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  • Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Andersson, Alfred
    LTH.
    Laurell, Adam
    Samtrafiken.
    Arnfalk, Peter
    LTH.
    Hiselius, Lena
    LTH.
    Kombinerad mobilitet för hållbara tjänsteresor2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to achieve more sustainable travelling by demonstrating and evaluating a new service that combine mobility for business trips. Another purpose was to investigate how business trips, including online meetings (i.e. virtual meetings that take place at a distance) are carried out in organisations and factors determining modal choice. The study included a process evaluation, an interview study and a survey. The interview study was based on interviews and focus groups with 38 people from 12 organizations; municipalities, regions, private companies and governmental organizations. Those who used the travel app were generally satisfied and could see the benefits of the service. Those who were less satisfied argued that its use was unsatisfactorily. The response from the survey also showed that even if the participants were satisfied with the travel app it was not used on a regular basis, and mostly for regional journeys. This meant that fairly few used it for local bus journeys and long-distance train journeys, which may be because they already had their own travel card and an agreement with a travel agent. This was also supported by the process evaluation which showed that the introduction of the app was more difficult than expected, which many times was due to the organisation already having other solutions in place. The survey also compared the responses of those who used and those who did not use the travel app. The results showed that the group that used the app felt that it was less cumbersome to travel by bus compared to their answers in the before study. The same change could not be seen in the control group. On the questions about on-line meetings about half of the participants replied that it was easy or very easy to arrange such a meeting. The majority had on one or more occasions also attended such a meeting. The reason for not using this possibility was because they felt unsure about how the technology should be used. The results also showed that there was a potential to replace about one fifth of the business trips with on-line meetings. An important conclusion from the study was that an app must be well integrated into existing routines and systems. If that helps in increasing the use of more sustainable transports needs to be explored further over longer time and with groups who currently do not travel in this way.

  • Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lithner, Delilah
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Polukarova, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Mikroplast från däck- och vägslitage: en kunskapssammanställning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review concerns microplastics from tyre and road wear caused by road traffic. As there is limited knowledge about microplastics in general, and microplastics from road traffic in particular, the Swedish Government has asked the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to, during 2018-2020, develop and disseminate knowledge about microplastics from road traffic. The chapters in this report summarises existing knowledge about microplastics from road traffic with respect to the following aspects: sources, spread and occurrence; effects on and risk to the environment and human health; characteristics and chemical composition; tyre and road wear; sampling methods; analysis and sample preparation; measures. The report also includes a chapter with overall conclusions, and a chapter about further research, development and investigation needs.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for reducing the generation and spread of microplastics from road traffic. One aim of the report is to collate and disseminate knowledge about microplastics generated by tyre and road wear, and to review the current level of knowledge. A second aim is to identify knowledge gaps and research requirements in relation to microplastics from road traffic. This literature review is based on a review of scientific articles and reports, as well as technical literature and some information from experts and industry.

  • Sjörs Dahlman, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Utvärdering av trötthetsvarningssystem i buss2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that it is common for bus drivers in public transport to struggle to stay awake several times a month. Several systems for detecting fatigue in drivers are currently available, but how these types of systems affect and are perceived by bus drivers is not known. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a fatigue warning system for use in long-distance buses. The study comprises two sub-studies; a survey and an on-road evaluation of the fatigue warning system. The survey showed that the factors that were considered the most tiring were driving at night, irregular working and sleeping hours and spread-over shifts/long time since a break. 29% of the drivers stated that they had to fight to stay awake when driving a bus 2–4 times/month or more. The on-road study showed that self-rated sleepiness was slightly lower when the fatigue warning system was active. The logs of fatigue events from the fatigue warning system and the drivers' reports of received warnings did not match their perceived fatigue. The drivers were generally positive about the fatigue warning system but emphasized that the system needs to be more reliable.

  • Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Gohl, Irene
    AUDI AG.
    Stoll, Johann
    AUDI AG.
    Puente Guillen, Pablo
    TME.
    Bruyas, Marie-Pierre
    IFSTTAR.
    Jaussein, Marie
    IFSTTAR.
    Gallouin, Evan
    IFSTTAR.
    Perlet, Klaus
    BMW.
    Peterson, Mats
    VCC.
    Johansson, Regina
    VCC.
    Meltzer, Elin
    VCC.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    VCC.
    Braeutigam, Julia
    BAST.
    Large, David
    University of Nottingham.
    Report on simulator test results and driver acceptance of PROSPECT functions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of developing new automotive systems includes various testing cycles to assure a save operation in traffic. Physical system testing on test tracks is very important for this purpose, but rather expensive and might only become possible in later stages of the development process. Using a virtual simulation environment offers a safe possibility of testing new systems in early stages of development. Aditionally, driver-in-the-loop tests at test track and in a virtual simulator make it possible to evaluate driver reaction and potential acceptance by the future users of those systems. Within PROSPECT the new functions are investigated under various aspects in several simulator studies and test track studies.

    This deliverable D7.3 gives detailed information of conduction and results of the each study. Three studies focus exclusively on the for Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) specifically dangerous urban intersection scenarios. The first of those studies examines the driver behaviour in a turning situation when a byciclist might be crossing. The described phenomena are looked-but-failed-to-see and failed-to-look. The second study, which provides an initial step in this line of research, analyzed the acceptance of issued forward collision warning times. The positioning of the potential accident opponent and the subjective feeling towards the criticality of the situation bythe driver were key parameters taken into account. Last, but not least the acceptance of an intersection assist autonomous emergency braking systems was tested regarding the acceptance of potential buyers. The study was run for five days in a row for each participant to be able to judge the behaviour in a comuting situation.

    Two studies focused on longitudinal scenarios. Both studies followed the same design, but one was conducted on a test track and the other one in a simulator. The main objective was to investigate drivers reactions to FCW warnings and Active Steering interventions in critical VRU scenarios in case of a distraction of the driver. Additionally, the test track study was used to validate the results from the simulator study.

    The results of those studies are the basis for a wide acceptance evaluation of the systems. No system is an asset in increasing road safety if it is not accepted by the user and therefore turned off, if it is not required the system to be default on in consumer tests. Complemented by an additional acceptance study where the participants had to give their opinion of those systems after they watched videos of dangerous situations, the acceptance was analyzed based on questionnaires developed in PROSPECT and reported in Deliverable 7.2. This wholistic approach allows an expert discussion on the potentials of the PROSPECT functions in the future.

  • Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Olyckor med cyklister, elcyklister och elsparkcyklister: Analys av Stradadata2019Other (Other academic)
  • Nordström, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Strandberg, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tunga fordonskombinationers dynamiska stabilitet: del 2 Bilaga1972Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    INNEHÅLLSFÖRTECKNING

    Appendix A   Begreppsförklaringar

    Appendix B   Matematisk modell för studium av tunga fordonskombinationers dynamiska stabilitet

    Appendix C    Variation av till axelavstånden kopplade fordonsparametrar

    Appendix D   Mätning av sidkraftskarakteristik hos däck

    Appendix E    Uppmätning och beräkning av tyngdpunktslägen, masströghetsmoment, vältningsgräns och krängdynamiska konstanter

    Appendix F    Luftkrafter på lastfordon vid stark sidvind

    Appendix G    Litteraturstudie

    Appendix H     Grunddata för simulerade fordonskombinationer

  • Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Potential för utsläppsminskningar från elektrifiering av godstransporter på Europavägar2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize the potential for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases from heavy freight vehicles (over 3.5 ton) if the Swedish E-road network and the national roads with greatest traffic volumes were electrified. We analyze four scenarios. In the main scenario, emissions are reduced by about 52 percent compared to the total emissions in 2017 at 3 326 kton CO2. A simple calculation of the socio-economic profitability of the emissions reduction indicates that at the prevailing carbon tax rate of 1,15 SEK per kg CO2 (ca 0,11 EUR per kg CO2), and given a “low” investment cost of 20 mSEK per km road (1.9 mEUR per km road), it would be profitable to electrify highway E4 in  Stockholm county, and E6 in Skåne county. The marginal cost of electrifying the entire E4 from Stockholm to Skåne, and E6 from Skåne to the border with Norway would be 2,38 SEK per kg CO2 (0,23 EUR per kg CO2). Before decisions about investments are made, a more through cost-benefit analysis should be made, however.