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  • Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nyman, Joakim
    Rise Viktoria AB.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Laddsträcka i Lund: En studie av busslinje i körsimulator2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the year 2018, the Climate Act will come into force. By 2030, climate impact in the transport sector should have fallen by 70 percent compared with 2010 and by 2045 Sweden’s climate impact will be net zero. This means a fundamental transformation of the energy supply of vehicles in road transport. For buses in city traffic, electrification is favorable because electric buses are both exhaustfree and quiet, giving a lesser environmental impact in the street environment, and by that the possibility of creating attractive bus lines.

    To exemplify how a bus electrification can be done, a driving simulator study was conducted on a possible electric bus line in the city of Lund using an electric road system. The goal of electrification was to achieve a high user acceptance and to meet the targets for the future environment and energy use.

    With the help of various sources of information about electric buses, electric road systems and the urban environment of Lund, virtual models were created, which were then installed in the driving simulator.

    To evaluate whether the bus and electrification complied with the user acceptance requirements, bus drivers participated in a test in a dynamic driving simulator, SIM II at VTI in Linköping. The results showed that the drivers had no major difficulties in driving the bus so that the electrification worked. Unfortunately, some of the drivers suffered from sickness while driving (“simulator sickness”) and had to stop driving.

    An evaluation of the driving simulator used as a tool for public relation purposes was made by providing an information sheet and demonstrating the electrification to employees in Lund municipality by using a small, moveable driving simulator. Interviews about electric buses and electrification were made before and after the demonstration to see effects on the opinion and understanding of electric buses and electric road systems. The results showed that the simulator drive gave added value in addition to the information sheet only, 2/3 of the participants answered that their understanding was increased by the simulator drive and 1/3 answered that it was not changed. The attitude to the electric bus and the electric road system did not change. Most people considered that the simulator could be a helpful tool in decision making.

    An analysis of the energy consumption of the bus showed that the battery level was lower at the end of the test drive than in the beginning, i.e. the battery level dropped. This would not have been the case if the electrification had been made more advantageously, and thus would not need to be a limiting factor in future implementation.

    In addition, the studied electric road system was compared with some other power supply options such as charging at bus depot and at bus end stop. The pros and cons of these alternatives were discussed based on economic and bus operational perspectives.

  • Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Vad avgör om kommuner investerar i bussframkomlighetsåtgärder?: Fallstudier av Stockholm, Karlstad och Köpenhamn2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus priority measures in cities can be important to improve the attractiveness of buses and thereby contribute to a shift from the private car to public transport. Many cities around the globe do introduce bus priority measures. Scientific studies have been carried out in some countries about the motives and incentives for introducing such measures. However, to our knowledge such studies focusing on the Scandinavian countries are rare.

    The financial structure of public transport differs among Swedish regions. In some regions the municipalities have a direct economic incentive to invest in bus priority measures, while in most regions they do not. On this background this working paper aims to answer two questions:

    • Which factors enable or hinder that municipalities invest in bus priority measures?
    • What is the role of direct economic incentives for municipalities decision to invest in bus priority measures?

    The main methodological steps of this working paper are a literature review, three casestudies including the Swedish cities Stockholm and Karlstad as well as the Danish city of Copenhagen. These three cities differ as regards the financial structure of bus transport. Within each case a small document analysis has been carried out and two qualitative interviews have been completed. 

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Fors, Heather Congdon
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Högskolen i Molde, Norge.
    Hammes, Johanna Jussila
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Politiska krav och tjänstemäns roll för analys av och beslut om styrmedel: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development implies that society’s limited resources should be used efficiently, taking into account the various impacts on society – social, economic and environmental. To achieve established societal goals efficiently, various aspects have to be accounted for in the design of policy measures. Within the EU a Regulatory Impact Assessment, where a cost-benefit analysis is included, needs to accompany all major regulatory initiatives. According to research and different policy assessment, Sweden lacks an established praxis regarding this type of analysis in the area of environmental policy but also in the field of energy and transport. The purpose of this project is to investigate how Sweden uses this type of information in the negotiations that take place within the EU regarding policy proposals but also investigate the reasons for use or non-use. The focus is on what role the organization and the bureaucrats play for the collection of this type of information.

    The overall conclusion that can be drawn from the three sub-studies included in the project, as well as the discussion at the closing seminar, is that this is not an established way of working in the Swedish government system. This can be explained by lack of competence, an established mistrust, management by objectives and lack of an institutional framework for when and how this type of broader impact assessment is to be conducted. At the closing seminar, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presented that it is now working on a guide to help officials to analyze at an early stage whether there is a need for regulation by society, to initiate the work by asking the question “What is the problem?”. We think that this is a step in the right direction, but we also see that the economists working out in government are often alone or very few and may therefore need different forms of support to develop the work on this kind of, often complex, analysis.

  • Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since January 1, 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program. The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register-based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. This final report summarizes results and conclusions from all three studies.

    The aim of the evaluation was to estimate the participation rate, but also to increase the understanding of why one chooses or does not choose to participate and to study the individual's experience of the program. The results from the studies show that:

    • The participation rate of the program was about 30 percent.
    • Both participants and non-participants in the interlock program experienced an improved health when they were asked a while after the drink driving offence and they also reported areduced alcohol consumption.
    • The largest barrier to increase the participation rate in the program is the cost, but there arealso other reasons that prevent drivers to apply.
    • Many participants experienced shortcomings in the information from the Transport Agency,both regarding the application process and regarding the mandatory parts of the program.
    • About 31 percent of the participants in the two-year program had the diagnosis alcohol abuseor alcohol dependence.
  • Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Utvärdering av intensiferad hastighetsövervakning i Polisregion Väst2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the new methods for increased speed compliance. Both the police's experience, as well as internal and external communication as effects on mean speeds and speed violations are studied. Police in the western region tested a new method during three autumn weeks in 2016.

    The intervention entailed intensified speed enforcement on 13 designated routes and the aim was to reduce mean speed. The intervention focused on three different actions:

    • short manual speed controls (20 minutes) on roads with high speeds and a high accident record
    • civil police cars (so-called pilot cars) focusing on aggressive driving
    • monitoring with mobile speed cameras as a complement to the manual speed controls.

    According to the police’s experiences, the results show that most policemen involved were positive to the intervention overall. It was appreciated that traffic issues appeared on the agenda and the Police received a positive response from the citizens. Basically, they experienced that the 20-minutes method was a good way of working which leads to increased visibility of the Police. The effort also led to more controls than what would have been done otherwise, which was considered as important by the police. Suggestions for improvements are that local police men should be more involved in the selection of roads for enforcement and it was suggested to have several shorter interventions instead of one long.

  • Johansson, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Luftfartens klimatpåverkande utsläpp  – differentierade marginalkostnader: En delrapport inom Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel has increased sharply over the past 30 years, and forecasts indicate that the rate of growth may last for decades to come. Estimates of how air traffic affects the climate and methods used to calculate marginal costs are therefore of importance. The methods should also allow for the study of different parts of the airline market since results may vary extensively depending on aircraft and engine type used.

    In this report, data from the Swedish Transport Agency comprising all air traffic movements to/from Swedish airports 2016 have been used to provide estimates of social costs for carbon dioxide emissions and costs related to non-CO2 emissions at high altitude. A method has been developed that makes it possible to calculate results for passenger traffic, freight flights and postal flights separately and to study differences between, for example, regular traffic, chartered flights and air taxi. The report incorporates results for domestic flights and flights from Sweden to airports within or outside the EU emissions trading system. Results for different Swedish airports and for a couple of routes are presented. Climate effects from flight movements with empty planes are also considered.

    The report presents results related to the vehicles, i.e. emissions per vehicle kilometre and per flight, and results related to passengers and cargo, i.e. per passenger- and tonne-kilometres and per passenger and loaded weight. The latter has not been analysed at same level of detail earlier.  

  • Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Körkort med villkor automatväxellåda: finns det skäl och möjligheter att underlätta körkortsprocessen?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the present study is to investigate whether there are reasons for making it easier for driver trainers, both during their education and when taking the test, to use a car with automatic transmission. The study aims to answer two questions: 1) Can learning to drive become easier with an automatic transmission and at the same time provide the same training in traffic safety as when driving a car with a manual transmission? 2) Can a shorter driver training time due to automatic transmission have a negative impact, or can a reduced focus on handling the car increase the focus on other factors related to traffic safety? Several methods have been used to achieve the purpose of this study.

    Firstly, a literature review presents studies that examined the importance of automatic transmission during driver training and when taking the test. The same overview also includes a statistical accident analysis that compares automated cars with cars using a manual transmission. Thereafter, an interview study is presented, involving four traffic instructors and a survey of 34 traffic instructors on their view of training to drive with a car which have an automatic transmission. Finally, a survey was conducted including 949 people aged 18 to 25 who had just received drivers licence.

  • Henriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rogerson, Sara
    SSPA.
    Winslott Hiselius, Lena
    LTH.
    Köpa mat online?: effekter av ökad e-handel för person- och godstransporter i ett växande e-handelssamhälle2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, e-commerce of food has increased substantially. Today, calculations of e-commerce’s energy efficiency potential build on estimates and assumptions rather than knowledge of the industry and its customers. This study generates in-depth knowledge of what it means from a transport perspective that companies instead of individuals are responsible for transporting food to the home. The main purpose of this project is to analyze effects as a result of increased online food shopping and to identify factors that enable realization of potential energy savings potential. This is done from a regional perspective and in a Swedish context. The purpose has been achieved through a review of the prerequisites for energy-efficient distribution solutions for e-commerce offers, and through interviews with existing and potential e-commerce customers’ preferences, experiences and behaviors.

    The results indicate that e-commerce has a significant theoretical potential. However, this require that effective routes replace purchase trips with private cars. Today, due to continued frequent car trips to food stores, e-commerce does not replace purchase trips sufficiently enough. In order for the potential to be achieved, there is a need for an expanded customer base and urban planning that prioritizes walking, biking and public transport, and that raises city logistics as a strategic issue and finally that locates food stores close to people’s homes.