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  • Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wear particles from road pavements with rubber mixed bitumen: comparison with reference pavement2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyre wear of road pavements causes emissions of inhalable particles (PM10). Allowed concentration of PM10 is regulated by an EU directive which is implemented in an environmental quality standard in Sweden. One way of reducing pavement wear particles is to adjust the properties of the road pavement. In the present project the effect on particle emission from mixing milled tyre rubber into the pavement bitumen has been investigated. Tests were made by the VTI road simulator using two pavement constructions containing rubber (GAP11 and GAÖ11) and one reference pavement (ABS11). GAP=GAR (Gap Graded Asphalt Rubber), ABS=SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) and GAÖ=OGAR (Open Graded Asphalt Rubber). The concentrations and size distributions of the emitted particles were measured.

    The results show that GAP11 causes lower PM10 concentrations (in this laboratory environment 20–25%) than the reference pavement ABS11, while the GAÖ11 does not differ from the reference. Size distributions show that PM10 has a bi-modal distribution with two mass maxima at 4–5 and 7–8 μm. GAP11 decreases the mass size distribution mainly in the finer mode, while GAÖ11 seems to affect mainly the coarser mode. Ultrafine particles are emitted during all tests and have number distribution maxima at around 20–30 nm. These particles are formed in the interaction between tyre studs and pavement and/or tyre rubber. Higher speed generates higher concentrations of ultrafine particles.

    All in all, the results indicate a lowering effect on PM10 emissions caused by GAP11, while the GAÖ11 does not seem to lower the emissions as compared to the reference pavement ABS11.

  • Waldemarson, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Viman, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Provningsjämförelse: Prallmetoden EN 12697-16:20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This profiency testing has mainly been carried out to assess whether the changes introduced in the latest version of the Prall Standard, EN 12697–16: 2016, has improved the precision of the method.

    22 laboratories participated, 16 Swedish and 6 from other Nordic countries, where the studded tires occur. The results show that the spread in the results between different laboratories is around the same level as in previous round Robin tests despite measures taken to improve the precision of the method.

  • Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Konkurrens på och om marknaden för persontrafik med tåg: svenska erfarenheter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A paper documenting the organisation of rail passenger services in England, Germany and Sweden was published in 2013; cf. Nash et al (2013). During 2016, the Centre for Regulation in Europe (CERRE) commissioned a follow-up study, examining the experience to date in these markets, and identifying lessons to be learned from them which may be applied to markets yet to undergo liberalization (such as France). The present paper was drafted to provide an update of Swedish data and this note has translated the text to make it available to a broader domestic audience. The final version, Liberalisation of Rail Passenger Services, is edited by Chris Nash and is available at http://www.cerre.eu/publications/liberalisation-passenger-rail-services.

  • Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Tunga trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader: accelererade tester av tre vägkonstruktioner2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation (Näringsdepartementet) has given VTI the assignment to update the knowledge about the society costs of the transport infrastructure. A part of that work is to improve our knowledge about the relationship between traffic axle loads and degradations of pavement structures.

    The objective of this report is to investigate if a simple relationship between axle loading and pavements degradation can be used as a tool for estimation of marginal costs for degradation of the entire road network. Three full scale test pavement structures have therefore been tested with an Heavy Vehicle Simulator using three half-axle load levels 40, 50 and 60 kN (corresponding to 8, 10 and 12 tonnes axle loads) to investigate the load intensity on the degradation progress. As a measure of the distress development has the linear rutting rate during testing been used after the initial exponential rutting phase was passed.

  • Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Rullmotstånd: vägytans egenskaper och dess inverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is an important aspect of the road surface properties in relation to transport energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). By reducing rolling resistance, the transport energy efficiency can be improved and the CO2 emissions can be reduced. This will help in reaching the climate targets. MIRIAM is a joint project with partners from Europe and the United States with the aim to provide better opportunities to control road transport CO2 emissions related to road surface characteristics with focus on reducing rolling resistance. The partnership covers measurement methods and equipment, tests and measurements, modeling, case studies and implementation of results.

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the results published in MIRIAM. The report will give a description of what has been done in the different sub-projects and what the findings are. The compilation is based on the reports and other publications issued within MIRIAM as well as in projects that directly is connected to MIRIAM, and that is published on their websites.

  • Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Steve, Betnér
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Rolff, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

    A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

    The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

  • Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    SLU.
    Göransson, Eva
    SLU.
    Barn och fyrhjulingar: riskacceptans och attityder kring fyrhjulingar på landsbygden ur ett föräldraperspektiv2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was aimed to explore attitudes and behavior among parents with children using ATVs, as well as their experience of incidents and injuries. The results will form the basis for the proposed measures for further actions by different stakeholders. Two focus groups, one with younger people and another with parents as well as an in-depth interview with a distributor of ATVs were performed initially. The interviews were analyzed and resulted in six themes that formed the basis of an interview guide that was used to make nationwide telephone interviews with parents and some of their children (with the permission from parents). 50 telephone interviews were conducted during the period from autumn 2015 to spring 2016. Of those interviewed, 41 were adults and 9 children aged 5–14 years.

    The results were analyzed and the answers for each question were compiled and presented in the report. The analysis revealed eight themes, which are described in the report: 1. The use of ATVs. 2. Risk awareness. 3. The information does not help – “Not us, but the other”. 4. The parents’ perception of children's abilities. 5. The children’s learning. 6. The children’s perspective. 7. Rules and responsibilities 8. What about the risk acceptance? The results showed, among other things the parents were aware of risks, and several showed a risk acceptance but also a strong commitment to children’s safety. A number of draft recommendations to increase the safe use of ATVs is presented in the end of the report.

  • Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Möjligheter till minskade koldioxidutsläpp genom trafikledning: en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management can affect the emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through traffic exhaust emissions, but, to some extent, also since efficient traffic management can delay or avoid new investment in transportation infrastructure by streamlining the use of the existing structure.

    This project compiles existing literature evaluating the effects of traffic managements on climate gas emissions, i.e. how the management can alter traffic flows and how road users adapt to the information and how these changed traffic flows are reflected on emissions of climate gases. Some difficulties have been revealed, and further studies are recommended.

    Quantifying and evaluating the effects of climate gas emissions is heavily dependent on the emission models and assumptions used. Some development in this area is proposed, especially in driving behavior related to congestion situations. There is also a large habituation regarding road user effort to find and use traffic information which leads to increased opportunities for activities that affect emissions. Also, changes in behavior and technological advances should be taken into account if older investigations are used for decision making.

    The authors see great opportunities for VO traffic management and traffic information to reduce climate gas emissions from traffic by a conscious climate mitigation.

  • Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Erfarenheter av privat finansiering av offentlig infrastruktur2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A government committee has asked VTI to give an account of domestic and international experiences of private funding of public infrastructure investment under the Public Private Partnership (PPP) format. This report is based on a literature review focusing the development of the most recent 10-year period. The report confirms and strengthens previous conclusions on the subject: PPP projects are typically opened for traffic on time and at lower cost overruns than projects implemented under traditional types of contracts. There are, however, no comprehensive empirical ex post reviews identifying pros and cons of the PPP approach to infrastructure construction and maintenance.

  • Lahti, Eva
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    SleepNoise2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that sleepiness is an important contributor to crashes. The drivers are influenced by circadian low, hours slept or being awake. There is also reason to believe that variations in interior road noise may be a contributing factor. Up to now the road noise models in simulators are not very mature and not validated.

    The aim of the technical part of the SleepNoise project was to develop the road noise model for the ViP simulation infrastructure, including individual vehicle types driving on individual road types. The goal was a sound model, close enough to the original real world setting as to be approved by vehicle noise experts. The resulting modelled interior sound spectrum should not deviate more than a few decibels from the corresponding recorded sound.