government, VTI has the commission to implement a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. This part-study aims to identify good practises. A further aim is to study the regional public transport authorities’ work to identify solutions that are both attractive to travellers and economically effective. Three empirical sources are used: a survey directed to regional public transport authorities, interviews with officials at regional public transport authorities, and a study of projects and solutions in Sweden. In the interview study, three questions will be answered:

    1. What challenges and preconditions do the regional public transport authorities have concerning public transport in rural areas? What sources do they have to solve eventual problems?

    2. Do the regional public transport authorities have any strategies to conduct public transport in rural areas? If so, what are the strategies?

    3. How does the organisational and economic coordination of different forms of transport work?

    The results show that urban areas are often underprioritized in public transport planning. Scarce economical resources result in prioritizing urban transport and high costs and low funding are reasons why projects must end. There is still much to be done regarding demand-responsive transport, for example, digital solutions are so far used to a very little extent. It has also been shown that the interest in car-sharing has been weak. To increase accessibility in rural areas, a combination of services needs to be introduced such as shopping, postal services and healthcare as well as mobility services.